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p 



V.-^ 5^ \M, ^3, ^ O^ 



f^arbarti College ILibrarsi 




FROM THE GIFT OF 

WILLIAM ENDICOTT, Jr. 

(CUtt of 1887) 
OF BOSTON 



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1 y 



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Vestiges 



OF 



Old Newcastle 



AND 



Gateshead. 



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Vestiges 



OF 



Old Newcastle 



AND 



Gateshead. 



o-^ff'w 



ILLUSTRATIONS BY 

W. H. KNOWLES, Architect. 

TEXT BY 

J. R. BOYLE, F.S.A., 

Editor of "Memoirs of Master John Shawe," and Author op "The Lost Towns of 

the humber," etc. 






EWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE : 
Andrew Reid, Sons & Company, Printing Court Buildings, Akenside Hill. 

LONDON : 
Elliot Stock, 62, Paternoster Row. 



1890. 



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^x- Sa.i^.«S.\a- 



JAN 20 1919 



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ARTIST'S PREFACE. 

My collaborator suggests that courtesy requires of me a few prefatory 
words. 

The present work originated in the possession of a number of sketches, 
made during leisure hours many years ago, and not intended for publication, 
and possessing little merit beyond a desire for accuracy. The drawings 
necessary to complete the series have been made in spare moments of severe 
professional labour, which — seldom under control — have been the cause of 
long delays in the publication of many of the parts. I am glad of this 
opportunity to confess that the fault has been mine, and to express my 
regret. 

I am fully conscious of many imperfections in the drawings, and, were 
it possible, I should much like to re-draw the whole. Yet many kind things 
have been said of the work by the press and by friends. The fact that 
subscribers have proved abundant is evidence that the work has met a want. 
Some of the buildings depicted have already disappeared. 

That I have been the innocent means of securing for our subscribers 
Mr. Boyle's excellent and accurate observations, and original research into 
the history and description of our two ancient towns, is matter for gratification, 
I hope, to all. The labour to me has been a congenial one, and should I again 
essay to seek the confidence of subscribers, I hope the work will be more 
meritorious and worthy of their appreciation. 

Jesmond Gardens^ New cast le-upon- Tyne^ 
Juney 1890. 



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AUTHOR'S PREFACE. 

An adequate raison d'etre for the present volume is afforded, I think, by a 
passage near the end of Mr. R. J. Charleton's charming little book, ** Newcastle 
Town." Mr. Charleton says : 

There are old buildings in Newcastle which would repay careful examination and 
illustration, and the history of which would form many interesting volumes. When we 
consider how lovingly and carefully the buildings which in America they call old have 
been illustrated in the art magazines of that country, what wealth of beautiful and pictur- 
esque studies could not be found in the mansions of the old gentry of Newcastle — such, 
for instance, as are to be seen in the Side and Sandhill ! There are staircases and fire- 
places and panelled rooms which would gladden the hearts of the lovers of old-world 
design ; while in the old public buildings there are treasures which, were they known, 
would draw visitors across the Atlantic, though seldom thought of here. There is the 
Trinity House, the Guildhall with its curious Merchants* Court, the old churches of the 
town, the Sallyport Tower, Croft Tower, the Mansion House, the Baptist Chapel on the 
Tuthill Stairs, the Castle and Black Gale, the Jesus Hospital, the chapel at Jesmond, the 
West Wall and its towers, the monastery of Black Friars, and others, every one of which 
is worthy of detailed illustration. Well would it be if, on some systematic plan, all the 
features, interior and exterior, of those monuments of antiquity could be preserved, as far 
as it is in the power of the camera, the pencil, or the burin to do so, for constant changes 
are taking place in the city, and old buildings are disappearing every day. One great 
alteration which is now imminent — the continuation of Neville Street to the end of the 
High Level Bridge, and the enlargement of the Central Sution — will sweep away many 
picturesque houses about the foot of Westgate Street ; and in our walks we are constantly 
coming across some old familiar structure which is undergoing the process of demolition 
to make room for a new block of offices or shops. Many of the buildings which are so 
rapidly disappearing may to some appear unworthy of record, as being neither very 



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Vlll 

ancient nor very beautiful ; but those who come after us will not think so, and they will 
look back with gratitude upon any memorials we may be able to leave them of what to 
them will be ancient things and full of interesting associations. The citizen of the 
Newcastle of the future, which, perhaps, will extend in a continuous line from Shields to 
Blaydon, and be connected by a ship canal with the Irish Sea, will treasure everything 
which is left to show him what the old town, the nucleus of his great city, was like. 
As eagerly as we now hoard up the rudest drawings and engravings of past generations, 
will he hoard up even our feeblest attempts to perpetuate the memory of our times. 

It is due, however, to Mr. Knowles and myself to say that, closely as our 
book seems to follow the lines which Mr. Charleton lays down, our plan had 
been formed, and part at least of it carried out, before either of us had seen 
the passage which I have just quoted. 

I have tried, in the following pages, to write such a book as, I thought, 
anyone, resident or visitor, anxious to learn all that is most interesting in the 
history of Newcastle and Gateshead, would care to read. But the result makes 
no pretence to be regarded as a regular history. It is merely a collection of 
independent chapters, arranged in purely arbitrary order. I have striven to 
adopt a middle course between that of the documentary annalist, who loads his 
pages with long Latin extracts, and that of the popular historian, who, without 
enquiry, accepts the statements of others, and works them up in his own light 
and polished style, totally regardless of the accuracy of his materials, and 
anxious only to produce what will find a ready sale. A considerable amount 
of original research, amongst unprinted documents, has been expended on 
these pages, and the structures which I have described I have patiently, care- 
fully, and repeatedly examined. 



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IX 



My work has its shortcomings and inaccuracies, and no one can be more 
conscious of the former than I am. The critical eye will, doubtless, discover 
many errors. I hope and believe that most of these will be found to be of 
trifling character. Whilst the sheets have been passing through the press, 
during a period not of months but of years, I have had abundant opportunity 
of reviewing what I had written and printed. I have discovered two serious 
mistakes into which I had inadvertently fallen, and, so far as I can, I will 
disarm criticism by a full and frank confession of my faults. On page 93 
I have stated, on the authority of Cecilia Homildon*s will, that, in 1408, an 
anchorite was associated with St. Nicholas's Church. On referring again to 
the text of that will, I find that there is no evidence to connect the recluse in 
question, who is described as ** of Newcastle," with that or any other of our 
churches. Then, on page 204, I have said that Ralph Cole was mayor at the 
time of the visit of Charles I. to Newcastle, in 1633, entertained his majesty at 
dinner, and received the order of knighthood. It was not Cole but Lionel 
Maddison who was mayor at that time. Maddison entertained the king and 
was knighted. Cole never received that honour. Beyond these instances, 
which I deeply regret, I am not aware of any blunder in my statements of 
historic facts. For errors of a less serious nature, as, for instance, occasional 
inconsistency in the orthography of personal and place names, I must crave 
the reader's indulgence. 

The history of Newcastle, in any finally satisfactory way, is yet unwritten, 
and probably, too, its writer is unborn. At present his task is scarcely an 



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achievable one. Years of unremunerative labour would have to be spent in 
the accumulation of materials, and one important — nay, indispensable — source 
of information, the archives of the Corporation, has been hitherto, since the 
days of Brand, closed against all enquirers. The records of many English 
cities and boroughs have been examined and calendared by the Historical 
Manuscripts Commission, and those of others, with an intelligence and liberality 
worthy of our age, have been published. Amongst the latter, the records of 
the borough of Nottingham, printed in four splendid volumes, deserve especially 
honourable mention. But the records of Newcastle remain a sealed book. 

But whilst we have several so-called histories of Newcastle, some of them 
eminently worthy of the name, no attempt has yet been made to write the 
history of Gateshead. The difficulties which would surround the historian of 
Newcastle do not confront the historian of the neighbouring borough. All 
needful materials are within easy reach. The subject, too, is an inviting one ; 
and, amongst the many literary projects which I have planned for myself, there 
is none I look forward to with greater pleasure than I do to the preparation of 
a history of Gateshead. I have, indeed, already made extensive collections for 
such a work, and the facilities which have been generously oflfered me, by the 
custodians of documents which I have not yet examined, encourage me to 
proceed. 

Whilst, however, I have no ambition to become the historian of Newcastle, 
and feel no shadow of regret that the means of assuming that character are 
beyond my reach, I may be permitted to mention that two chapters of its 
history, one of which I intended, at first, to include in the present volume, mav 



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XI 

be expected to appear at no distant date. These chapters are on **The Walls 
AND Gates of Newcastle/' and on **The Chronicles of Tyne Bridge.*^ 
They will be printed uniformly with the present work, will be liberally illus- 
trated, and will be issued in separate volumes. 

I cannot close these prefatory words without expressing my recognition 
of the taste and skill displayed by Mr. Knowles in the preparation of the 
illustrations of this volume. Whilst it would be mere affectation to ignore 
the fact that they possess varied degrees of merit, I hope I may be permitted 
to say that of many of them the execution, in my opinion, is extremely 
artistic and full of picturesque detail, and is always substantially accurate. 

It is with deep regret that I feel compelled to withhold the long list of 
names of those to whom I have been placed under obligations of gratitude 
during the preparation of this book. The help which I have received has been 
of the most generous character. In no single instance has my application for 
information or for access to documents been refused. Both friends and 
strangers have opened their stores with a degree of liberality and kindness 
which I could not possibly have anticipated. But, for reasons which it is 
unnecessary to state, this general acknowledgment is all that I can render. 

Low Felly Gaieshead'On-Tyne, 
June^ 1890. 



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CONTENTS. 



The Side 

The Sandhill 

Early Quakerism in Gateshead 

The Castle 

Sandgate 

The Cathedral 

Pilgrim Street 

King John's Palace 

St. Mary's Church, Gateshead 

Percy Street 

The Keelmen's Hospital 

St. John's Church ... 

The Quayside ... 

Silver Street and Pandon 

The Black Friars 

The Trinity House 

Old Gateshead 

St. Andrew's Church 

The Tuthill Stairs 

The Jesus Hospital 

Akenside Hill and Dog Bank ... 

All Saints' Church 

St. Mary's Chapel, J Esmond ... 

The Hospitals of Gatfshfad 

St. Lawrence's Chapfi. 

The Close . 



PAGE. 
I 

7 

29 

40 

86 
91 

I2S 

135 
137 
150 

154 
156 
168 
178 
189 
198 
218 

2S0 
261 
269 
271 

275 
292 
296 
312 
315 



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XIV 



LIST OF PLATES. 

/St. Nicholas's Cathedral, from the Post Office Portico ... ... ... ... Frontispuce. 

TO FACB PAOB. 

vThe Middle of the Side ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... i 

/The Foot of the Side ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 

^IN Passage below Kelly's Shop ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 

V In Temperlev's Court ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

^The Sandhill ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 8 

V The Guild Hall ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 32 

^' River Front, "Fountain" Inn ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 32 

<The Black Gate ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 66 

•/Guard Room, Black Gate ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 67 

■yCASTLE Garth ... ... ... ... ... ... - ... ... ... ... 69 

VEast View of the Keep ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 75 

VThe Guard Room of the Keep ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 77 

^The Chapel in the Old Castle ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 78 

vMiLK Market, Sandgate ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 86 

ilN Sellers* Entry ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 88 

jThe Swirle ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 89 

V The South Transept, St. Nicholas's ... ... ... ... ... ... 91 

yiNTERioR of St. Nicholas's Church, before 1783 ... ... ... .. ... 96 

VSt. Nicholas's Church in Newcastle-upon-Tyne (Copy of oid Engraving) ... ... 100 

4 Interior of St. Nicholas's, looking South-East ... ... ... ... ... ... 105 

.r Beneath THE Tower, St. Nicholas's ... ... ... ... ... ... m 

^The Maddison Monument ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 118 

^The Hall Monument ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 120 

/The "Fox and Lamb," Pilgrim Street ... ... ... ... ... ... 131 

v' Pilgrim Street ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 132 

/The Staircase, No. 181, Pilgrim Street ... ... ... ... ... ... 133 

J Old House, foot of Pilgrim Street ... ... ... ... ... ... J34 

i St. Mary's Church, Gateshead ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 137 

^ Old Houses, foot of Percy Street ... ... ... ... ... ... 150 

V The Keelmen's Hospital ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 154 

/St. John's Church, from che Nonb-East ... . . ... ... ... ... 155 

-^ St. John's Church, Interior of Nave and Nokth Transept ... ... ... ... 158 

"^ Cosyn's House, Quayside ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 170 

V Room in Cosyn's House ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 171 



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y Silver Street, from All Saints' Church3rard ... 

y The "Duke of York," Pandon... 

^Quayside, Pandon ... 

v/ In Cock's Chare, Quayside 

y The Blackfriaks ... 

•The Chapel, Trinity House ... 

'/Old Houses, High Street, Gateshead 

yOLD House on the Bankwell Stairs ... 

y Park House, Gateshead ... 

y Staircase, Park House... 

• St. Andrew's Church 

y Tower of St. Andrew's Church 
/Chancel Arch, St. Andrew's Church 
•^ On THE Tuthill Stairs 

• Old House on the Tuthill Stairs 
y Jesus Hospital... 

^ The Staircase, Jesus Hospital 

"^The Centre of the South Front, Jesus Hospital 

/Akenside Hill 

/Old Houses, Dog Bank 

/All Saints' Church, Newcastle, in 1786 ... 

• All Saints' Church, from South-West ... 
/ Thornton Brass ... 

yST. Mary's Chapel {erroneous^ Jesus Chapel), Jesmond... 
y Chapel of St. Edmund, Bishop and Confessor, Gateshead 
yTHE Cooperage in the Close ... 



TO PACK PAGE 
178 

,. 183 

186 

187 

189 

207 

241 
248 
249 
250 
2SI 
252 
261 
262 
269 
270 
270 
271 
275 
276 
281 
289 
292 
304 




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XVI 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT. 



The Side: paob. 

Old House, No. 37, Side i 

View in the Side 5 

The Sandhill: 

The Merchants' Court 14 

The Town's Chamber 23 

The Town Hutch •• a6 

Early Quakerism in Gateshead: 

Corridor in the " Fountain"... 3* 

The Castle: 

The Black Gate and Castle Garth from the 

Keep 40 

Roman figure of Mercury 41 

Model of the Castle 66 

Plan of the Castle 67 

The South Postern 71 

Newel Staircase in the Keep 76 

The Queen 's Chamber 79 

Sandgate : 

Half Moon Lane 88 

Old Houses, St. Ann's Street 89 

The "Jack Tar," Sandgate Shore 90 

The Cathedral: 

Fragment of Pillar and Capital 92 

Stall End, now in the Castle 97 

In the North Aisle of the Nave 106 

The Crypt 107 

The Font 113 

Effigy of Peter le Mareshal 115 

Gravestone of Robert He 121 

Pilgrim Street: 

The " Queen's Head " 129 

Corridor in the " Fox and Lamb ** 131 

Panels over Fireplace in the "Fox and Lamb" 132 

Passage, No. 202, Pilgrim Street 133 

Old Houses, South of All Saints' Church ... 134 



King John's Palace : 
The Ruin 



135 



St. Makv's Church, Gateshead: paoe^ 

South Doorway 140 

Grave Cover « 143 

The Tyzack Monument 144 

Stall Ends 146 

Old Chair ... 148 

Percy Street: 

Birthplace of Charles Hutton 150 

St. John's Church : 

North Wall of Chancel 156^ 

Rebuses in North Arcade ... .u ... 158 

Tower Arch and Vault 159 

The Pulpit 164 

The Quayside : 

The Old Custom House 170^ 

Silver Street and Pandon : 

Blyth's Nook 185 

Spicer Lane i86- 

In Cock's House 188 

The Black Friars : 

The Cloisters 196 

The Trinity House : 

Inscription outside the Hall 214 

Entrance to Trinity House 215 

In the Hall 216 

Old Gateshead : 

The Glaziers' Arms .. 226 

Communion Cup and Cover, St. Mary's ... 231 

Old Houses, High Street 233. 

St. Andrew's Church : 

Ancient Grave Covers 255 

Sir Aymer de Athol's Chantry 257 

Remains of Athol's Brass 259 

The Tuthill Stairs : 

Carved Panel 262 

All Saints' Church : 

The Old Font 283 

The Hospitals of Gateshead : 

Chapel of St. Edmund the King 311 

St. Lawrence's Chapel : 

East Gable 3i4- 

The Close : 

Mansion House and Close, from the River... 318 



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VESTIGES 



OF 



Old Newcastle and Gateshead. 



THE SIDE. 

The Side ! Quaintest of streets, with strangest of names. •* The Side ! the 
side of what?" enquires the visitor, and, mayhap, receives for answer, ** Why, 

"^ the side of the town." But, in truth, 

it is the side of the hill on which the 
Castle stands, and this fact originated 
the name. In Gray's day it was oc- 
Jkj cupied by the ** shops of merchants, 
N I' r * ^^s* drapers, and other trades." Bourne 
^7- ^, describes it as ** from the one end 

^y^^^^^^^.,s to the other fiU'd with the Shops of 
Merchants, Goldsmiths, Milliners, Upholsterers, &c." 
In former days there was not only the Side, but also 
a '' Head of the Side." The latter disappeared to 
make wny for the approach to the High Level Bridge, 
and no\r only the trunk of the Side and its lower 
extremities remain. This ** Head " consisted of the 
buildings between the east end of Denton Chare and 
the north end of King Street— a short thoroughfare 
from the present top of the Side to the end of Back 
Ko^v— and its site is now occupied by the Post Office 
and St. Nicholas' Buildings, though their fronts stand 
very considerably further to the west than did the 
fronts of the old shops and houses which constituted the '' Head." 




B 



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Amongst notable buildings in the Head of the Side was an old hostelry 
bearing the sign of the *' Cock/* having its main front where the Post Office 
Tavern now stands, but with quiet entrance for unobtrusive customers in 
Denton Chare. Near the close of the last century it was occupied by one 
Matthew Hall, a publican of enterprise. He ran, from this same ** Cock," 
in 1786, the first coaches which carried the Royal Mails to London and 
Edinburgh. They were required by postal authority of that day to travel at 
the rate of seven miles an hour — a speed which no publican in Newcastle 
dared to undertake save Matthew Hall. 

Midway in the Head of the Side was a house, taken down in 1856, pre- 
viously occupied by W. O. Dickinson, tobacconist, and before his day, for a 
long period, by one John Davidson, of the same trade. As the process of 
demolition advanced windows and doorway, oaken roof and frescoed wall, of a 
large and ancient mansion were brought to light. At the time antiquaries 
ascribed these remains to the fourteenth century. Drawings then made by 
Mr. John Ventress confirm the ascribed period. Possibly these were portions 
of the house to which Gray alludes, in saying. 

In the middle of the Side is an ancient stone 
house, an Appendix to the Castle, which in former times 
belonged to the Lord Lumleys^ before the Castle was built, 
or at least coetany with the Castle. 

Gray*s own copy of the tract from which I quote* is now in the Public Library 
at Gateshead. In that copy I find that the author has struck out the words 
** an Appendix to the Castle,*' and, in further localization of the Lumley resi- 
dence, has added, at the end of the paragraph, ** in ye head of ye Side." 

• "CHOROGRAPHiA, Or A SURVEY of NEWCASTLE Upon TINE. Tht Estate of their Country under 
the Romans, The Building of the famous Wall of the Picts^ by the Romans. The Ancient Tiww^Pandon. A brief e 
Description of the Town, Walls, Wards, Churches, Religious Houses, Streets, Markets, Fairs, River and Commodities ; 
with the Suburbs. The Ancient and present Government of the Town. AS ALSO, A Relation of the County of Northum- 
berland^ which was the Bulwark for England ^ga\i\zi the Inrodes of the Scots. Their many Castles and Towers. Their 
ancient Families and Names. Of the Tenure in Cornage. Of Cheviot Hills. Of Tinedale, and Reedsdale, with the 
Inhabitants. Potestas omnium ad Cd^svcttm per tinet^proprietas ad singulos. A^ewcastle^ Vnnttd by S. B. 1649." 

S.B. in the imprint mean Stephen Bulk ley, a royalist printer. He was brought to Newcastle in 1646 by the 
King's loyal followers, but remained after they and their master had departed, and accepted employment from repub- 
lican authors. He was in Newcastle till 1650. From 1652 to 1654 he had his printing press in Gateshead. In 1659 he 
had returned to Newcastle. In 1663 he was at York. 



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There seems, therefore, to be strong ground for assuming that the Newcastle 
residence of the Lumleys occupied the site of the tobacconist's shop in the 
Head of the Side. 

One of the characteristic features of Newcastle in the olden time was its 
public water fountains, or pants^ as they were called by North-country people. 
No satisfactory definition of the word has been oflFered. The only suggestion 
I have met is, that as " pond " is derived from the Saxon pyndan^ to inclose or 
shut up, and was anciently pronounced pand^ it may have easily been changed 
into pant The Head of the Side had its pant, which remained till recent 
times. In 1700, water was brought from Gateshead Fell to ** the Head of the 
Side pant,'* where a new pillar with three new spouts was ordered to be set 
up. Four years later the common council determined that the pant should be 
supplied from the Castle Leazes, and whatever water could be spared from the 
said pant was to be carried down to the cock on the Sandhill. 

The higher part of the Side is steep and narrow, though not nearly so 
narrow as formerly. The upper stories projected so far from each side of the 
street as almost to meet in the middle. A woodcut in Richardson's ** Table 
Book '' (IV., p. 397), serves to afford an idea of its appearance at the com- 
mencement of the present century. At that time this part of the street was 
occupied chiefly by dealers in cheese, bacon, and butter, ** whose goods,'' one 
wTiter quaintly observes, ** were here kept cool, and effectually protected from 
the rays of the sun." Shortly afterwards, the Corporation took down the build- 
ings on the south side of the street, and somewhat widened the thoroughfare. 

On entering the present Head of the Side, the first building that merits 
our attention is a public house (No. 88), now rejoicing in the name of the 
Meters' Arms, but formerly owned and occupied by Messrs. Harvey, tobacco 
manufacturers. Here, on the 26th September, 1750, Lord Admiral CoUing- 
wood was bom. The building is by no means ancient, and must, one would 
think, have been almost new when occupied by Lord CoUingwood's parents. 

On our left, as we begin to descend the street, we have several ancient 
buildings, the upper stories of which project considerably over the road. They 
are all half-timbered houses, but the wood-work is hidden beneath a thick 



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coat of plaster. The shop windows of one of these houses (No. 76), now 
occupied by Michael Kelly, grocer, were the last which remained unglazed in 
Newcastle, and retained, within living memory, what were known as open 
bulks. If my reader will turn into the yard immediately below Kelly's shop, 
he will be rewarded with the sight of an interesting and picturesque house, 
with fine timber work and projecting upper stories. In this house are two 
good examples of old kitchen fireplaces. 

Continuing our walk down the Side, we reach the foot of Dean Street. 
This is a modem street, having been formed about 1 790. The lower part of 
its site, however, was previously occupied by a lane, part of which, if not the 
whole, was called Pencher Place, and which, passing the end of Painter 
Heugh, ascended as far as the Nether Dean Bridge, an ancient structure, 
depicted in one of Richardson's etchings, and taken down in 1788. Before 
Dean Street was formed this bridge was the means of communication between 
Pilgrim Street and St. Nicholas' Churchyard.* Down the valley, or dean, 
from which the bridge received its name, an open stream descended, divided 
the lower part of the Side, crossed the Sandhill, and entered the Tyne. This 
stream was the Lort or Lork-bum, a name of which I can suggest no deriva- 
tion. In Speed's Map of Newcastle (1610), and in the map prefixed to the 
British Museum copy of Gardner's "England's Grievance" (1655), the Lork- 
burn is shown as an open stream. It was afterwards covered with flags, and, 
in 1696, was arched over and the ground above it paved. 

Still pursuing our way, we pass beneath the magnificent arch of the rail- 
way, and reach, on our right, an old building, depicted in the engraving at the 
head of this chapter. It has, in bygone days, been a veritable mansion. It is 
a five-storied house, having a square projecting oriel on the first and higher 
floors. The basement is used as a fish-shop, and the upper stories are let off" 
as tenements. A board announces that the building is for sale, and, ere long, 

• Bourne tells us that the Nether Dean Bridge was " directly opposite the East Window of St. Nicholas' Church." 
"Formerly," says the same writer, "when the Merchants had their Shops and Ware-houses in the Flesh-market^ the 
River ebb'd and flow'd above this Bridge, and the Boats came under it with the Wares and Commodities of the 
Merchants. But it is chiefly Famous because the Roman Wall went along it." Dr. Bruce, however, whilst holding 
that the Wall may have crossed the dean at the point, occupied by the bridge, assures us that the bridge itself, which, 
he says, was of mediaeval structure, " was of too wide a space to be safe in a line of military operation " 



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like many an ancient neighbour, it will be numbered with the things which 
have passed away. Its staircase is especially fine. The mouldings of the rail 
are very good indeed, and the balusters are of an exquisite spiral design. 

A little below the house just named, and on the same side of the street, 
we have another ancient mansion (No. 29), now occupied by Messrs. Proctor, 
ironmongers. In the yard there is a pointed doorway of about the beginning 
of the fifteenth century, and in the room over the shop an Elizabethan fire- 
place. 




View in the Side (Nos. 2 to 10). 

On the opposite side of the street is a block of old houses, numbered 2 to 
10. Between Nos. 6 and 8 is the entrance to Temperley's Yard, in which is 
the fine half-timbered building depicted in our plate. 



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At the foot of the Side, and opposite the bottom of Butcher Bank, stood 
the famed Cale Cross, "so called," says Bourne, ''because of the Cale or 
Broth which was sold there in former times." From this derivation of the 
name, however, Brand dissents, thinking it comes **more probably from the 
herb Kale-wort, which also gave a name to broth in the north." The structure 
is described by Gray as '* a fair Crosse with Columnes of Stones hewn covered 
with Lead, where is sold Milk, Egges, Butter, &c." In Bourne's day a market 
of the same character w^as still held here. The old cross was taken down in 
1773, and in 1783 a new one erected at the cost of Sir Matthew White Ridley. 
Twenty-four years later the new structure, of which and its surroundings a 
pleasing view is given in the ''Table Book" (III., p. 66), was removed, and 
re-erected in the grounds of its donor at Blagdon. 




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THE SANDHILL. 

This is classic ground. We understand the name when we are told that 
the Lork-bum was a tidal stream. ** Formerly a Hill of naked Sand'' is 
Bourne's description. In Gray's day it was 

a 
Market for Fish, and other Commodities ; very convenient 
for Merchant Adventurers, Merchants of Coales, and all 
those that have their living by Shipping. There is a Na- 
vigable River, and a long Key or Wharfe, where Ships 
may lye safe from danger of stormes, and may unlode "^ 

their Commodities and Wares upon the Key. In it is 
two Cranes for heavy Commodities, very convenient for 
carrying of Corn, Wine, Deales, &c., from the Key into 
the Water Gates, which is along the Key side, or into any 
Quarter of the Town. 

In this Market place is many shops, and stately houses, 
for Merchants, with great conveniences of Water, Bridge, 
Garners, Lofts, Cellars and Houses on both sides of them. 

Bourne speaks of the Sandhill as ** a spacious Place, and adorned with Build- 
ings very high and stately, whose Rooms speak the Ancient Grandeur^ being 
very large and magnificent. It is now that Part of the Town where the chief 
AflFairs of Trade and Business are transacted. The Shops in this Street are 
almost altogether those of Merchants^ which have many of them great Con- 
veniences of Lofts, Gamers and Cellars. Here," he continues, **is the Market 
for Fish^ Herbs^ Breads Cloth^ Leather^ &c., which for the one Part of Things, 
viz.^ those to be wore, is kept every Tuesday and Saturday^ for Things to be 
eat, every Day.'' 

The Sandhill is rich in historic association. In the fourteenth centurv it 
was the recreation ground of the inhabitants of Newcastle, and in the reign of 
the second Richard a proclamation was issued, requiring the removal of all 
merchandise from ** a certain common place in Newcastle, called Sandhill," in 
order that the people's sports might not be hindered. On the day after the 
defeat of the English army at the battle of Otterbum, 20th August, 1388, 
io,ocxD men, horse and foot, were mustered on the Sandhill, and marched 



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8 

through Ponteland to the battle-field, led by the Bishop of Durham ; but on 
seeing the strength of the enemy, they retreated without attempting an attack. 
In May, 1464, Lords Hungerford, Ros, Molins, Findem, and others, who had 
been taken prisoners at the battle of Hexham, were beheaded on the Sandhill. 
At a later period bulls were baited here. 

The large many-windowed house, seen on the left in the opposite plate, 
was occupied during the last quarter of the eighteenth century by Aubone 
Surtees, a banker, and distinguished townsman of Newcastle. He was sheriflf 
in the year of the Young Pretender's rebellion, and mayor in 1761 and 1770. 
Of his children, four sons and two daughters grew up to maturity. The eldest 
daughter, Elizabeth — or ** Bessy," as she was usually called — was considered a 
great beauty. vShe was honoured by being selected by the Duke of Cumber- 
land as one of his partners at a ball given in his honour during the visit he paid 
to Newcastle in 1771 ; and when in London she was invited to Northumber- 
land House, by the then Duchess of Northumberland, and introduced to the 
guests, as ^^ my Newcastle beauty." She was then a girl of seventeen, and, 
says her brother's grandson, ** before she had attained the age of eighteen, her 
hand was sought for by the flower of the surrounding squirearchy." Popular 
report of the day asserted that Sir Walter Blackett, popularly called the 
** King of Newcastle," who was forty-six years her senior, was an aspirant to 
her hand. Her brother John says, ** He stopped a long time at my father's 
house in his way to London, and, whilst his carriage was waiting for him there, 
much gossip was going on, in my father's house and in the street, on the 
subject of Sir Walter and my sister." 

At this time there resided in Love Lane one William Scott, a coal " fitter," 
a man whose social position was held to be far inferior to that of the banker 
of Sandhill. He had three sons, William, Henry, and John, who were all 
educated at the Newcastle Grammar School. William, who was six years 
John's senior, gained, in his sixteenth year, a Durham scholarship in Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford, to compete for which he was entitled by the fact that 
he was born at Heworth, in the county of Durham, whither his mother had 
retired for safety's sake from the storm of the '45 rebellion. Five years later, 



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John was entered as a commoner in the same college, where his brother had 
already become fellow and tutor. During one of his vacations, for some now 
forgotten purpose, he visited the pretty village of Sedgefield, where, as it 
chanced, ** Bessy " Surtees was staying with a maiden sister of her father's. 
The two young folks met for the first time in Sedgefield Church. So far as 
John Scott at least was concerned it was a genuine case of love at first sight. 
How he gained an introduction to her is not now known ; but, as his whole life 
gives evidence, he was not a man to brook small obstacles. He soon became 
her favoured suitor. On the part of her parents, however, his courtship 
encountered strong opposition, and throughout was conducted clandestinely. 
Her ancient lover, Blackett, had lent her a pony, on which she used to ride, he 
bearing her company. After his attentions ceased she rode one of her father's 
horses, accompanied only by a groom. The Shields road was her chosen 
resort, and there, day by day, when home from college, she was met by hand- 
some John Scott, who, no doubt, expended of the funds of the fellowship he 
had acquired to purchase the silence of Aubone Surtees' groom. Meantime, 
the banker and his wife, acting under the conviction that absence does not 
make the heart grow fonder, arranged that Miss Surtees should make a 
lengthened sojourn with the family of her mother's brother, Henry Stephenson, 
of Park Lane, London, and East Bumham, Berkshire. Part of the visit seems 
to have been spent at the uncle's city residence, and part at his country house. 
During her stay in London she found means to elude the vigilance of her 
relatives, and to keep appointments with her lover in Hyde Park, so that, when 
the time came for her return to her home in Newcastle, her attachment to the 
fitter's son of Love Lane was unabated. Then came the one romantic episode 
of the Sandhill. The shop beneath Mr. Surtees' residence was occupied by 
Mr. Snow Clayton, a clothier in extensive business. Clayton had an apprentice 
named James Wilkinson, an old school-fellow and still fast friend of John 
Scott's. On the evening of Wednesday, the i8th November, 1772, Wilkinson 
concealed a ladder in his master's premises. So soon as the inhabitants of the 
Sandhill had retired to rest, the ladder was stealthily brought from its hiding 
place, and reared against the west window over Clayton's shop. The casement 



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lO 

was quietly pushed open, and slim Bessy Surtees descended into the arms of 
her lover.* The following morning a coach drove " over the Border," and 
into the village of Blackshields, and there John Scott and Elizabeth Surtees 
were married, ** according to the form of matrimony prescribed and used by 
the Church of England. '* The same day they returned to Morpeth, and 
stayed at the Queen's Head. There they remained two or three days, with 
funds almost exhausted, awaiting intimation from Newcastle of Sandhill's or 
Love Lane's attitude now the knot was tied. At length came letter of forgive- 
ness from the bridegroom's father, with invitation of bride and bridegroom to 
Love Lane. The forgiveness of the Sandhill family was more tardy, but came 
at length, and was ratified by another marriage ceremony at St. Nicholas' 
Church, and the settlement on the young couple of ;^2,ooo by William Scott, 
and ;^i,ooo by Aubone Surtees. 

Here the romance ends, and John Scott's subsequent history, even though 
he did become Lord Chancellor Eldon, is prosaic enough. 

The room adjoining that from which Miss Surtees descended is panelled 
in oak, and contains a fine carved fireplace, in the cornice of which are four 
shields bearing arms. The first shield bears the arms of Newcastle, the second 
those of the family of Cock, the third those of Davison, and the fourth those 
of the Merchant Adventurers. Beneath the shields are the following word, 
initials, and date : — 

ANNO AC TD 1657 

T. D. are the initials of Thomas Davison, who was mayor of Newcastle in 1669, 
and was appointed governor of the Merchants' Company in 1670. The initials 
A. C. are those of Ann Cock, Thomas Davison's wife, and daughter of Ralph 
Cock, a Newcastle Alderman, who was sheriff in 1626 and mayor in 1634. 
Thomas Davison was a benefactor to the town, leaving bequests to the poor of 
the parishes of St. Nicholas, St. John, St. Andrew, and All Saints, and to the 
widows and children of poor merchants. 

♦ The hero of this escapade said, in a letter to a friend, " It was executed with some wonderful escapes, and 
exhibits, in my conduct, some very remarkable generalship. I eluded the vigilance of three watchmen, stationed in 
the neighbourhood, without the assistance of a bribe ; and contrived to be sixty miles from Newcastle, before it was 
discovered that I had left the place. My wife is a perfect heroine, and behaved with a courage which astonished me." 



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II 

In the same building we have another room of similar character, now the 
oflSce of Mr. H. V. Wilson. It also is panelled, and has a mantelpiece bearing 
shields, initials, and date. The first shield is that of Carr, the second that of 
Cock, the third that of Jenison, and the fourth that of the Merchant Adven- 
turers. The initials and date are arranged as follows : — 

ANNO ic Ri 1658 

R. J. mean Sir Ralph Jenison, who was a justice of the peace and Deputy 
Lieutenant for the county of Northumberland, and who was knighted at 
Whitehall in 1677. J. C. are the initials of his wife, Jane Carr, daughter of 
Ralph Carr, another Newcastle merchant. The families of Carr and Cock had 
also intermarried.* 

The house adjoining that just described is a contemporary structure, or 
perhaps an enlargement of the former. Several other houses on the same side 
of the Sandhill deserve notice, especially Nos. 32 and 34. The former is 
occupied on the ground floor as a cocoa house, and above as offices. On the 
first floor is an oak panelled room, now one of the oflSces of Messrs. Bowring 
and Angier, which contains a very fine carved fireplace of beautiful design. 
The room above until recently also contained a magnificent fireplace, with the 
royal arms in the centre panel, but this has been removed to grace a modem 
mansion. 

In bygone days one of the notable houses on the Sandhill was '* Katy's 
Coffee House.*' Before it was a tavern it was the residence of Thomas Bonner, 
who, in the autumn of 1648, and twice subsequently, was chosen Mayor of 

* The colours on these shields are all obliterated by brown paint, but my heraldic readers shall have full technical 
descriptions. 

I. — Shields over the 6replace, in Messrs. Bilton, Williams, & Co.'s office : — 

I. Newcastle. Gu. three towers triple towered, ar. two and one. 

a. Cock. Az. a plate between three cocks ar. combed and wattled gu. 

3. Davison. Or, a fisse wavy between six cinquefoils gu. 

4. Merchant Adventurers. Barry rebul^e of six, ar. and az., a chief quarterly gu. and or. ; on the 

first and fourth quarters, a lion passant gardant of the fourth ; on the second and third, two roses gu., 
barbed ver. 
II. — Shields over the fireplace in Mr. H. V. Wilson's office : — 

1. Carr. Or, on a bend between three Cornish choughs sa., as many pards' heads erased off the field. 

2. Cock. Same as 2 supra. 

3. Jenison. Az. a bend between two swans ar. 

4. Merchant Adventurers. Same ^ 4 supra. 



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12 

Newcastle. On the i6th October, in that year, Cromwell and his army arrived 
in Newcastle on their return from Scotland, and ** were received with very great 
acknowledgments of love," which, in the more specific words of Whitlocke, 
consisted in the firing of the '* great ^ns, and ringing of bells and feasting." 
On the 19th, Bonner ** very sumptuously feasted " Cromwell and the leaders of 
the anny, and during the repast, if tradition may be trusted, the company was 
entertained by the melodious strains of **the town's waits, or musicians," who 
stood meanwhile on the bridge which spanned the Lork-burn, opposite the 
Mayor's door. Later in the day the army marched to Durham. The old 
coffee-house has long since disappeared. It stood on the east side of the Sand- 
hill, on or near the site now occupied by the Royal Insurance Buildings. 

The great feature of the Sandhill, however, is the Guildhall, ever to be 
associated with the name of its founder, Roger Thornton, one of Newcastle's 
chiefest worthies. The oft-quoted couplet preserves some memory of Thorn- 
ton's humble origin : — * 

ait t^e (liaie0tgate came "E^ornton in, 

diOlit^ a !^ap, anti a t^alfpennp, anti a Hamb &fcim 

In 1403 Thornton had license from the King to appropriate a piece of land to the 
purpose of building thereon a Domus Dei — a '* God's house " or hospital — for the 
reception of poor people, who, in return for the charities they were to receive, 
should offer daily prayers for the king, the mayor, the sheriff", the aldermen 
and commonalty of Newcastle, and for the founder whilst he lived, and for the 
souls of all these people after ** they departed from the light " of this world. 
This does not quite complete the list, for the said poor people had also to pray 
for the souls of the father and mother " of the aforesaid Roger," and for the 
souls of all the benefactors to his hospital. Nine years later the King granted 
license for the foundation of this hospital, which is then described as being 
** in part built in a certain place called Le Sandhill^ It was to be occupied 

♦ This is Bourne's version ; but in Stowe's additions to Leland's " Itinerary" (edition of 1769, v. 114), we have 
the following curious note : — 

" This Thornton was at the fyrst very poore, and, as the People report, was a Pedlcr, and of hym to this day they 

reherse this Ryme : 

5n at tbe TRleetdate came Ubomton in, 
TKnitb a bappen bapt in a IRam's Sk^nn." 



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13 

by a priest and thirteen poor folk — nine men and four women. The priest was 
to be designated Master, and the men and women Brethren and Sisters of the 
hospital, which was dedicated to St. Catherine. In 1424 Thornton had license 
granted him to endow his hospital and the chantry of St. Peter in All Saints' 
Church, also founded by him, with ten messuages and ten tofts with their appur- 
tenances, of the aggregate value of seven pounds per annum. Thornton died 
in 1430, and in his will occurs the following benefaction : — " It' to ye mesondieu 
of sint kateryne of my foundacion for yair eno^'lnents xx^.'* 

In 1456, Roger Thornton — probably the founder's son— granted the use of 
the hall and kitchen of St. Catherine's Hospital to the Mayor ^nd burgesses 
of Newcastle, "for a young couple when they were married, to make their 
wedding dinner in, and receive the oflFerings and gifts of their friends, for," 
significantly adds the authority I quote, *' at that time houses were not large." 
Brand conjectures that the custom of allowing the use of public buildings to 
wedding parties was established ** for the encouragement of matrimony."* 

In the valuation of religious houses, hospitals, and chantries, taken by 
Royal Commission in the reign of Henry VIII., Thornton's hospital is described 
as having been founded *' to fynde a priest for ever to be ther dayly resident in 
kepyng of hospitalitie to the reliefe of the poore, and to herborowe the sickke, 
and to gyve in almes yerely certeyn cooles to poore folks, to the value of 
26s. 8d., and bredde to the valewe of 13s. 4d., and to keep two yerely obytts 
for the founders sowles." The house had then an annual income in rents of 
;^20 3s. 2d., and its ** ornaments, Jewells, plate, goodes and catalls " were valued 

at £2> 2s. 8d. 

The advowson of the hospital passed from the Thorntons to the Lumleys, 
by the marriage of a member of the latter family with the heiress of the former. 
In 1624 Sir Richard Lumley, of Lumley Castle, conveyed to the Mayor and 
burgesses of Newcastle ** all that building of stone covered with lead, standing 
near to the water of Tyne, and to the east part of the town's chamber . . . 

* A similar practice existed in other places. One of the historians of Essex tells us that at Great Yeldham, 
" a house near the church was anciently used and appropriated for dressing a dinner for poor folks when married, and 
had all utensils and furniture convenient for that purpose." 

C 



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anciently part of, and belonging to the hospital of St. Catherine the Virgin, 
commonly called Thornton's Hospital." 

A portion of Thornton's hospital remained till 1823. Accurate delinea- 
tion of its eastern aspect is preserved in a lithographed drawing of the senior 
T. M. Richardson's, recently copied with admirable fidelity in the ** Monthly 
Chronicle" (vol. I., p. 57). 




The Merchants' Coukt. 



From time immemorial the company of Merchant Adventurers held their 
meetings in a chamber over St. Catherine's Hospital, and continued to do so 
till its demolition. The magnificent room above the present exchange, preserving 



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15 

the precise latitude and longitude of their ancient assemblies, is now their home. 
The really splendid carved mantel-piece in this chamber was taken from the 
ancient room over the Maison Dieu, as Thornton's hospital was usually called, 
and re-erected with suitable surroundings of panelled walls and elaborate 
frieze. It bears the date 1636. The subjects of its two principal panels are 
the Judgment of Solomon and the Miraculous Draught of Fishes. The figure 
in the foreground of the latter composition. Bibliographer Dibden declares, 
**has all the spirit of Rubens." This chamber, he says, contains **such speci- 
mens of oak carving as are probably not to be seen elsewhere, even in Europe.*' 

Affixed to the upper panels of this room are the arms of governors of the 
Merchants' Company, dating from 1628 to 1836.* 

The Guild of Merchant Adventurers, whose home is the hall of which we 
have just spoken, was founded by royal charter in the 17th year of King John 
(12 16), who granted to the Burgesses of Newcastle to have a "mercatorial guild, *' 
whose members were exempt from pleading beyond the walls of the town, 
except in relation to foreign tenures. They were also free from toll, lastage, 
pontage, and passage, not only during the fair, which a preceding part of the 

• The following are the names of the governors, and the arms here emblazoned : — 

1. Robert Bewicke, 1628. Argent, five lozenges in fesse gules, each charged with a mullet of the first, between three 

bears' heads erased sable, muzzled or. 

2. John Clavering, 1629. Quarterly or and gules, over all a bend sable. 

3. William Wearmouth, 1630. Or, on a bend between two lions rampant azure, three mullets of six points of the 

field pierced. 

4. Sir Alexander Davison, Knight, 1640. Or, a fesse wavy between six c^nquefoils gules. 

5. Leonard Carr, 1641. Argent, on a bend between three Cornish choughs azure, as many pards* heads erased or. 

6. Ralph Grey, 1646. Barry of six argent and azure, on a bend gules a bezant or. 

7. Christopher Nicholson, 1648. Argent, on a pale azure three martlets or. 

8. Thomas Davison, 1670. As before (4). 

9. Robert Ellison, 20 Dec, 1676. Gules, a chevron argent between three eagles' heads erased or, 

10. Thomas Davison, 31 Jan., 1677. As before (4). 

11. Nicholas Fenwick, 1696. Per fesse gules and argent, six martlets counterchanged. 

12. Nicholas Ridley, 1704. Gules, on a chevron, between three falcons close argent armed or, as many pellets. 

13. Robert Fenwick, 17 10. As before (ii). 

14. Matthew White, 171 2. Argent, three cocks' heads erased sable, combed and wattled gules. 

15. Richard Ridley, 1715. As before (12). 

16. Matthew Ridley, 1739. As before (12). 

17. Sir Matthew White Ridley, 1778. Quarterly, first and fourth, Ridley ; second and third, White. 

18. Sir Matthew White Ridley, 1813. As before (17). 

19. Sir Matthew White Ridley, 1836. As before (17). 

In two or three cases the tinctures here given are probably incorrect, but I have preferred to describe the arms as 
they are emblazoned on the walls of Merchants' Court, rather than as they ought to be. 



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i6 

same document had chartered, but at all other times, and also in all sea-ports 
within the King's dominions, both at home and abroad. 

This guild possesses an interesting and valuable series of records, extending 
from 1480 to the present time. Many of the regulations, or **Acts" as they 
are called, passed from time to time at the merchants' courts, are extremely 
curious, and serve to throw considerable light on the social conditions of the 
past. 

In 1480 the merchants drew up a code of regulations for their government, 
in which they agreed ^* to haffe and aid a courte emanks thaym selff, and that 
courte to be haldyn wppon y* Thursday that wark day shalbe in the eynd of ev'y 
moneth * * * in a playse wpon Sand Hill appontyt therefor callyd the 
masyndew of Sanct Kateryn." Every member of the company was required 
to **com wnto the forsaid massyndew at the forsaid dayes and tymes and also at 
all sike certane times and oures as shalbe assigned and aponntyt. * * * And 
that ev ylkon [everyone] of the said felleship lawfully warnnyd not a ppereng 
w4n the masyndew w4n halff a glass rennyng* after the tyme aponntyt shall pay 
to the common box of the said felleship iiij** for is defawte als [as] oft as the 
case shall requier w*ntyn [without] a lawfull exscuse." The principal meeting 
in the year — **y* Ede Gwyld" — was to be ^^halden wppon Thursday next after 
midfast Sunday." 

At the same time it was ** assentit, accordit and agreet by the said felleship 
in affermyng of gwd rewll to be maid and had the whilk hath lang tym beyn 
abused emanks thaym that wppon Corpus xpi [Chisti] day yerly in honoryng 
and worshippyng of the solemp procession ev'y man of the said felleship beyng 
w*in the finches [franchises] of y*' Town * * * shall apper in the meal- 
markett by vj of Clok in the momyng." Every member of the company failing 

• The allusion is to the hour-glass. I am strongly tempted to indulge my penchant for all instruments of time 
measurement by loading this page and the next with a long foot note on hour-glasses. Regretfully I forbear, and press 
forward to the coming chapters. 

t The word " mealmarket " is altered by a later hand to " beermarket." Meal-markei is one of the ancient names 
of the street now known as the Groat-market ; and Beer-market is the thoroughfare now called the Bigg-market. It 
may be worth while to mention that, in this connection "beer" and "bigg" mean almost the same thing. In the words 
of Brockett, bigg is "a coarse kind of barley, properly the variety which has six rows of grain on each ear, though often 
confounded with what is called hear^ or four-rowed barley." 



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17 

so to appear, unless ^* he haff laytyng by infyrmyte [unless he was hindered by 
illness] other [or] ells he af speciall licanse" incurred a fine of **j pond wax." 
The ^^lattast mayd burges " was to go **formest in procession," and **all those 
of the said felleship that as beyn maires, sherefFs and aldermen in yeres by 
passyt shall go princypall in the said solemp procession acordyng as they war 
chossen into the sayd officese." 

An act passed on 9th June, 1523, provided that ** no man beyng ffree of 
this felowship kepe no shoppes ne warehowses in the contre, ne for to put no 
maner of merchandisse in mennes hands in the contre to by nor sell for them ; 
and also that no man being free of this felowship do cary no maner of mer- 
channdise in to the contre noder by water ne by londe but alonly unto 
fre fars [fairs] ; except thos that will go w* a ffut packe and noder to go w' 
horse ne hampers nor moles.'*' 

On the 27th January, 1548, the company resolved that none of its members 
should ** from henceforth latt neyther house, loffte nor sceller to no londyners 
nor non other straungers to laye no marchandyce, in payne of forfaten for 
every suche defaulte v"/' 

In 1554 we meet with an ^^act," relating to the garb and manners of appren- 
tices. Several similar documents occur at subsequent dates. They are all 
extremely curious, and I am only withheld by the limitations of my space from 
printing them in their entirety. The act of 1554 laments that **nowe lewde 
libertye in stede of the former vertuous life haithe of late taken place in appren- 
tizes and chiefelye of those as ar servyng in this worshipefuU fellyshipe of 
marchants," and modestly expresses a doubt ** whether the occasion thereof ys 
imputable unto us m" that by oure good lifes and wordes do not enstructe oure 
apprentizes of there dewtie, orels to be ascribed unto the negligent or stubbome 
servaunt that regardeth litle the good lessons of us there m"." The vicious 
conduct of the apprentices is indicated by a series of exclamations. " What 
dyseng, cardeng, and mummyng; what typling, daunseng and brasenge of * * *; 
what garded cotes, jagged hose, Ijoied with silke, and cutt shoes ; what use of 
gittems by nyght ; what wearynge of herds ; what daggers ys by theim worn 



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crosse overthwarte their backs, that theis theire dooings are more cumlye and 
decent for rageng ruffians than seemlye for honest apprentizes." The merchants 
therefore proceeded to enact **that no m' in this feoloshipe of marchants * * * 
perm)rtt or suffi-e his apprentize duringe the tyme of his apprentishood to daunse, 
dyse, carde, or mum, or use any gyttems, or suffer him to weare any cuthose, 
cut shoes or pounced jerkens, nor to weare any herds." They were to ** weare 
none other hoses than slopped of course clothe whereof the yarde not to excede 
ij' ; theire shoes and theire cotes to be of course clothe of houswifes making ; 
* * * thei shall weare no straite hoose but suche as be playne without cuffs, 
pounseng or gardes ; and the same to be woom but upon the holye dayes or 
whan as they shall ryde out of the towne or otherwise attende upon theire m""." 
The apprentices of those who were or had been mayor, sheriff, or aldermen, 
were exempted from the requirements of this act. 

On the loth November, 1603, similar regulations were adopted ; whereby 
apprentices were forbidden " to daunce, dice, carde, mum, or use anye musick, 
eyther by night or daye, in the streetes, neyther to weare anie undecent 
apparell, but plaine and of clothes under x' the yarde, or fustian of or under 
iij' the yeard, nor to weare any velvate or lace, in or on his or ther apparell, in 
anie sorte or fashon whatsoever, neither anie silk garters, silk or velvat girdles, 
silk pointes, worsted or Jersey stockings, shoe strings of sylk, pumppes, 
pantofles or corke shoes, hatts lyned w'** velvitt, nor double Cypres hatt bands, 
or silk strings, nor clokes and daggers, neyther anie ruffed bands, but fallinge 
bands plaine w^'^out laice, stitcht, or anie kind of sowen worck, neither shall 
they weare their haire longe nor locks at their eares like ruffians ; and that they 
shall not passe by anie brother of this ffelowship, but do their dueties, unto 
him or them, at leaste by uncoveringe their heades." It was also determined 
that **for the better ordering and governinge of such apprentices as shall 
misdemean them selves * * * their shalbe one speciall gaioll or prison 
w^^'in this towne, to be appointed by the presente governor, unto w*'*' all 
disobedyent apprentices * * * shalbe comitted." 



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With changed fashions came the necessity for altered legislation on the 
clothing of apprentices. On the 5th October, 1649, an act was passed requiring 
every apprentice to ** cutt his haire, ffrom y^ crowne of the heade ; keepe his 
fforheade bare ; his lockes (if any) shall not reach belowe the lapp of his eare, 
and the same length to be obsered behynd ; and if in caise any be sicke he 
shall weare a linnen capp and no other, and y' without lace ; and they shall 
weare no beaver hatts, nor castors ; if their hatts be blacke, they shall have 
blacke bands ; if gray hatts then bands suetable ; but neither gould nor silver 
woorke in any of them ; nether ffancies, nor ribbins att their hattbands ; the 
cloath for their apparrell shall nott exeede ffourteene or ffifteene shilHnge the 
yerde ; they shall weare no stuffe of silke or Camnell haire ; their clothes shall 
be made plaine up without lace or any other trimeinges except buttons, and 
them onely in places needfull, and no better then of silke ; there bands shalbe 
plaine without lace or scallope ; they shall weare no cuffs, boothostopps, white 
or cuUered showes [shoes], or showes of Spannish lether, longe nebd showes or 
bootes ; no silke garters att all ; noe showstrings better then fferrett or cotten 
ribbin ; no gloves butt plaine, nor bootes butt when they ride. * * * And 
if the apprentice after wameing given him in courte, shall not confonne himselfe, 
in all and every of the saide particulers according to the trew intent and 
meaneing of this acte, his haire and apparell and other misduymeners shall in 
open courte be corected and regulated."* 

* The attempt to enforce these regulations led to a struggle between the merchants and their apprentices, of which 
the results were almost equally humiliating to both parties. On the 28th November, in the same year (1649), it was 
ordered that the apprentices of the governor, assistants, and wardens of the company should ** appeare the next courte 
day, to see their conformity to the said acte ; or, offending, to be made examplary ; and after them other appentices to 
be sent for, when this fifellowshipp shall thinke fitt." Accordingly, at the next court, held 4th December, the apprentices 
of the company's officials attended, but nine of their number ^' did carry themselfes contemptuosly in the face of this 
courte, utterly refusing to conforme ; yet the clemency of the company was soe great, that they did not presently make 
them exemplary, but dismissed them till flfriday next, when they are to appeare againe in open courte; and if ihey be 
found to continue in their obstinate irregularity, they are to suffer according to their demeritts, as the sencure [censure] of 
this fSellowshipp shall inflict upon them/' Three days later another court was held, at which six of the rebellious nine 
submitted, but the other three "shewing themselfes disobedient and very obstinate, not in the least yeilding to that 
wholesome act, were first in open courte made exemplary, by shortning their hayre, and taking from their clothes super- 
fluos ribbining ; and after for their wilfull obstinacy were comitted to prison." A copy of their mittimus, addressed to 
" Robt. Sharpe, kee]>er of the prison at Westgate," follows the above record. He was to allow each prisoner '* only 
2** in bread and one quarte of table beare per diem." After suffering eleven days' imprisonment, the three apprentices 
petitioned to be released, and promised to conform themselves in all things to the company's requirements. Their 



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The last regulations of this character which I have found were adopted at 
a court held 24th November, 1697. It was then determined that — 

" Noe apprentice, untill he hath served seaven yeares, shall be permitted to goe either 
to ffenceing or danceings schooles ; neither to any musicke houses, lotterys, or play houses ; 
neither shall keepe any sort of horses, doggs for hunting, or ffighting cocks. 

Noe apprentices shall use any gold or silver triming either in theire apparell or hatts ; 
neither y« lyneing of any garment with any sort of silke. 

Noe apprentices shall weare any sort of poynt, lace, or any imbrodiry att all ; neither 
any ruffles att theire breasts, necks, or sleeves. 

Noe apprentices shall weare long wiggs, nor any short wiggs above the price of 
fifteene shillings. 

Noe apprentices shall frequent either taverns or alehouses ; neither shall absent him- 
selfe from his maister's house at any time, upon any pretence, without leave. 

Noe apprentice shall in any kinde prophane the Lord's day." 

In 1564 (i2th October), we find an act ** concernynge the taken of a 
prentice beinge borne in tyndale or Reddisdall/' It is ^* assented, accordide 
and agreyd * * * that no ffre brother of this ffellysshype shall from hens 
fourthe take non apprentice to serve in this ffellyshype of non suche as is or 
shalbe borne or brought up in tyndall, Ryddisdall or anye other such lycke 
places in payne of xx"." The reason of this exclusive act, as stated in a more 
extended text elsewhere, is, that *^ the parties there brought upp ar knowen 
either by educatyon or nature not to be of honest conversatyon." An act 

petition was granted, and they returned to their several masters. Meantime, however, the strife between masters and 
apprentices continued. Apprentices are from time to time brought into court, and such entries as the following are 
frequent : — 

" Jo" Liddell, apprentice to Henry Bowes, senior, was called into courte, and his haire being reformed, and pro- 
missing conformity to the acte [he] was dismissed." 

" George Carter, apprentice to W*". Blackett, having not conformed in his haire, was cutt in open courte." 
At one court "great compl*" is made of one youth, "of base, words given out by him touching the companyes dealing 
w*'' the apprentices." Brought into court, "he very impudently seemed in effect to iustify what was charged upon 
him." The company, however, in consideration of " the weakenes and simplicity of the youth and w^all that he was a 
neighbours child " left him *• to the correction of his said father for the said offence." 

At the court held i8th December, " Thomas Swan a brother of this fellowshipp was complayned on for iegring 
[jeering] some of the apprentices, whose haire was cutt according to the companyes acte, calling them the Companyes 
Coucd Tupps " [cowed tupps, i>., timid sheep]. His offence was to be " taken into consideracon the next courte day," 
but is never again alluded to in the records. 

The merchants soon grew weary of the struggle, and a little more than three months after passing the act, 
"considering the continuall trouble this ffellowshipp hath had, at every courte since holden, to bring them to con- 
formity * * * it is ordered and condisended too at this present courte, that every m*" shall regulate his own 
apprentices # # # before the first of ffebniary next " - failing to do which the master was to be fined three pounds 
for each offence " w**'out forgivnes." 



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adopted in 1676, in repeating the regulation just quoted, whilst admitting that 
'* those parts are more civillized then formerly," asserts that ** there are many 
who yet doe inhabit in the said parts and elsewhere, that doe comitt ffrequent 
thefFts and other fFelonys." 

An act passed in 1657 laments that ** in these late tymes (wherein iniquity 
abounds) wee finde, by woefuU experience, a great apostacy and fallinge of from 
the truth, to Popery, Quakisme, and all manner of heresy and unheard of 
blasphemy and profainenes." Whereupon it was determined that ** no brother 
of this fellowshipp whatsoever shall from henceforth take any apprentice, who 
in his judgment or practice is a popish recusant or Quaker, or any who shall 
not attend duely on his maister at the publicke ordinances." For every offence 
against this act the master was to be fined 100 marks ** without grace or favour 
of court," and the apprentice to ** loose what tyme he hath served and never 
enioy any freedome of this fellowshipp."* 

The Merchants' Company possesses three large and beautiful silver gilt 
cups with covers, decorated with fleurs de lis and the company's arms, beneath 
which is their motto — 

GOD BE OVR FREND. 
The covers are surmounted by the Society's crest, a pegasus. On the rim of 
each cup is the inscription — 

Sfhe guift of Sfhomas SSonner Ssqi^ Jlaiar of SVewcasth'^upon'S^yne to the 
Company of Jferohante 64dventurers of that ffoume 64nno S)om. ^64^9, 

Round the base of each cup is a later inscription — 

Repaired & New Gilded at the Expence of Matthew Ridley Esq** Governor 1745. 

At the company's annual meeting (9th October) these cups are filled with 
mulled and spiced wine, of which the assembled members partake. 

• I have felt justified in the length of my extracts from the records of the Merchant Adventurers by the fact 
that they throw greater light than has hitherto been afforded on the internal economy of the most important of our 
incorporated companies in the past. I take this opportunity of acknowledging my indebtedness to the Merchants' 
Stewards — Messrs. H. V. Wilson and W. Daggett— for the liberal access to their archives which they granted me. 
To extract everything of interest, however, from these records would fill a small volume. Such a volume will, I hope, 
form one of the issues of my intended series of " Imprints and Reprints." 



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The ancient Guildhall, founded, as I have already stated, by Thornton, 
remained till 1656, when it was taken down, and the present building, minus 
sundry alterations and accretions, erected by Robert Trollope, whose name is 
chiefly known by an apocryphal and vulgar epitaph. Before the repeated 
modernizations to which it has been subjected, Trollope's Guildhall was a quaint 
and picturesque structure. Though often engraved, we turn to Fittler^s print 
in the second volume of Brand for authentic delineation of its appearance. It 
is an interesting picture, wherein, save of sky and earth, the engraver's burin 
has scarcely traced a Hne which is not history. The group of market women 
on the left with their three-legged stools, the one who sits apart from the rest, 
laying evident claim to higher rank of hucksterage by virtue of the chair — 
a real ** Chippendale" — whereon she sits, and the driver with his tumble-car,* 
all add to the value of this memorial of Sandhill's byegone aspects. For 
description of the building itself I must quote the words of Bourne. 

"This Building, as to its Form and Model, is of great Beauty, and withal very 
sumptuous. That Part of it, which is the Court itself, is a very stately Hall^ whose lofty 
Cieling is adorned with various Painting, and its Floor laid with checkered Marble. On 
the East end of it is a Dial, and the Entrance into the Merchants Court. On the West 
are the Benches^ where the Magistrates sit, raised considerably above the Floor of the 
Courts above which are the Pictures of King Charles II. and King pontes II. large as the 
Life. On the North is a Gallery of Spectators ; and on the South the Windows, which 
are very pretty, particularly that Window which is a Katharine- Wheel^ in which is a 
large Sun-dial of painted Glass, with this Motto, Eheu Fugaces I Under this is a large 
Balcony^ which overlooks the River. Here it is that the Mayor and Sheriff keep their 
Courts, and the Judges at Lammas hold the Assize. Here is kept the Guilds^ the Court 
oi Admiralty^ &c. 

** On the North-side of this Hall is a magnificent Entrance into a Passage, which 
leads into a large Room called the Town^s Chamber. Here it is that the Mayor transacts 
the common Business of the Town. Here the Common Council is held, where the Mayor 
sits on a Bench distinguishable from the others, the Aldermen on each Side of him, the 
Common Council below upon Chairs placed on each Side the Room, and separated from 
the Benches, as the Court itself is separated from the Benches there. And here upon the 
Days oi Rejoicings the State Holidays^ the Mayor not long ago entertained the Magistrates 
and Burgesses with a Banquet of Wine, ^c, to which they were wont to come from the 
Mayor^s House with great Pomp and Solemnity. At the West-end of the Room is a 

* " TUMBLE-CAR. A cart drawn by a single horse ; probably so named from the axle being made fast in the 
wheels, and turning round with them." — Halliwell's Dictionaiy of Archaic and Provincial Words. 



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small Apartment, or withdrawing Room, where the Magistrates upon Occasion retire, 
where the ancient Records of the Town are kept, &c. Under this Court and Chambers 
are the Weigh-house and Town-house. The former is for weighing all Sorts of Commodi- 
ties ; for in the Reign of King Henry VI. Brass Weights according to the Standart were 
sent to this Town. The latter is the Place where the Clerk of the Chamber and the 
Chamberlain are to receive the Revenues of the Town for Coal^ Salt, Ballast^ Grind- 
stones,^ &c." 

Much of Bourne's description is equally accurate at the present time. In 
the Court the chequered marble floor, the dial at the east end, the raised benches 




The Town's Chamber. 

at the west, and the ^^magnificent entrance" to the town's chamber on the north, 
still remain. The portraits of Charles II. and James II., after suffering serious 
damage in the riot of June, 1 740, were repaired, and are now preserved in the 
Town Hall. The *Wery pretty" windows were removed when the south front 

* "A Scottish man and a Newcastle grindstone travel all the world over." — Ray's Proverbs. 



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was rebuilt in 1809, and then, alas, the St. Catherine's wheel window, with its 
Sun-dial, was destroyed.* The balcony was taken down at the same time. 
The north front had been completely altered in 1794. 

It is singular that Bourne makes no mention of the paintings that adorned 
the panels of the room which he calls ** the Town's Chamber." With only three 
exceptions, the original pictures have been covered by modern paintings of very 
inferior character. Two of those which are preserved are of the utmost interest. 
One is a view of the Guildhall, and another a view of St. Nicholas' Church, 
both buildings being depicted as they appeared during the first half of last 
century. The third ancient picture is an interior view of some unknown 
building of classic design. This ** Town's Chamber," though of somewhat 
meagre dimensions, is a charming old room, and is perhaps less changed since 
the days of Robert TroUope, than any other part of the Guildhall. Its walls 
are covered with fine old oak wainscot, and its ceiling is beautifully stuccoed. 

The Guildhall was completed in 1658. In the ** Memoir of Alderman 
Barnes" it is mentioned as ** an handsom neat structure, well contrived for the 
convenience of merchants and the courts of justice, in memory whereof every 
alderman had his name cast in one of the chimes set up in the steeple of that 
edifice. That bell," the biographer proceeds, ** which had Alderman Barnes 
his name, was afterwards removed, and put up in a New Chappellf erected 
without the walls." 

• We must not forget the importance of sun-dials in the past. Before the days of telegraphy, and when few 
places possessed an observatory with a transit instrument, sun-dials of one kind or other were the only means by which 
clocks were regulated. Almost every town hall or church which had a clock had also a sun-dial, for without the latter 
the former was almost useless. I possess a beautifully engravtd '' (TftblC For easily Regulating Clocks 6* Watches^ 
ytttCD to tbC NEW STYLE, ^ tbC prCdCnt position Ot tbC suns BpogeC Any Day in the Year when it 
is exactly \1 by a Meridian Line^ or a true Sun Dialy the Clock ought to agree with this TABLE ^ otherwise mvst be Altered 
to it" Such a Table generally hung in the parish vestry side by side with the Almanack. 

The motto on the Guildhall sun-dial reminds us of a story told of the author of " Night Thoughts." He set up 
a dial in the rectory garden at Welwyn, Hertfordshire, with the motto, '* Eheu, fugaces " (Alas, how fleeting !), and a 
few nights afterwards thieves entered the garden, and proved the wisdom of the poet's choice of a motto by carrying the 
dial away. 

t This was St. Ann's Chapel " in Sandgate " — not in the street so-called, but on the site of the present St. Ann*s 
Church. Sandgate in those days included, in popular phrase, the whole district. It was a " new " chapel to Ambrose 
Barnes's biographer, because then recently repaired, re-opened, and re-endowed. , The present building belongs to the 
year 1768. 



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These bells, which hung in the square tower shown in Fittler's print, have 
disappeared. The bell removed to vSt. Ann's was not permitted to remain there. 
In the Newcastle journal oi i8th June, 1768, we read, "There is now at Mr. 
Hillcoat's, ironmonger, the old bell, belonging to St. Ann's Chapel in this town, 
with the following inscription upon it, — Mr. Ambrose Barns^ Mr. George 
Theorsbyj Sheriffs 1658." 

Behind the pediment fronting the Sandhill there are two bells and a clock, 
of which the dials are far away in the turret over the court. On these bells, 
with the aid of a third bell now at the Gaol, the clock formerly struck the 
hours and quarters. These bells are inscribed — 

(1) Mathew Featherstonhaugh esq: mayor Richard Swinburn esq: sherif of 

Newcastle R: Phelps Londini fecit 1724. 

(2) Mathew Featherstonhaugh esq : mayor Rich : Swinburn esq : sherif r : p : 

FECIT 1724 

Beneath the belfry was the old clock — one handed on each dial, as were 
usually the public and domestic clocks of that day, leaving the seeker of true 
time to determine by computation the fraction of an hour which had passed 
since the last hour was struck. The hair's-breadth measurement of time, 
necessitated by our hurried modes of life, was not needed in those slower times 
of old. 

In Fittler's print a prominent object is the bronze statue of Charles II., 
standing in a niche beneath the north dial of the clock. It was erected at the 
Restoration over the south front of the Magazine Gate on the old Tyne Bridge. 
Beneath was the motto — 

Adventus Regis solamen Gregis. 

In June, 1771, five months before the memorable flood which destroyed great 
part of the bridge, the Magazine Gate, being an obstruction to the traffic, was 
taken down, and, on the 15th day of the same month, the statue was placed in 
front of the Guildhall. This latter circumstance excited the wrath of one John 
Rotherham, a Newcastle physician of that day, who enjoyed an extensive 
practice, and lived in Westgate Street. He wrote a pasquinade, which, on the 

D 



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third morning after the re-erection of *^ the merry monarch's'' statue, was found 
fixed to the door beneath. The statue now stands at the east end of the 
arcade of the Exchange. 

Below the statue was the open double staircase. From the landing of 
this stairway John Wesley on one occasion preached. Some of his congre- 
gation began to pelt him with mud and rotten eggs. At length, a fishwoman, 
big, burly, and drunken, and the terror of the neighbourhood in which she 
lived, ran up the steps, threw one of her arms round Wesley's neck, and, 
shaking the fist of the other towards his assailants, shouted, ** If ony yen o' ye 
lift up another hand to touch ma canny man, ayl floor ye direckly." The 
threat had due effect, and the preacher was permitted to conclude his address 
in peace. 

Bourne mentions *^the Town-house," beneath the Guildhall, which was, 

he tells us, the place where the Clerk of the 
Chamber and the Chamberlain received the town's 
revenues. The financial business of the borough 
continued to be transacted in the same place until 
the new Town Hall was built. The chest in 

which the monev was for- 



A 

merly kept was designated 
*^the town hutch."* It may 
now be seen in the City 
Treasurer's office. This old 
chest, usually credited with 
fabulous antiquity, bears the 
date 1716. It is divided by a 
strong wooden partition into 
The Town Hutch. two compartments, each of 

which has its own lid. The front compartment, which is semi-polygonal in 

• The word AuUA is derived from the old French AucA^j and the low Latin hutka. It means a large chest with a 
falling lid, and so in the " Promptorium Parvulorum " is defined as cista^ archa. In byegone days it was the usual name 
for the clothes-box placed at the foot of a bed, and in this sense occurs in the ** Vision of Piers Plowman" — 

Tyl pernelles purfil be put in her hucche ; 






Ond>t.lB<k. .\ on. lojD. 

J \ 




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shape, was intended for the reception of money. It has a plate in the middle 
of the lid, with a slit, through which the coins were dropped. This compart- 
ment was secured by nine locks, of which the old keys are still preserved. 
One of these bears the name of **W. Peareth," who was sheriff of Newcastle 
in 1742. Each of the eight chamberlains kept one key, and the ninth was 
always in the Mayor's possession. The back compartment was devoted to the 
safe preservation of some of the town's archives. 

Before leaving the Sandhill we must not forget to mention the equestrian 
statue of James the Second, which, for a brief period, graced its centre. It was 
ordered by a resolution of the Common Council, on the i6th March, 1686. 
In their minutes it is described as " a statue of his Majesty, in a Roman habit, 
on a capering horse, in copper, as big as the figure of his majesty King 
Charles I., at Charing-Crosse.'' The cost was to be ;^8oo. It was made by 
William Larson, and approved by Sir Christopher Wren. It does not appear 
to have been erected till the summer of 1688, and on the nth May in the 
following year the mob dragged the statue to the edge of the quay, and pushed 
it, horse and rider, into the river.* It was afterwards recovered, and on the ist 

!>., "till Pernella's finery be put away in her clothes-box." The folk -speech of England had the "meal-hutch" of the 
pantry, and the "com-hutch" of the barn or stable. In the "Manipulus Vocabulorum" of Peter Levins (1570), 
thesaurartum is the definition given. In this sense it is used by Tusser : 

The eie of the maister enricheth the hutch, 

The eie of the mistresse availeth as mutch. 

Which eie, if it governe, with reason and skil. 

Hath servant and service, at pleasure and wil. 

— Five Hundred Pointes of Good Husbandries 1 580. 
By an easy transition the word came to mean the wealth which the hutch contained, and so we read, in an anonymous 
contemporary of Shakespeare's description of the frequenter of the tavern — 

This alehouse-haunter thinkes himself a safe 

If he with his companions, George and Rafe, 

Doe meet together to drink upsefreese 

Till they have made themselves as wise as geese. 

O there this man (like lord within a hutch) 

Will pay for all and ne're his money grutch. 
— The Times' Whistle : or^ A Nevoe Daunce of Seven Satires^ and other Poems, Compiled by R, C, Gent. 
" Like lord within a hutch," means, like a nobleman amidst his riches. Newcastle is not alone in possessing a " town 
hutch." The honour is shared by Morpeth and Great Yarmouth, and, for anything 1 know, many other places as well. 

* In the second volume of the " Archaeologia Aeliana " (quarto series, p. 260), we have a paper by John Bell, 
attempting to prove that the statue of James 11. was never actually erected on the Sandhill. The question is, however, 
decided beyond all controversy by a number of depositions preserved amongst the state papers, and printed in one of 
the Richardson tracts. From these documents I have prepared the following narrative : — 

The chief instigator seems to have been Colonel Heyford, then commander of the garrison at Newcastle. About 
nine o'clock on the evening of Saturday, the nth May, 1689, he went into Headlam's Coffee House on the Sandhill, and 



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April, 1695, the Common Council received a petition from the parishioners of 

All Saints' for the metal of the statue towards the repair of their bells. A 

similar request came at the same time from the parishioners of St. Andrew's. 

It was determined '^ that All Saints have the metal belonging to the horse of 

the said statue, except a leg thereof, which must go towards the casting a new 

bell for St. Andrew's parish." The effigy of the king had a different fate, as we 

learn from the following letter, addressed, on ist June, 1707, by Charles 

Townley to Ralph Thoresby, of Leeds : — 

** But now to what I found on my return here at York. Mr. Smith, our ingenious 
bell-founder, purchased and brought from Newcastle, a large part of that equestrian statue 
of King James, set up, and afterwards thrown down by the mob at that time. Here is his 
face very well wrought and very entire, besides several other parts of his body. Had I 
money and a house and place, none should hinder me from purchasing such a great 
ornament for a garden. There is nothing of Jacobitism in this ; were it of the great 
r [? rascal, rogue or rebel] Cromwell I should think it of great value ; and I hope Mr. Smith 
will look upon it, and conserve it as such, till some noble purchaser comes that has 
money, and will think a good round sum well laid out on what in time to come, if not 
now, may prove a curiosity of the first magnitude." 

An engraving of this famous statue was published in 1743, ^7 Joseph 
Barber, the bookseller, of Amen Comer, Newcastle. This print is excessively 
rare, but a copy may be seen in the library of our northern Society of 
Antiquaries. 

declared he had given orders that the statue should be pulled down. Meantime, Captain Killigrew, an officer under 
Heyford, had mounted a stage near the statue, and told the people that he had not come as a mountebank to take 
their money, but to give them money, with which he instigated them to buy a rope to p«ll down the statue of one, by 
whom, he said, their lives, liberties, and properties were taken away. A soldier mounted the pedestal whereon the 
statue stood, and with his drawn sword attempted to break off the stirrups and spurs. When the rope was brought a 
soldier put it round the effigy, which was first dragged from its horse, and then assailed with stones by the mob. 
A spectator, Robert Maddison, venturing to remonstrate on such treatment of a fallen adversary, was attacked by a 
soldier with a drawn sword, and only escaped being wounded by holding his hat before his breast. All the while a 
number of soldiers stood armed with swords and carbines, ready to guard the rioters from any interference on the pan 
of the civil authorities. 




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EARLY QUAKERISM IN GATESHEAD. 

The precise date of the Founder of Quakerism's first visit to Newcastle is 
not known. He travelled through the northern counties in 1653, and in his 
Journal of that year he says, ** Now w^ere the Priests in a great Rage at New 
Castle'' Amongst the Quaker preachers who came to Newcastle at that time 
were John Audland, John Stubbs, and Miles Halhead. Audland was a native 
of Camsgill in Westmoreland, ^* which place hath been possessed by his 
Ancestors long before him," and, after his conversion to Quakerism, to use the 
words of George Fox, he ** went to New- Castle^ and there was cast into Prison 
for Preaching the Lord Jesus Christ and his Everlasting Gospel, by the Priests 
and Magistrates there, and hazarded his Life amongst them." Stubbs was a 
soldier in the parliament's army, though a classical and Oriental scholar, and 
was ** convinced" in the garrison at Carlisle by the preaching of Fox himself. 
He was the principal author of Fox's famed ** Battle-Door." Halhead was of 
Underbarrow. He was imprisoned at Newcastle ; **but the mayor being much 
troubled, sent for the sheriff; when come, he said to him, * We have not done 
well in committing an innocent man to prison : pray let us release him.' " The 
sheriff consented, and Halhead regained his liberty. 

The result of these men's preaching was the rapid growth of Quakerism in 
Newcastle and the district.* The progress of the new faith created consider- 
able alarm. Thomas Ledgard, the puritanical ex-mayor, attacked the Quakers 
in two or three pamphlets, to which James Nayler and George Baiteman — who, 
by the way, was not a Quaker — wrote replies. Then came a united effort on 
the part of the ** priests," in the shape of a small quarto pamphlet entitled, 
** The Perfect Pharisee." The address to the ^* Christian Reader " is signed 
by five ministers, (i) **Tho. Weld," who was minister at St. Mary's, Gates- 
head, during the Commonwealth, but previously of Terling, in Essex, where, 

* " Those deluded soules called Quakers, have been very active in these parts, and have seduced two of o' society 
and six of Newcastle church." — Letter from the Baptist Church at Hexham to the church at Leominster^ written circa 
i6S3- 



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**not submitting to the ceremonies, the place was too hot for him/' and he took 
refuge for a time in New England. At the restoration he was ejected. (2) 
*' Rich. Prideaux," who was lecturer at All Saints', Newcastle, from 1647. He 
conformed at the restoration, and died shortly afterwards. (3) ** Sam. Ham- 
mond," D.D., **was a butcher's son of York," distinguished at Cambridge, 
came into the North at the invitation of Sir Arthur Haslerigg, and became 
minister at Bishop Weannouth, and afterwards lecturer at St. Nicholas's, 
Newcastle. He was ejected at the restoration, and spent the rest of his life, 
except the last few months, abroad. (4) ** Will. Cole," who had been minister 
at Kirkby Kendal, where he saw much of the Quakers, and took part in perse- 
cuting them. He was afterwards (1653-59) minister at St. John's, Newcastle, 
and a conformist at the restoration. (5) ** Will. Durant," who was lecturer at 
St. Nicholas's and afterwards at All Saints', Newcastle, till the restoration. He 
married Sir James Clavering's sister. After his ejection he continued to preach, 
and was one of the founders of non-confonnity in Newcastle. He died in 
1681, **and was buried in his own garden, not being allowed to be interred in 
what was called Holy Ground." Such were the men who leagued themselves 
to quench the flame of Quakerism then beginning to bum in Newcastle, though 
it is clear from the tract itself that its authorship rested principally with Cole 
and Hammond. 

To the '* Perfect Pharisee" James Naylor wrote a reply ; and to this the 
five ministers issued a rejoinder, with the title, ** A Further Discovery of that 
generation of men called Quakers." To this Naylor also rephed, and the 
controversy ceased, at least in its pamphleteering form ; although, in the year 
following Fox's second visit to Newcastle, Hammond again returned to the 
attack, and was answered by Richard Hubberthome.* 

* My bibliographical readers will be glad to have the full titles of these publications, especially as three ;it 
least of them issued from the local press of Stephen Bulkley. Ledgard's tracts I have never seen, and know them only 
from the replies they called forth. 

(i) A Discourse concerning the Quakers. By T. L. 

(2) An Answer To (Vindicate the Cause of the Nick-named Quakers of such scandalls and untruths as is falsly 
cast upon them in a lying Pamphlet, otherwise called) A Discourse conceining the QuaArrSy set out by T. L., or as 1 under- 
stand the signification of the Letters TAo : Ledger, By Geo. Baiteman. [4to. No printer's name, place, or date.] 

(3) A Few words occasioned by a Paper lately Printed, stiled, A Discourse concerning the Quakers, together 



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In 1657 Fox visited Newcastle a second time, and then it was that his 
followers met in the old Pipewellgate house, afterwards and still a tavern, 
bearing the name, but no longer the outhanging sign, of the Fountain. The 
house has suffered from many alterations since Fox's day, though portions still 
remain which must have been ancient when the apostle of Quakerism was here. 
Its many gables and irregular roof lines, its older walls of stone, with later 
additions and superstructure of brick, its river washed foundations below and 

with a call to Magistrates, Ministers, Lawyers, and People to repentance. Wherein all men may see, that the Doctrine 
and Life of those People whom the World scornfully calls Quakers, is the very Doctrine and Life of Christ, &c. By 
James Nayler. [4to. No date.] 

(4) Anti-Quakers Assertions [By Thomas Ledgard]. 

(5) Another Discourse [By Thomas Ledgard], 

(6) The Perfect Pharisee UNDER MONKISH HOLINESSE, Opposing the Fundamental! Principles of of [sic] 
the Doctrine of the Gospel, and Scripture-Practises of Gospel-Worship manifesting himself in the Generation of men 
called QVAKERS. OR, A Preservative against the Grose Blasphemies and Horrid delusions of those, who under 
pretence of perfection, and an immediate Call from God, make it their businesse to Revile Disturbe the Ministers of 
the Gospel. Published^ for the establishing of the People of God in the Paith once delivered to the Saints. And in a speciall 
manner directed to BELEE VERS ;« Newcastle a«^ Gateside. Gateside^ Printed by S,B.^ and are to be sould by Will: 
London^ Book-seller in Newcastle^ 1653. [4to. Another edition of this tract was printed, with the following colophon : 
London, Printed for Richard Tomlins, at the Sun and Bible near Pie-Corner. 1654.] 

(7) An Answer to the Booke called. The Perfect Pharisee under Monkish Holinesse : Wherein is layd open, who 
they are that oppose the Fundamentall Principles of the Doctrine of the Gospel, and the Scripture Practises, which the 
Authors of that Book would cast upon those they call Quaker Sy &c. By one whom the world c^s^ Janus Nay Ur, [4to. 
No printer's name, place, or date.] 

(8) A Further DISCOVERY of that Generation of Men called QVAKERS : By way of Reply to an Answer of 
James Nayler to the Perfect Pharisee, Wherein is more fully layd open their Blasphemies, notorious Equivocations, 
Lyings, wrestings of the Scripture, Raylings, and other detestable Principles and Practises. And the Booke called. 
The Perfect Pharisee, is convincingly cleared from James Nayler' s false Aspersions ; with many difficult Scriptures (by 
him wrested) opened. Published for the building up of the perseverance of the Saints^ till they come to the end of their Paith, 
even the salvation of their soulesr- Gateside^ Printed by S. B. 1 654. [4to.] 

(9) A Discovery of the Man of Sin, acting in A Mystery of Iniquitie^ Pleading for his Kingdom, against the 
Coming of Christ to take away sin. Or, An Answer to a Book set forth by Tho. Weld^ of Gateshead, Richard Prideaux^ 
Sam, Hamondy Will. Cole^ and Will. Durante of Newcastle. By way of Reply to an Answer of James Nayler s to 
their former Book, called. The Perfect Pharisee : Who called themselves Ministers of Christ, but are found ministring 
for the Kingdom of Antichrist. Published for clearing the innocency of the Truth from their malicious slanders, and 
discovering their deceits. By one whom the world calls James Nayler, London^ Printed for Giles Calvert^ at the Blacks 
Spread-Eagle neer the West-end of Pauls, 1654. [4to. This tract was re-printed in 1655 with a slightly different title.] 

(10) The Quaker's House Built upon the Sand, or, A Discovery of the damnablenesse of their pernicious 
• Doctrines. With a Warning to the People of God, and all others that tender the salvation of their immortal soules, to 

build upon the Rotke Christ Jesus, and his Righteousnesse, to confirm the Faith once delivered to the Saints. In 
Answer to a Ray ling Pamphlet, lately put forth by GEORGE WHITEHEAD. This is published for the securing of the 
Saints, keeping others out of the snare, and (if possible) the reducing some of those that have been seduced by their 
Destructive Principles. By the unworthyest of the Labourers in the Lords Vine)rard, and Teacher to a Church of 
Chiisty Samuel Hammond. Gateshead^ Printed by Stephen Bulkley. 1658. [4to.] 

(11) The Quaker's House Built upon the Rock Christ, wherein neither their Doctrines, Principles, nor Practises 
can be confounded, nor disproved ; being neither damnable, nor pemitious. As Samuel Hammond hath falsly affirmed 
in his Book called. The Quaker* s House Built upon the Sand^ &c. [By Richard Hubberthorne. 4to. No printer's name, 
place, or date.] 



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threatening chimney stacks above, all serve to render it the most picturesque 
building on the Gateshead bank of the Tyne. Twenty years ago a tradition of 
good, peace-loving, pure-souled George Fox still clung to the house, and visitors 
were shown the room in which he 
preached. 

I must allow Fox to tell his own 
story of his second visit to New- 
castle — 



*' Leaving Berwick^ we came to 
Morpeth; and so through the Coun- 
try^ visiting Friends ^ to New-castle^ 
where I had been once before : For 
the Newcastle-Priests had written 
many Books against us ; and one 
Ledger^ an Alderman of the Town, 
was very envious against Truth and 
Friends. He and the Priests had 
said ; The Quakers would not come 
into any great TownSj but lived in 
the Fells, like Butterflies. So I took 
Anthony Pearson^ with me, and 
went to this I^edger^ and several 
others of the Aldermen; desiring, 
to have a Meeting amongst them, 
seeing they had written so many 
Books against us : for we were now 
come, I told them, into their great 
Town. But they would not yield 
we should have a Meeting, neither 
would they be spoken withal, save 
only this Ledger, and one other. 
* • • So when we could not have 
a publick Meeting among them, we 
got a little Meeting among Friends 
and friendly People, at the Gate- 
side ; where a Meeting is continued 
to this day, in the Name of Jesus. 
As I was passing away by the 




•5? 



CORRIDOR IN "THE FOUNTAIN." 



• Anthony Pearson was one of the magistrates before whom James Nayler was tried for blasphemy at Appleby 
ii> Januar}% 1653, but acquitted. He appears to have been impressed by some of Nayler's speeches, and when, shortly 
afterwards, whilst at Swarthmoor Hall, he came into contoct with Fox himself, he was fully "convinced." From this 
time he became an active preacher amongst the Friends. He was a man of considerable learning. 



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Market-place^ the Power of the Lord rose in me, to warn them of the Day of the Lord^ 
that was coming upon them. And not long after, all those Priests of Newcastle^ and 
their Profession^ were turned out^ when the King came in." 

Another distinguished Quaker, George Whitehead, visited Newcastle and 
Gateshead in the same year, and tells us how he and his friends were treated. 

" Great Endeavours were used for us to have had some Meetings in Newcastle upon Tine^ 
while I was in those Parts : But the Mayor of the Town (influenced by the Priests) would 
not suffer us to keep any Meeting within the Liberty of the Town ; though in Gateside^ 
(being out of the Mayor's Liberty) our Friends had settled a Meeting at our beloved 
Friend Richard Ubank's House (as I remember his Name was.) The first meeting we 
then endeavoured to have within the Town of Newcastle^ was in a large Room taken on 
Purpose, by some Friends ; William Coatsworth of South- Shields^ with other Friends, 
being zealously concerned for the same. The Meeting was not fully gathered, when the 
Mayor of the Town and his Officers came, and by Force turned us out of the Meeting, 
and not only so, but out of the Town also ; for the Mayor and his Company commanded 
us, and went along with us so fer as the Bridge, over the River Tine^ that parts Newcastle 
and Gateside; upon which Bridge there is a Blew Stone^ to which the Mayor's Liberty only 
extends, when we came to that Stone, the Mayor gave his charge to each of us in these 
Words, viz. I charge and command you^ in the Name of His Highness the Lord Protector, 
That you come no more into Newcastle, to have any more Meetings there^ at your Peril, 
On a First-Day after, we met again within the Liberty of the Town of Newcastle^ without 
Doors, near the River-side, where the Mayor's Officers came again, and haled us away out 
of the Liberty, on the said Bridge as before ; and in Gateside we could enjoy our Meetings 
peaceably, which we were thankful to God for. Being thus forcibly disappointed of 
keeping any Meetings within the Liberty of the Town, some Friend^ or Friends^ agree 
with the Man that kept the Guild-Hall^ (or Shire-House)"— ^Whitehead evidentiy means 
the old Moot-Hall — ** to suffer Friends to have a Meeting therein, it being without the 
Liberty of the Town ; yet tho' the Keeper of the Hall had agreed for the Price, the 

Priest of the Town, who they said was Hammond ^ interposed, to prevent our 

Meeting after it was appointed there, and persuaded the said Keeper to break his Word 
and Bargain made with our Friends; and to keep them out of the House, he had agreed 
they should meet in, the Priest giving him Half a Crown to go back from his Bargain 
(as we had Account given us) for the said Keeper was constrained to show the Cause of 
Breach of his Agreement and Bargain, in keeping us out of Doors. Being thus perfidiously 
disappointed of the House, after the Meeting had been beforehand appointed, and the Time 
prefixed, we were necessitated to keep the Meeting without Doors, on the Side of the Hill 
near the said Shire-House, that being also without the Mayor*s Liberty. ♦ • * We had 
not only a large Meeting of a great Concourse of People besides our own Friends^ but 
'twas also kept quiet, • • • and my Voice was raised to that Degree, that some said 
I was heard from off the Side of the Castle-Hill, over the River Tine^ into Gateside^ 
which ascends opposite to the other." 

. How long the Friends continued to meet in Pipewellgate, we do not know. 
Before the end of 1660 they had become the tenants of a meeting-house in 



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High Street, with an adjoining burying- ground, both the property of the 
Richard Ewbank mentioned by George Whitehead. Indeed, unless we 
suppose Ewbank to have resided in Pipewellgate, it is clear that the Friends 
had removed to High Street before the time of Whitehead's visit. The High 
Street Meeting-house and burying-ground occupied the site, whereon was built 
in 1 73 1 the Alms-house, founded by the will of Thomas Powell.* Intennents 
here are registered from 1660 to 1698, and appear to have numbered in all 
one hundred and one. On the 6th April, 1677, Richard Ewbank was cited in 
the Archdeacon's court at Durham, for inclosing a burial-place for sectaries. 
He died on the 29th March in the following year ; and on the loth November, 
1679, a lease was taken **in the name of Perygryne Tyzeck and others of y* said 
Burying Grounde, of y* said Margret Eubancke," — probably Richard Ewbank's 
daughter — *'for a 9 years, the consideracen for w^ was fifteen poundes.'' 
This was, doubtless, a renewal of a previous lease of equal term, and, if so, the 
first lease dated from the same month in which the first interment took place. 
Amongst the entries of burials at Gateshead, we have the following : — 
1679. Abigail, daughter of John Tizack of Glasshouses and of Sarah, died 12™** 7. 
She was the child of whom an almost illegible memorial stone lies by the 

side of the carriage drive in the Armstrong 

Abigail Tizacke Park. We first meet with record of this stone 

Daughter of lohn ^° the pages of Brand, who saw it at the Glass- 

& Sarah Tizacke houses in a garden which had at one time been 

Deoted this life occupied by Abigail's parents. It does not seem 

V^ 7th dav of V^ 12th ^^ ^^^ necessary to assume that the stone had 

month & in V^ '^^^^ removed from the Gateshead grave-yard, 

7th weack of her age, ^^^ ^^^ simplicity of the epitaph, read in the 

Anno 167Q ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ Quaker faith, rather suggests 

that it was originally placed on the spot where 

[Abigail Tizack's Epitaph.] 

Brand saw it. 

• In a conveyance of this property from the heirs of the survivor of Powell's trustees to the churchwardens and 
overseers of Gateshead, it is described as "all that messuage, burgage or tenement, garden, yard and backside, with the 
appurtenances in Gateshead aforesaid, formerly belonging to Richard Ewbank late of the same place tailor deceased, and 
heretofore in the possession of John Doubleday his undertenants and assigns." 



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In 1682 the members of the society agreed **y* a Contrabution be made and 
brought in against the next Monthly meeting, for ace* of fitting the Meeting 
house to make it more comodious/* In the same year it was ** also agreed y^ 
Ned King owne y* Meeting house in case of any occation/' such **occation** 
being the apprehended enforcement of the Conventicle Act. In 1684 ^^ was 
determined that collections should be made ** for the necessary repair of the 
Chamber over the Meeting house." In 1685 Friends ordered **that a pair of 
stairs be put up ag* next Monthly Meeting to passe into the Women's Meeting 
roome." In March, 1686, the Durham Quarterly Meeting granted ;^5 to the 
Gateshead Friends '* for y*' repairing of their Meeting house." 

It seems that from the first the members of the Gateshead society were 
anxious to have a meeting-house in Newcastle. In 1688 the minutes record 
that, **some of our ffriends belonging to Newcastle having intimated to this 
meeting some prospect they have of a conveniency for a Meeting house near 
Denton Chaire in Newcastle," five members were appointed to **goe to view 
the house and ground there." The result is not recorded ; but, for some reason, 
the project fell through. Two months later it was ** ordered that a bricke wall 
is to be built about the ground about the Meeting house doore in order for 
having it for burying in." Some delay occurred in carrying out this order, 
and, ten months afterwards, ** ffriends of Gateshead Meeting" are *' reminded of 
building the wall about the ground before the Meeting house, fi3r a new burying 
place." 

After the passing of the Act of Toleration, Quakers, as well as other 
nonconformists, procured licenses of their meeting-houses. The license 
granted to the Friends at Gateshead, says '4t is Registered according to an 
Act of Parliam*, * * * That there is a Meeting house for the people of 
God called Quakers in Gateshead nigh the Toll-booth in this County." The 
toll-booth stood precisely opposite the property which is immediately south of 
Poweirs Alms-house. 

In 1694 the minutes record that "friends having in their hearts the service 
of a meeting house in y* Towne of Newcastle," it was agreed "that the 



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consideration thereof be referred to the Quarterly Meeting, for their concur- 
rance and assistance.'* Although the Quarterly Meeting promised its help, 
nothing further was done. In 1696 the lease of the Gateshead meeting-house 
is reported to be **awanting and not known in whose hand it is.*' Diligent 
enquiry was made, but it seems never to have been discovered. On the 13th 
December, 1697, it was agreed **y' a request be made to y* next Quarterly 
meeting for assistance towards building a meeting house in y® town of New- 
castle.'* The response to this appeal amounted to ^53 8s. 6d., contributed by 
eight societies. On the 23rd and 24th December a parcel of ground in Pilgrim 
Street, Newcastle, was conveyed by Robert Gee, Thomas Maxwell, and their 
wives, for the sum of ;^I20, to John Doubleday, William Mitford, and Jeremiah 
Hunter, as trustees for the Society of Friends. On this land the Quakers at once 
proceeded to build a meeting-house. In October, 1698, the question was dis- 
cussed whether the Gateshead meeting-house should be retained, and **it was 
their advice y* it should, and, for y^ incouragement of Goatshead, ffrinds have 
agreed to pay y*' s^ rent out of y^ meetings stock, but refers y^ times of using it 
to y*^ frinds of Goatshead meeting." The last monthly meeting at Gateshead 
was held on the 14th November, and the first at Newcastle on the 12th 
December, 1698. The first interment in the Pilgrim Street burial-ground 
had been made on the 15th of the previous July. After the opening of the 
Newcastle meeting-house, that at Gateshead was kept open rather less than 
a year. At the monthly meeting, held at Sunderland on the 13th November, 
1699,— how near the end of that most eventful century !— '^freinds of Newcastle 
acquainting y^ meeting y* they having thought fitt to Discontinue Goatshead 
meeting house, and their being a years rent due for y*^ s*^ house besides glassing 
y* windows y" meeting directs y" s^ charge to be p^ out of this meetings stock." 
So ends the history of Gateshead Quakerism. 

The records of the Gateshead Quakers commence in 1674. To a consider- 
able extent they consist of notices that certain persons had ** propounded" their 
intention of taking each other in marriage, which, after due enquiry as to their 
** clearness," they are usually *Meft to their freedom to accomplish," according 



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to the rites, of course, of the Quakers. Sometimes a committee is appointed 
to adjust such differences amongst members of the society, as other people 
would have carried into courts of law. When a Friend had been unfortunate 
in his worldly affairs, his co-religionists did everything in their power to assist 
him. Benevolence is a distinguishing characteristic of the Friends, and these 
old records serve to show that this has always been the case. In 1679 a 
collection, amounting to j^i 19s. 6d., is brought from Shields **for redemtion 
of Captives in Turky.*' In 1684 collections are ordered to be made **for the 
reliefe of ffriends in Algier and Dantzacke." At another time certain persons 
are appointed to ** goe and speak w* y* poor man, y*' now in prison in y* Castle 
yard, to agitate somewhat about his liberty.'* In 1691 five shillings are ordered 
to be given ** to Morgan Williams a poore man that came out of Northumber- 
land,'' and in the following year occurs an order **that four shillings per month 
be given to the old woman that came out of Ireland, or more as friends of 
Gateshead meeting shall see meet." Such entries are frequent, and to us, 
after the lapse of two hundred years, are more eloquent than any monumental 
praise of the goodness of these early Tyneside Quakers. 

Nonconformity was a crime punishable by law, and punished beyond the 
limits of law, with one or two brief periods of respite, from the accession of 
Charles II. to the abdication of his brother. Upon no class of dissenters, 
however, did the persecuting spirit of the times fall so heavily as upon the 
Quakers. This was due, in some measure, it is true, to their refusing to pay 
tithes and to take oaths ; but they were often heavily fined, or imprisoned for 
long periods, for no other fault than that of peacefully assembling to worship 
God according to the dictates of their own conscience. The Friends of the 
Gateshead meeting did not escape. In t68i six members of the society were 
fined for meeting for worship, and, in default of payment, their goods were 
distrained to the value of ;^55 6s. 5d. On the 6th April, 1682, whilst Patrick 
Livingstone, of Edinburgh, was preaching, informers entered the meeting-house, 
one of whom struck the preacher ''a sharp blow on the shoulders with a stick.*' 
They then set him *'by force on a horse, but he alighted." Next day they 



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carried him before the magistrates, who sent him to prison for three weeks. 

In October of the same year eight members of the society, all apparently poor 

men, had their goods and wares distrained for their absence from the worship 

of the national church, to the value of ;^4 13s. 2d. On the 13th January, 1684, 

the Friends were assembled in Gateshead for worship, when 

** There came into y® meeting J. Jenkins, Isaac Basire [magistrates], and other officers, 
and asked severall times, What meet ye here for ? And one friend answered. To worship 
God. That's enough, said they. That's enough. And so caused all or y® most of friends 
to be carryed to an Inn, where they tendred y® oath of Allegiance to J. Tisick and J. Allot 
of Newcastle, J. Airy and Math. Allason of Gateshead, who, refusing to swear, were sent 
to Durham Jaile and keept three weeks." 

On the 2nd November in the same year eight members of the Gateshead society, 
three of whom were women, were sent by the same Jenkins and Basire to the 
house of correction, and kept there eleven weeks, for having peacefully assem- 
bled in a religious meeting. They were described in the warrants as ^4dle, 
dissolute persons, gathered in great number, in riotous maner.'** An example 
of the way in which Friends were frequently treated in those days is afforded 
by the following extract, which I take from the records of sufferings preserved 
at Darlington : — 

li^jst gm 1684. John Hedly serv' to Chr. Bickers, Grocer in Gateshead, being in his 
Master's shop, when some officers came to levy for a fine, the [lower part of the] shop 
door being shutt, he took the wooden bar that belonged to the door, and therewith bar'd 
it. Then y« constable leaped over the shop door, and said, Sirrah, do you intend to knock 
me on y® head with the barr ? Severall others of y® officers replied that he offerd no such 
thing, he was onely making y® door fast, which divers can testify, if called. However, y« 
constable haled him away before Justices Bassire and Jenkins, then in Town, who, without 
any more ado, requires him to kneed down on his bare knees, and beg pardon, or else be 
scourged. He replied, he had done them no offence, and so need beg no pardon. Where- 
upon one Justice fastens his hand on one side of his head by his hair, and the other Justice 
on the other side, and so haled him by y« hair of the head up and down y« room, calling 
him dog and whelp, [and saying,] Either sit down on your knees, or else you shall be 
scourged ; which he refusing to do, Justice Jenkins himself stripped him, and ordered an 
officer imediately to whip him through the street to his Masters shop after they had done 
whipping in y*^ Tavern, where the said Justice was : people generally crying out of the 
inhumanity of the fact." 

• It was in this year that the following item of expenditure was entered in the parish book at St. Mary's 

Gateshead : — 

For carrying 26 quakers to Durham £2 17 o 



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In 1686 John Speannan, under-sheriff of the county of Durham, made a 
return of **the Quakers or persons reputed Quakers within the County Palatine 
of Durham convicted as Recusants and prosecuted by Exchequer proces." The 
list contains the names of 323 persons, 17 of whom are at Gateshead, four at 
Jarrow, two at Monkton, one at Heworth, and one at Whickham. 

The Gateshead Quakers, amidst their own troubles, still found time and 
means to help their brethren in other places. In 1675 ** Robert Goekell was 
desired to write to Morpeth for a copy of the mittimus by w^ y* 2 freinds'* — 
one of whom was Anthony Richardson of Holcrome — * Vear cast into prisen, and 
to send it to Thomas Langhome at York or London." Two other friends were 
instructed to **go to councell about Jno Harrison his imprisonment.'' In 1678 
**freinds agreed y^ 4" be disbursed for the use of Barwick freinds," and in the 
same year two members of the society are requested to ^* attend y'' Justises, in 
order to procure liberty for y^ freinds of Emblton, whoe is cast into prison, and 
y' 40^ be disbursed by Christ. Bickers for theire present releife." In 1681 it 
was agreed ** y* a contrabution be made and brought in towards y*' help of such 
freinds as ar prisoners upon truths ace*, and maybe in outward want." In 1685 
it was determined ** that one or two friends from each meeting doe attend the 
Assizes at Durrham to be in a readinesse if there be any occasion wherein they 
may be serviceable to friends and truth."* 

• I cannot take my hand finally from this page without recording my obligations for facilities afforded me at 
Newcastle and Darlington to examine the early records of the Society of Friends in these places. It will ever be a 
pleasure to me to remember the many kind attentions shown me, during my researches, by the custodians of these 
archives. 

A complete history of early Quakerism in the counties of Northumberland and Durham is in every way 
desirable. The materials for such a work are both abundant and deeply interesting. 




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THE CASTLE. 

History. 
The Pons Aelii of the Romans, the Monk- 



^£^>y.^^a^^ Chester of the Saxons, and the New Castle upon 




r^i?:^^ Tyne of the Normans may or may not have 
.^;, ^ : ^ occupied one site. This is an oft- 

ji disputed question upon which 

I do not intend to enter. 

We know, however, 

where the Roman 



bridge was 

planted ; and 

it can scarcely 

be believed 
that the eminence, now 
crowned by the Moot Hall^ ^ 
which frowned down upon 
and commanded that structure whence 
the neighbouring station had its name^ 
would be left unoccupied by the most 
astute military engineers of antiquity. 
Indeed, Roman occupation of this hill is certain. 
When the present County Buildings were erected, 
two altars, besides large quantities of Roman pottery, parts of a fluted pillar, 
and coins of Antoninus Pius, were found; and a well was discovered, which the 
Historian of Northumberland reports to have been constructed in Roman 
masonry. The mound beneath which these discoveries were made we may 
safely believe to have been the chief feature of a Saxon fortress. 




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In 1846, when the foundations were being prepared for the north end of 
the High Level Bridge, a figure of Mercury was found within the ancient 
precincts of the Castle. The attitude of this Aelian messenger of the gods is 
easy and graceful, atoning for much roughness of surface treatment by the 
beauty of its design, and, in all artistic respects, contrasting strikingly with the 

vast majority of Roman sculptures in the mu- ^ ,,_^ 

seums of this country. I borrow Dr. Bruce's 
description of the figure : — ** He has the money 
bag in his right hand, the caduceus in his left ; 
a ram kneels at his feet. In the upper part of 
the stone a cock, the emblem of vigilance, has 
been introduced."* 

We have no knowledge of the extent or 
importance of Monkchester in Saxon times. 
Probably, Hke almost all the religious estab- 
lishments of the North, it suffered from the in- 
vasions of the Danes. In a Life of King Oswin, 
written by a monk of Tynemouth, whose name 
has not been preserved, we have a graphic 
though brief account of its state shortly after 
the Conquest. 

** At a certain time, when that most victorious king William, who, with a strong hand, 
subjected England to the Normans, had returned from Scotland with a valiant army, he 
pitched the tents by the river Tyne, near the place which is now called the New Castle, 
but at one time was named Monkchester. For it indeed happened at that time that the 
river was diverted [from its usual channel], so that it could not be passed over, neither 
did any passage appear by means of the bridge which is now seen. This, therefore, 

* The question of the site of Pons Aelii is discussed by George Bouchier Richardson in a delightful paper 
printed in the fourth quarto volume of the " Archaelogia Aeliana" (pp. 82-101). Though I cannot venture to assent 
to all Mr. Richardson's positions, possibly only because many of his evidences are inaccessible to me, I am yet confident 
that in the main he is right. The figure of Mercury, referred to in the text, is in the Black Gate, where also is an altar 
dedicated to Silvanus which was found beneath the White Friar Tower, and an inscribed stone from Clavering Place, 
all discovered within the site ascribed by Mr. Richardson to Pons Aelii. The altars found in 18 10 are in the Museum 
of British Antiquities at Alnwick Castle, and in Dr. Bruce's truly sumptuous Catalogue of that collection are numbered 
843 and 877. Hodgson's account of the Moot Hall discoveries may be seen in his " History of Northumberland,' 
Part HI., Vol. 2, pp. 173-4), with valuable various readings in " Beauties of England and Wales " (Vol. XH., pp. 36-7) 
and in the " Picture of Newcastle" (18 12, pp. 2, 181). 




Roman Figure of Mercury. 



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42 

was the cause of the necessity that the king made a stay there. The Normans, however, 
who were accustomed to live by rapine, carried off maintenance for themselves and their 
beasts from the neighbouring places. But because of their great multitude the poverty 
of the place did not suffice them. Hearing that at Tynemouth the substance of the 
whole district was stored, they went thither with haste, and pillaged from thence the 
things necessary for food." 

In 1080 the king sent his son Robert Curthose on an expedition against 

Malcolm, which proved unsuccessful. ** Robert, on his return from the same 

journey, founded a castle (castellum) in the vill now called New Castle 

(Novum Castrum); and so the said vill from that time begun to be called New 

Castle, which before was used to be called Monke Chestre." One of the early 

chroniclers, Roger de Hoveden, calls Robert's castrum **a little fort" (muni- 

tiuncula). In the popular sense of the word it was certainly not a castle. The 

earliest works in masonry built in this country in Norman times were of far too 

substantial a character to require rebuilding within a century after their 

original erection. Although it is idle to speculate either as to the site or the 

character of the structure raised by Robert, we are yet safe in assuming that it 

was either a temporary military entrenchment, or a line of ramparts, capable of 

being strengthened and enlarged. Ten years afterwards, if we may believe the 

statements of a rhyming chronicler who wrote about the middle of the fifteenth 

century, the works were advanced by the Conqueror's second son, William 

Rufus. The writer to whom I allude, John Hardyng, gives the following 

account of the purpose for which Rufus raised this fortress and the means by 

which he provided for its cost.* 

IF !^e liupltieti tfie i^etoca^tell bpott %^nty 
Tl^t &com0 to 0aptt0tatttie attti to tiefetttie, 
attti ti\DeU tfierftt: t^e people to encl|?ne 
Wit to\Dne to liuiltie attti \DaUe a0 Ofti appettO, 
!^e gaue t^efm fftounti and goltie ful great to 0penti, 
%o liupltie ft toell attti \oaU it all a&oute, 
SinD fraunc|if0ed t^efm to pape a free rent out^ 

* I print the oft-repeated quotation from Hardyng in my text, in, as nearly as possible, the form and letter in 
which it appears in Grafton's editio princeps of 1543. Mr. John Hodgson Hinde held that the whole passage refers, not 
to the castle, but to the town ; but Mr. Longstaffe is clearly right in laying stress upon the last line of the second 
quoted stanza. I am disposed to say that, as to events in the reign of Rufus, Hardyng's unsupported statements have 
little or no authority ; and, were it not for the luxury of an extract in black letter, I think I should have passed over 
his rhymes in silence. 



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f W^t renter and frutesf to tl&arcptejop perteinpng;, 
attd to tl^e biiti^099tfi of dOl^ncl^edter and &arum, 
and alsfo (;r. abbt^a Ipuelod contepnj^ng:, 
3n $f0 l^ande? ^eajed and l^eld all and dome, 
But for W toor&e0 and bixnH^nnstti l^eld ec^e crome, 
Mit^ \x>W^^ ^^ ntade t^tn Mtatmiinfittv $all, 
and tje casftel of tje iRetoecasftell toftjall, 

f ^fiat 0tadetj on tEpne, tjecin to dtoel fn toarre, 
agapne tl^e &cotte0 tl^e countree to defende, 
OOl^ic^e, ad men dapd, \Da0 to $pm mebfU deer, 
and more plea^png; tl^en ot$er\))|?0e di^pende, 
and mucl^e people for ft did ||?m comende ; 
jfor cau0e lie dpd t|ie commen \oealt]^e 0u0tene, 
jDf marc5er0 tjnnumeralile to majntene* 

In 1095, Rufus besieged the fortress which, according to the chronicle 

just quoted, he had built. The earldom of Northumberland had been granted 

to Robert Mowbray, who originated a rebellion, the object of which was to 

place Stephen de Albemarle on the throne of England. Mowbray was cited 

to the royal court, but did not attend. 

" The said king, therefore, gathered together an army from all England against the 
said Robert, and besieged his castle at the mouth of the river Tyne, in which he took the 
brother of the said Robert. He also conquered the castle of New Castle, where he 
captured all the best soldiers of the said earl. But after these events he besieged the 
castle of Bamburgh, to which the said earl fled, which when the said king had discovered 
to be impregnable, he prepared before it another castle, which he called Malvesin, in 
which leaving a part of the army, he returned to Southumbria. After his departure, the 
guards of New Castle promised the said Robert to receive him if he came secretly. 
Accordingly, that he might do this, he went out from Bamburgh by night with certain 
soldiers, which, being known, the soldiers remaining in the castle of Malvesin on the 
King*s behalf, following him, the said Robert, took him [at the monastery of Tynemouth] 
— he, however, being first seriously wounded whilst he resisted them — and having led 
him to Wyndesores, placed him in prison." 

On William's return Mowbray was carried to the gates of Bamburgh, 
which was still held by his wife and his followers. A message was sent to the 
countess telling her that, unless the castle was at once surrendered, the king 
would cause her husband's eyes to be put out. It need scarcely be added that 
she complied with the king's demand. 



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This narrative is evidence that in the reign of Rufus the castles of New- 
castle and Bamburgh were fortresses of great strength. Mowbray's anxiety to 
re-possess himself of Newcastle shows that it must have been taken from him 
at first by a coup de main^ and neither because its fortifications were broken 
down, nor because its resources were exhausted. Yet at that time no keep 
existed either at Newcastle or Bamburgh. The great tower of Bamburgh 
belongs to the later years of Henry I., and that of Newcastle, as we shall 
hereafter see, to the reign of Henry H.* 

Shortly after the accession of Stephen, David of Scotland, w^ho had sworn 
allegiance to his niece Matilda, the daughter of Henry I., marched southward 
on pretence of a visit of amity to the new English king, and on his way 
took the castles of Carlisle, Wark, Alnwick, Norham, and Newcastle by craft, 
and placed garrisons in them. He intended also to capture Durham, but there 
he was met by Stephen, at the head of a great army. A treaty was made 
between the two kings. Henry, David's son, did homage to Stephen at York, 
and thereupon received a grant of Huntingdon, Carlisle, and Doncaster, with a 
conditional promise of the earldom of Northumberland. Newcastle and the 
three other Northumberland castles taken by David were restored to Stephen. 

Stephen's promise was not fulfilled, and in 1137, whilst the English king 
was in Normandy, David gathered his forces together for the purpose of 
ravaging Northumberland. A large number of English knights and barons, 
attended by a great army, came to Newcastle, prepared to resist the Scottish 
king should he attempt an invasion. A truce was, however, effected till 
Stephen's return. On his arrival in England the ambassadors of David and 
Henry waited upon him with the message that the armistice would be 

* Bamburgh and Newcastle arc associated throughout their Norman history. Bamburgh is the site of a Saxon 
fortress dating from the time of Ida, and was regarded by Waltheof, earl of Northumberland, about the year looo, and 
by his successor, Cospatrick, seventy years later, as the principal fortress within their territory. Both it and Newcastle 
are, amongst many instances, proof that the Normans were too wise to plant their castles in any but the strongest 
position?, which had, in very many cases, been previously chosen by the Saxons, and even by the Romans. 

The earlier well at Newcastle, within the Half Moon Battery, has already been mentioned, and the well at 
Bamburgh abo dates from long before the Conquest. Symeon's Hisloria Regum^ under date 774, describes the Bam- 
burgh of the Saxons, and says " there is on the west and in the highest part of the city a fountain, hollowed out in a 
wonderful way, sweet to the taste and most pure to the sight." 



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withdrawn unless the promised earldom was at once conferred on the king 
of Scotland's son. To this request Stephen turned a deaf ear. 

Thus repulsed, David and his son laid siege to Wark, but, after attempting 
during three weeks to take it by storm, withdrew their forces and ** ravaged 
with fire and sword almost all Northumberland as far as the river Tyne ;'' — 
** as far as Newcastle/' says John of Hexham. Richard of Hexham's descrip- 
tion of the wanton cruelties perpetrated by the Scottish army is intensely 
horrible. When Stephen heard of David's atrocities he marched northwards 
with large forces, but the Scottish king retreated before him to the fastnesses 
which surrounded his own castle of Roxburgh, and there lay in wait, hoping 
to surprise Stephen. For various reasons, however, Stephen did not carry his 
pursuit so far north, but returned to the south of England. His retreat was 
followed by another invasion on the part of David, who ravaged the sea coast 
of Northumberland, and the eastern part of the county of Durham. On his 
return he laid siege to Norham, which capitulated after a feeble resistance. 
Meantime his nephew William had penetrated as far as the West Riding of 
Yorkshire, ravaging monasteries, villages, and towns with barbarous cruelty 
wherever he went. 

Shortly afterwards a sortie from the castle of Wark seized the waggons 
and supplies of David, which were being conveyed beneath their walls. The 
Scottish king thereupon laid siege to that fortress for the third time. He was 
again unsuccessful, and, leaving two of his barons to maintain the blockade, 
he marched forward with an army which received large accessions at various 
places, and, after crossing the Tyne, is said to have numbered 26,000 
men. The battle of the Standard followed, fought two miles north of 
Northallerton, where the army of David was signally vanquished. In the 
meantime the siege of Wark had been maintained, and here the scattered 
forces of the Scottish king re-assembled, and renewed their attack, until the 
inmates, whose stores were exhausted, capitulated at the request of the abbot 
of Rievaulx. The pope's legate was then in England, and at his solicitations, 
seconded by those of the queen, Stephen entered into a treaty of peace with 



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David, whereby **he granted to Henry, son of David, king of Scotland, the 
earldom of Northumberland, v^ith all the lands which he held before, except 
two towns, Newcastle and Bamburgh, and these he retained himself: but for 
these towns he was bound to give him towns of the same value in the south of 
England." 

It is from Richard of Hexham that I quote the record of this grant, whose 
accuracy in this instance there seems to be no reason to doubt. But it is, 
nevertheless, certain that Newcastle and Bamburgh were afterwards possessed 
both by David and by Henry. David's borough laws are dated from New- 
castle, and we have a memorandum of a charter granted by him to the monks 
of Tynemouth after 1138, which was given at Newcastle. We have also two 
charters by earl Henry to the monks of Tynemouth, one of which was given at 
Newcastle in 1147. The other, which was given at Bamburgh, grants them 
freedom from the work of the New Castle, and of other castles in the whole of 
Northumberland. In 11 52 earl Henry died, and David summoned the lords 
of-Northumberland to Newcastle to make submission to his grandson William 
as successor to the earldom. 

Whatever may have been the strength of the fortress erected by the sons 
of the Conqueror, there can be little doubt that it had suffered greatly before 
the accession of Henry II. Indeed, on this monarch's resumption of the 
earldom, one of his chief anxieties seems to have been to repair and improve 
the royal castles. In the exchequer rolls of 11 66 there is a payment of 100 
shillings for the making of a gaol at Newcastle, and in 1 168 £102 is expended 
on the making of the New Castle upon Tyne, whereof the burgesses had con- 
tributed 20 marks as a fine, because they had compelled a knight to swear. In 
1 172, the erection of the keep was commenced, and in the Pipe Rolls we meet 
with payments for its construction extending over six years. The entries are 
usually made in some such form as, ** And on the work of the tower of the 
New Castle upon Tyne;^i58 14s. by the king's brief, and with the oversight 
of Wid. Tisun, Rob. de Develestune, Goscel. Ruffus and Rob. Fitz Eve." 
The following are the totals of the several years : — 



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Year. £ s. d. 

IT72 185 6 O* 

1173 240 5 4 

1174 12 15 10 

1175 186 15 4 

1176 144 IS 4 

1177 141 12 II 

Thus, the keep of the New Castle upon Tyne cost ^911 los. gd. In addition 

to this amount, £^ had been spent in 1173 in furnishing the castle. In 1175, 

20s., apparently a gratuity, was given by the king's brief to the builder of the 

tower, whose name was Maurice. In the following year £^ is. was spent on 

the gaol of the New Castle. t 

The comparatively insignificant expenditure in 1 1 74 is accounted for by 

the events of that and the preceding year. Prince Henry, acting upon the 

advice of evil counsellors, was in rebellion against his father, the king of 

England. One of the prince's allies was the king of Scotland, William the 

Lion. He demanded the earldom of Northumberland from Henry II., and, on 

being refused, invaded England. His army came to Wark, Alnwick, and 

Warkworth. At the latter place they made no stay. 

For the castle was weak, the wall and the trench, 

And Roger Fitz Richard, a valiant knight, 

Had had it in charge, but he could not defend it. 

(Of this Roger Fitz Richard I must certainly tell you : 

Of the New Castle on Tyne he was master and lord). 

So inspired was he with courage and great ire 

He would neither speak to the king of Scotland of peace, nor laugh. 

The Scottish host advanced towards Newcastle, and the Norman chronicler 
whom I quote, describes its approach : 

* Here, and in a few other instances, my figures differ from those given by Mr. Longstaffe, in his most valuable 
paper on " The New Castle upon Tyne." A patient perusal of the Pipe Rolls has, however, enabled me to correct a few 
slight errors into which Mr. Longstaffe fell — errors which have been repeated by all who have since written, if eloquently, 
yet easily on the same subject. I am amongst their number, not in eloquence but in error, and, for the inaccuracy, in 
this matter of the cost of the keep, of my " Guide to the Keep and Great Gate of the Castle of Newcastle upon Tyne," 
I must plead the reputation for painstaking accuracy which Mr. Longstaffe has deservedly gained. 

t Other payments, recorded in the Pipe Rolls, for castle repairs and erections, as well as some chronological data 
of minor interest, I have, to avoid constant interruption of my narrative, included in a note at the end of the present 
chapter. 



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Thither came the king of Scotland with armed men and naked ; 

The hills and the valleys 4read his coming. 

He will before leaving cause them such misfortune 

That he will not leave them outside the castle an ox to their plough. 

But the barons are loyal towards their lord ; 

They would die in honour, rather than suffer shame. 

But their castles they will not surrender though they suffer great damage. 

Well sees the king of Scotland that he will never achieve 
The conquest of the New Castle on Tyne without military engine. 

Withdraw^ing his forces by the advice of his counsellors, he marches to 

Carlisle, then held by Robert de Vaux. Of the siege that followed, the 

chronicler gives us a graphic picture. William's advisers recommend him, 

**if Robert de Vaux will not surrender the stronghold" to **have him cast 

down from the great old tower." The city was to be burnt, the chief wall 

demolished by the steel axes of the Scots, and Vaux himself was to be hung 

upon a high gallows. 

Great was the noise when the combat commenced, 
The swords resound and the steel crashes ; 
Scarcely a hauberk or helmet there remained whole. 

Vaux, however, made brave defence, and William, alarmed by a report of the 
approach of Richard de Lucy, retreated hastily to Roxburgh. 

In the spring of the following year (i 174), William again invaded North- 
umberland. He first attacked Wark, then held by Roger d'Estutevile. The 
siege was unsuccessful, and William drew off his forces. On his way to 
Roxburgh he meets the rebel, Roger de Mowbray, who induces him once more 
to turn his face 

Towards Carlisle the beautiful, the strong garrisoned city, 

to the governor of which he sent messengers, with proposals for capitulation 
which de Vaux indignantly rejected. Instead of attacking Carlisle he went 
forward to Appleby, of which the garrison was too small to make any resistance. 
Both **the castle and the tower" were taken, and left in the charge of William's 
men. He next attacked Brough-under-Stainmore, which, though only gar- 
risoned by six men, offered a brave resistance, but at last was compelled to 
yield. 



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Meantime, Richard de Lucy had urged Henry to return to England, and 
the Bishop of Winchester was sent to inform him of the state of affairs in the 
north. After relating William's proposals at Carlisle, and his success at 
Appleby and Brough, the bishop proceeds, 

Sire, on behalf of Robert de Vaux am I sent here ; 
Neither wine nor wheat can reach him any longer, 
Nor from Richmo/id will he be assisted more ; 
If he has not speedy succour all will be starved. 
Then will Northumberland be wholly devastated, 
Odinel de Umfravile at length disinherited ; 
The New Castle on Tyne will be destroyed, 
And William de Vesci*s lands and fiefe. 

The king promises to be in England within fifteen days. This news is carried 
to Robert de Vaux at Carlisle, and when he 

up there in the tower heard that, 
He was never more rejoiced on any day. 

Before the sun went down William the Lion was once more before the 
gates, demanding ** the city and the tower '' of " beautiful Carlisle.'* De Vaux 
asks for a brief respite, which is granted, and William proceeds to Prudhoe, in 
the hope of surprising its baron. The castle has, however, just been well 
stored, and is amply garrisoned. De Umfravile departs secretly, and gathers a 
small army with which to relieve the besieged. The siege meantime is main- 
tained for three days, and, although those within the castle do not lose ** as 
much as a silver penny," their corn and the produce of their gardens are 
destroyed, and even their apple trees stripped of bark. William soon discovers, 
however, that the siege must be maintained a long time before he can hope for 
any advantage ; so with the fickleness which characterises all his proceedings, 
he goes to Alnwick, whilst his followers disperse through the country, ravaging 
it wherever they go. Meanwhile Umfravile, attended by William d'Estutevile, 
Ranulph de Glanvile, Bernard de Baliol, and William de Vesci, arrives at 
Newcastle with a strong force, and hears of the king of Scotland's where- 
abouts. To Alnwick Umfravile and his companions proceed, and surprise 

F 



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William and his followers. The Scottish king is taken prisoner by Ranulph 
de Glanvile. 

They lead him away gently, whatever anyone may say to you ; 
At the New Castle upon Tyne they take lodging. 

The stay at Newcastle was but for one night, and the following day 
Glanvile and his prisoner proceeded to Richmond. From thence he was taken 
to Northampton, and brought before the king with his legs tied under the 
body of the horse that carried him. 

In 1247, the great gate of the castle, now and for long past known as the 
Black Gate, was built, and cost ;^5i4 15s. iid. 

On the 26th December, **the feast of the blessed Stephen the protomartyr," 
1292, John Baliol, king of Scotland, did homage to Edward I. for his crown 
^* at New Castle, in the hall of the palace of his lord the king, within the castle 
(in aula palatii ipsius domini Regis)." The archbishop of Dublin and the 
bishop of Carlisle, Henry de Lacy earl of Lincoln, and John de Warren earl 
of Surrey, besides a goodly array of the nobility and aristocracy of England, 
were present. The popular belief is that this interesting event took place in 
the great hall of the keep. It has, however, once and again been shown that 
the homage was actually performed in the old Moot Hall, which is styled ** the 
new hall of the king (nova aula Regis)," in the Pipe Roll of 1237, and **the 
great hall of the King (la graunt sale le Roy)," in an inquisition of 1334. 
In a similar document of 1336 **the great hall with the adjoining chamber 
of the lord the king (magna aula cum Camera domini Regis adjacente) '' are 
mentioned. 

In 1334, Roger Mauduyt, then sheriflf of Northumberland, reported to the 
king's council ** that the castle of New Castle on Tyne is so decayed and so 
left to neglect that there is not in all the castle a single house (une soule 
meson) where one can have shelter, nor any gate which can be closed." He 
requests that the council ** will consult to ordain a remedy, seeing the whole 
country is now, as it were, at war." The document I quote is endorsed. 

Before the King, 

Let there be a writ to spend ;^20 from the issues of his bailiwick in the repair 
of the said castle, by supervision and testimony, &c. 



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This grant was, however, totally inadequate to meet the needs of the case, and 
later in the same year, an inquisition was made into the state of the castle. 
The most interesting portions of the jurors' report I here translate. 

The Inquisition taken at Newcastle on Tyne the Monday next before the feast of the 
Nativity of Saint John the Baptist [24th June], the eighth year of the reign of king 
Edward the third after the conquest, before John de Denton, mayor of the said town of 
Newcastle, by the command of Sir John de Hildeley and Sir Ambrose de Neoburgh, 
clerks to our said lord the king, by the oaths. of John Reynald, Gilbert de Oggill, Adam 
Page, Waller de Couyngtre, William de Tympron, Hugh de Coleuill, Roger de Brighton, 
William de Wylom, Robert de Necton, John Potter, John de Aynewik and Allan 
Pulhore. The which jurors say as to the bridge before the gate that the said bridge is 
sufficient, except the covering, which requires a rood and a half of planks, worth to buy, 
20s. Item, nine score of nails, worth 7s. 6d. The carpentry would be 20s. 

Item, as to the Heron pit, they say that it is all decayed and of no value. Item, 
they say that it might be repaired with twenty joists worth, to buy them new, 30s. 
Item, three roods of planks, worth 40s. Item, 400 nails, worth los. Item, the carpentry 
of the Heron pit would be 20s. 

Item, the second gate ought to be repaired anew, and the work of the same would 
cost altogether iocs. 

Item, as to the Exchequer house (mesone del Eschekier), they say that the said 
house is sufficient, except the defect of the roof, and of timber and lead which might be 
repaired for ten marks. 

Item, as to the great hall of the king, they say that it has defect towards the west in 
a window of four leaves, with a gable of timber and seven couples of chevrons, of which 
the timber is carried away, and to buy new would be 20s. Item, the carpentry of the 
same would be 26s. 8d. Item, the irons and nails and ironwork worth 10s. Item, the 
masonry within the said hall might be repaired for 60s. Item, wanting a leaf of another 
window, of which the timber would cost 6d. and the carpentry 6d. Item, the irons and 
the nails i2d. Item, the covering of lead wanting, which amounts to 200 stones of lead 
which are worth to buy iocs. Item, in the two gables two round windows of glass are in 
decay, which are worth to buy new 26s. 8d. Item, the workmanship of the same would be 
26s. 8d. Item, to the east of the said hall wanting the covering of lead and of boards, 
which might be repaired with 200 boards which are worth to buy 26s. 8d. The covering 
to the east might be repaired with 840 stones of lead, which are worth to buy £2$, 
Item, to cover each rood the plumbery would be 6s. 8d. Item, the carpentry of the 200 
boards for the side would be 13s. 4d. Item, the nails to the said work would be 13s. 4d. 

Item, as to the chamber of the king, with the cellar beneath, they might be repaired 
with timber and carpentry for ;^io. Item, the defect of the covering of lead amounts to 
200 stones, which are worth to buy ;^6. Item, the masonry if it ought to be dressed anew 
would be /20. Item, as to the kitchen (qwysine) within the mantle, it is all decayed and 
of no value, and might be made anew for 10 marks. Item, as to the pantry and butlery, 
their defects might be repaired with timber and carpentry for 40s. Item, the covering of 
the same places might be repaired with 100 stones of lead, worth to buy ^3. 



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Item, as to the garners, their defects might be repaired for 20s. 

Item, as to the chapel, it might be repaired of all defects for ;^io. 

Item, as to the great tower, it has defect of plumbery which could not be repaired 
for less than 20 marks. 

Item, to amend the defect of the masonry of the said tower would be 6 marks. 

Item, they say there had been a house above the entrance of the said tower (une 
meson par amount lentre de la dite Tour),* and ought to be made anew, of which the 
timber and the carpentry are worth ;^io. 

Item, all the defects around the castle of the turrets (torelles) and the walls might be 
repaired for ;^ 16 los. 

Then follow statements of the repairs needed in the various houses, within 
the castle precincts, which were maintained by the baronies subject to castle 
ward. The houses of the baronies of Bolbec and Wark required repairs 
estimated at ;^20 each. One fourth of this sum was considered sufficient for 
the house of Baliol, whilst the houses maintained by the baronies of Gosforth 
and Devilstone, of Caugy, Whalton, Heyron, De la Vale, and Bothal might 
each be repaired, or made anew, for 10 marks. 

Here, as conveniently as anywhere, I may remark that in feudal times 
lands were held from the king, on terms which required their owners to furnish 
stated numbers of men for the garrisons of the royal castles. This was called 
castle guard, or castle ward ; and when, in after times, the supply of men was 
commuted to a monetary payment, such payment was called a castle guard rent. 

Item, they say that all the said houses which the king ought to make might be 
sustained at the expense of iocs. 

Item, they say that there are of lead on the day this indenture is made in the castle 
aforesaid 200 stones. 

Item, they say that Sir Roger Mauduyt, whilst he was sheriff, delivered to Sir William 
de Felton 60 stones of lead. 

Item, they say that in the time of divers sheriffs, who have been since the battle of 
Bannockburn, many carts and waggons have been left in the castle aforesaid after the 
departure of the king in the care of the sheriffs, of which carts and waggons not one is 
left. In witness of which the said jurors to this inquisition have put their seals. Given 
at the castle aforesaid, the 6th day of July, in the year aforesaid. 

• Mr. Longslaffe thinks this house is the tower which stands over the stair-way of the fore building, but it seems 
to me that this tower could in no sense be called a house. The most careful consideration has led me to the conviction 
that, except the gateway which it spans, it is a mass of solid masonry, having admirable defensive uses to which I shall 
hereafter refer. * " The house above the entrance" is doubtless the ornate chamber at the head of the entrance stairs, as 
to the supposed ecclesiastical uses of which 1 am extremely sceptical. 



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53 

An equally interesting inquisition was taken two years later ; of the most 
important parts of which the following is a translation : 

Inquisition taken at New Castle upon Tyne Thursday next after the feast of 
Epiphany of the Lord [6th January] in the ninth year of the reign of king Edward the 
third after the conquest before the venerable father lord J. by the grace of God arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, and chancellor of the lord the king, by 
Nicholas de Punchardon, John de Harleston, John de Fandon, Robert de Ryhill, Robert 
de Byker, Robert de Milneburn, Thomas de Throk . . ., John de Wydeslade, John Reynald, 
John Wak, William de Ebor, Allan Pulhore, Thomas de Snape, Thomas de Hextildesham, 
Richard de Ebor, Henry Peynture, jurors. Who say upon their oath that at the time of 
the battle of Bannockburn when John de Caunton, knight, was sheriff of Northumber- 
land, the said castle with all its buildings existed in a good state, after which time Nicholas 
Scot, Adam de Swynburn, William Ryddal, John de Fenwyk, Gilbert de Boroughdon, John 
de Fenwyk, John de Insula de Wodburn, John de Lilleburn, William de Tyndale, Roger 
Mauduyt and Robert Darreynes, now sheriff, were sheriffs of Northumberland, in which 
time the great tower with the turrets of the said castle, the great hall with the adjoining 
chamber of the lord the king, and with divers other chambers within the Queen^s Mantle 
and with the butlery and pantry, the chapel of the lord the king within the castle, a certain 
house outside the gate which is called the Chequer-house (Chokerhouse), with the bridges 
within and without the gates, with the three gates and one postern, are decayed to the 
value of ^300. Item, they say that there remains in the custody of Roger Mauduyt 
now sheriff 420 stones of lead. 

Then come statements that the owners of the several baronies mentioned 
in the previous inquisition are each to build a house. One of these items is of 
especial interest. ** Item, the lord of Wark upon Tweed is to build a house 
over the postern (supra posternum)." Of this house I shall have something to 
say hereafter. 

The inquisition next states the extent of twenty various encroachments 
made by nineteen people upon the castle liberties. They vary from 8 to 40 feet 
in length, and from 4 to 20 feet in breadth. Three of them are especially said 
to be encroachments upon the moat. Fourteen of the encroachments have 
back-doors, and in one case the complaint is only that a certain John de Karliol 
has made a back-door, opening doubtless upon castle territory. 

The concluding portion of the inquisition is slightly defective, but has 
evidently stated the rents which various people were adjudged to pay for land 
which they occupied within the castle liberties. Thus we have, '* From 



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William de Acton for a certain house upon the moat i6d. per annum;" and 
** from the heirs of Nicholas Scot for 2 messuages upon the Castle heugh 
(hogam Castri) 5d."* 

In June, 1342, David Bruce, king of Scotland, returned from France to 
his own kingdom, and proceeded at once to raise a large army with which 
to invade England. He entered Northumberland, ravaging the country 

*' till he came to Newcastle upon Tinc^ which he resolved to besiege, and so sat down 
with all his Forces before it : The captain of the Castle was the Lord John Nevill of 
Hornehy^ a Person of great Conduct and Bravery, who resolving to give the young King 
of Scotland a taste of the English Valour, as soon as might be, commanded 200 Lances 
to make a Sally very early the next Morning. These dashing suddenly with great Fury 
into the Scotch Host, on that Part where the Earl of Murray was (who as they say, was 
chief General for the time, the King himself keeping private) took the Earl himself in 
Bed, drag'd him away naked out of his tent ;t and so having slain several of his Men, 
and wan much Booty, they returned all safe into the Town with great joy, and delivered 
the Earl of Murray Prisoner to Sr. John Nevill their Captain. This Earl was a chief 
Prince of the blood in Scotland^ next of Quality to Prince Robert Stuart and the Earl 
of Southerland; but for Valour and Conduct he yielded to none : Froisard says his 
Arms were Argent, three Oreills gules. The daring enterprise having alarum*d the 
whole Camp, the Scots ran like Madmen to the Barriers of the Town, and began a fierce 
Assault, which they continued a great while with much pertinacy. But they gainM 
little and lost much ; for there were many good men of War within, who defended them- 
selves with much Resolution and Discretion : so that the Scots were at last ftiin to leave 
off their Attack, and the hopes of suddenly revenging their Dishonour in that place. 
Wherefore that bold and lucky attempt of the besieged being thus well back'd by a 
vigorous Defence, was sufficient to persuade King David and his Council, that to dally 
about Newcastle was Dangerous, * ♦ ♦ Whereupon about Noon they decamped and 
entring into the Bishoprick of Durham^ burnt and wasted all before them." 

On the 17th October, 1346, the famed battle of Neville *s Cross was 
fought, when David Bruce was taken prisoner by John de Coupland, who was 
made a knight banneret in recognition of this service. David was kept for 
many years prisoner in the Tower of London, but in 1353 he was removed to 

♦ " Heugh. — A rugged steep hill-side ; a r2i\\i\t.''— HalliwelL A survey of 1540 mentions "a great waist upon 
the Castell-Hugh, sumtime called Old Laurence Acton's Waist," which was "foreanenste a pante in the side afore Swin- 
born's Doore, upon Lork-Burn." 

t The lover of curious information will accept a reference— more than this is not convenient— to Mr. Skeat's 
supplementary volume to the Early English Text Society's edition of "The Vision of Piers Plowman," p. 320, and to 
Plates XIV., XV., and XVI., at the end of the same Society's " Babces Book." 



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the castle of Newcastle, and here he remained till near the end of the follow- 
ing year. He was not liberated, however, till 1357. The price of his ransom 
was 100,000 marks, to be paid by ten yearly instalments. 

In the sheriff of Northumberland's accounts for the year 1356, we have 
an interesting document which throws considerable light on the state of the 
castle at that time. It is a lengthy document, and has not hitherto been given 
in a complete form to the English reader. Its great interest must atone for 
the space it occupies. 

NORTHUMBERLAND. PARTICULARS OF THE ACCOUNT OF THE SHERIFF OF VARIOUS 
COSTS AND EXPENSES INCURRED BY HIM IN THE REPAIR OF THE VARIOUS 
HOUSES WITHIN THE KING'S CASTLE OF NEW CASTLE UPON TYNE. 

Particulars of the account of Alan de Strother, sheriff of Northumberland, of various 
costs and expenses incurred by him in the repair of various houses within the king's 
castle of Newcastle upon Tyne between the 4th day of November in the 3Jst year of his 
reign [1357], and the 6th day of March next following, by the supervision and testimony 
of Robert de Tynden, deputy of Gilbert de Whitley, master and supervisor of the king's 
works in the aforesaid castle. The Prison of the Great-pit. — For the repair of a certain 
prison called the Great-pit, in a certain tower near the second gate, of which the Loft- 
floor suddenly fell by the rotting of the joists, and almost killed those imprisoned within, 
namely, on the 4th day of November in the 31st year of the present king For 5 pieces 
of timber bought of John Wodseller for 5 joists for the repair of the said Loftfloor, the 
price of each i8d., 7s. 6d. Item, for the carriage of the said 5 joists from the Gaolegrip 
[Javell Group] to the Castle lod. Item, for 12 planks bought for the same, the price of 
each 6d., 6s. Item, for 200 spikenails* bought for the same, price lod. per hundred, 2od. 
Item, to William Pratiman and Gilbert Pratyman, carpenters, working during one week, 
each receiving 2s. 6d. per week, 5s. Item, for crooks and bands bought for the trap- 
door, i8d. Item, for 2 great staples and one bar of iron to cross the trap-door, i8d. — 
Total 24s. 

Item, Wednesday next before the feast of Saint Andrew [30th Nov.], certain 
prisoners in the night following broke the said prison per sedem latrinae. And 
on Monday the 4th day of December to John Letwell and William de Castro, masons, 
working and pulling down in the said prison, examining the latrina^ each receiving per 
week 2s. 6d., 5s. To Robert de Wigton, William de Britby, William de Orlyens, and 
John de Lambley, labourers, working at the same on 5 days, each receiving per day 3 Jd., 
5s. lod. Item, for 2 pounds of candles bought because of the obscurity of the prison, 3d. 
—Total IIS. id. 

Item, Monday the nth December to John de Letewell and William de Castro, 
masons, working at the same, each receiving per week as above, ss. To Robert de 

• " Spike-nails. Large long nails ''^HaUiwell. 



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Wigton and his aforesaid 3 fellows, labourers, working at the same, and serving the said 
masons on 6 days, each receiving as above, 7s. For candles bought for the cause 
abovesaid, 2 pounds, 3d. ¥e¥ '^ fmm ef glovou * b o ught fep ^e aforooaid maoono , 44.t 
Item, to Robert Cook for 3 chaldrons of lime, namely, eack chaldron containing 4 
quarters, bought for the repair of the said prison, price per chaldron 2s., 6s. Item, for 
carriage of the said lime from the Lime-Kilns to the castle, namely, one mile, for carrying 
each chaldron 'M. 2d., 04. 6d. Item, for 32 lades of sand from the sandyate to the 
castle, which is one mile, for each 16 lades 6d., I2d. — Total 19s. 9d. 

Monday next before the feast of St. Thomas the apostle [21st Dec] to John Letewell 
and William de Castro, masons, working at the same for the said prison, each receiving 
per week as above, 5s. To Robert de Wigton and his three fellows, labourers, .working 
and serving the masons on 5 days, each receiving as above, 5s. rod. Item, for 2 pounds 
of candles bought for the cause aforesaid, 3d. — Total lis. id. 

The Prison of the Heron pit. — The same Alan*s account for the repair of a certain 
prison called the Heronpit and a certain house over the said prison, near the great gate, 
44 feet in length. To Robert de Wigton, William de Orlyens, William de Britby and 
John de Lambly. labourers, working, digging and cleaning the said prison on 4 days, 
namely, Wednesday in the Circumcision of our Lord [ist Jan.], in the 31st year [of the 
king*s reign], each receiving per day 3|d., 4s. 8d. — Total 4s. 8d. 

Monday next after the feast of the Epiphany of our Lord [6th Jan.] to John de 
Letewell and William de Castro, masons, [working] on the said prison, each receiving 
per week 2s. 6d., 53. To John de Midelham, William Pratiman and Gilbert Pratiman, 
carpenters, working on the said prison, each receiving per week 2s. 6d., 7s. 6d. To 
Robert de Wigton and his three fellows, labourers, working and serving the masons and 
carpenters on six days, each receiving as above, 7s.— Total 19s. 6d. 

For 4 great trees of timber bought for the work of the said prison of John 
Wodseller to make 4 joists for the said prison, 8s. Te John Sawjor [ Sarratoriuo ] ftft4 
Adam Seet- hm feHew, oawyoro , fep sawing ^be ©fti4 timber , ^. Item, for the carriage of 
the said 4 joists from the Gaolegrip to the castle 44^4. 9d. Item, for 34 estlandbordj 
bought for the work of the said prison, price 3d. per piece, 8s. 6d. And for carriage of 
the same from the water to the castle 4d. For 200 spiking|| price lod. per hundreii 
2od. Item, for 100 double-spiking for the trap door, 2od. Item, for 4 stones of 
Spanish iron bought for divers necessary things to be made thereof for the said prison, 
price 1 2d. per stone, 4s. To William de Whitbern, smith, for making of the said iron 2 
double bands, 2 great crooks, 2 great staples, i large staple in the middle of the trap-door, 
and one great bar to cross the trap-door, falling into a lock, made by the said William, 
for working each stone 6d., 2s. Item, for one lock and key bought to fasten the 
trap, 2s. — Total 28s. iid. 

» I know rot how else to render this sentence. The Latin is, "in ij paribus cirotecarum." See Du Cange on 
the words ciroteca and chirotheca. 

t Throughout this document the use of erased type represents corresponding erasures in the original. 
{ That is, East-land boards, explained by Dr. Raine as " Norway timber, in planks or boards." 
I ll The same thing as " spike-nails " above " SPIKING. A large nail." — HalliwiU. 



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Monday next after the feast of Saint Hilary [13 or 14 Jan.] to John de Letewell and 
William de Castro, masons, dressing stone and working upon a certain wall of the founda- 
tion of the said prison, 44 feet in length and 2 feet in height, under the timber of the 
house, being built around the said prison, each receiving per week as above, 5s. To 
John de Mideham, William Pratiman and Gilbert Pratiman, carpenters, working upon 
the timber of the said house, each receiving per week as above, 7s. 6d. To Robert 
Wigton and his three fellows, labourers, working and quarrying stone and serving the 
masons on 5 days, each receiving as above, 5s. lod. — Total t8s. 4d. 

Item, for 2 (large trees) of timber bought of John Wodseller for making sills fsolis)^ in 
length 44 feet, 6s. 8d. Item, to John Sawer and his fellow sawyer, for sawing the said timber, 
2s. Item, for the carriage of the said timber from the Gaolegrip, from the water to the 
Castle, 4^. 6d. Item, for (3 trees) timber bought for the pantries, 46 feet in length, 8s.* 
Item, to the sawyers for sawing the said timber, 2s. Item, for the carriage of the said 
timber to the castle, 444., lod. Item, for S 6 trooo timber bought for 8 large posts and 6 
lesser posts and 4 main beams {lacos), 10 feet in length, ids. Item, to the sawyers for sawing 
the said timber, 2s. Item, for the carriage of the said timber to the castle, 3&. i8d. 
Item, for 4 pieces of timber bought for sills and lintils for 3 doors and 5 windows in the 
said house, 3s. 4d. Item, to the sawyers for sawing the said timber, I2d. Item,. for the 
carriage of the said timber to the castle, 84. 6d. — Total 38s. 4d. 

Monday in the feast of Saint Vincent [22nd Jan.] to John de Letewell and William 
de Castro, masons, working and dressing stone for the foundation of the said prison, each 
receiving per week as above, Ss. To John de Midelham, William Pratiman and Gilbert 
Pratiman, carpenters, working at the same, each receiving per week as above, 7s. 6d. 
To Robert de Wigton and his 3 fellows, labourers, working and serving the masons and 
quarrying stones on 5 days, each receiving as above, ss. lod. — Total i8s. 4d. 

To Robert Koc for 2 chaldrons, namely 8 quarters of lime, bought from him, price per 
chaldron 2s., 4s. And for carriage, 6d. Item, to Andrew le Lymleder for carrying 32 
lades of sand to the castle, T2d. — Total ss. 

Monday next after the feast of the conversion of Saint Paul [2Sth Jan.] to John 
de Medelham and his 2 fellows, carpenters, working at the same, each receiving per week 
as above, 7s. 6d. To John Letewel and William de Castro, masons, working upon the 
Barbican outside the gate, each receiving per week as above, ss. To Robert de Wygton 
and his 3 fellows, labourers, working and serving both the said masons and carpenters, 
and cleaning the steps of the great tower on 5 days, each receiving as above, ss. lod. — 
Total 1 8s. 4d. 

Item, for s (large trees) timber bought of John Wodseller for s joists for the same 
prison-house, in length r4 feet, ids. Itom , to ^be oaw^^cr fe? oamng t^ m^ timber , 3&. 
Item, for the carriage of the said 5 joists to the castle, ^^. i8d. Item, (4 trees) for 
timber bought of the same John for one sidwinere and topwineref 46 feet in length, 

* I take this entry to mean that three pieces of timber, each 46 feet in length, were bought for the requirements 
of the pantries. It is only fair to say that in this I have diflfered from Mr. Longstaflfe, who holds that " pantrecs " 
— whatever they may be — 46 feet in length, were made from the three pieces of timber. The original is, " Itm in (iij 
arbor*) meremio empt* pro les Pantres longitud' xlvj pedu' viij s." 

f " The topwinere is probably the ridgebeam and the sidwinere a beam running lower down. As only one 
sidwinere is named, it may perhaps be inferred that the house had a tee-fall roof." — Longstaffe, We have side-wiversy in 
the sense here ascribed to sidwinere^ in " Best's Farming BooH." 



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6s. 8d. Item, to the sawyers for sawing the said timber, i^. iSd. Item, for carriage to 
the castle, i2d. Item, for 40 spars of fir bought of Thomas de Kelsow, price 6d. each, 20s. 
And for carriage of the said 40 spars from the Keyside to the castle, i2d. — Total 41s. 8d. 

Monday the 5th day of February, to John de Midelham and his 2 fellows, carpenters, 
working and lifting the timber of the said house, each receiving per week as above, 
7s. 6d. To John Letewel and William de Castro, masons, working within the great 
tower, each receiving per week as above, 5s. To Robert de Wygton and his 3 fellows, 
labourers, serving the aforesaid carpenters and masons and quarrying stone on 6 days^ 
each receiving per day as above, 7s. — Total 19s. 6d. 

Monday next before the feast of Saint Valentine [14th Feb.] to John de Medelham 
and his 2 fellows, carpenters, working upon the said house, each receiving per week as 
above, 7s. 6d. To John Letewel and William de Castro, masons, working upon the 
Barbican outside the gate, each receiving per week as above, 5s. To Robert de Wygton 
and his 3 fellows, labourers, working for the aforesaid masons and carpenters on 5^ days, 
receiving each per day as above, 5s. lod. — Total i8s. 4d. 

Item, for 600 lathes bought for roofing the same house over the prison of the 
Hayronpit, price ;^04. i2d. per hundred. 40&. 6s. Item, for 200 thak nails* bought for 
the same house, ^^04. i6d. Item, for 100 double thak nails for the same house, S04. i2d. 
Item, for 1600 stanbredf price e4. 4d. per hundred, g&. 84. Ss. 4d. Item, for 40 estland- 
bord bought for 4 doors and 5 windows, and evesyngbord.J price 3d each, ids. Item, for 
300 shot nail II bought for the aforesaid doors and windows, isd. — Total 25&. 84. 24s. iid. 

Item, for four stones of iron bought to be made into crooks, bands and other 
necessaries, 4s. For the Heyron pit prison house, to William de Whiteburn, smith, for 
making four pairs of bands and four pairs of crooks for the said four doors, and 6 large 
crooks for the balkes, fastened in the wall with lead, and 2 great crooks and 2 bands for 
the gate of the great tower, made from the said iron, for his work, 2s. Item, for 5 pairs 
of bands and crooks bought for the 5 windows of the said house, i8d. Item, for timber 
bought for the "chemeney" within the kitchen of the said house, for the mauntelet,§ 
and other necessaries, 3s. Item, for ten spars of fir bought for the same, price 6d. each, 5s. 
Item, for 100 thaknails bought for the same, M4. 3d. Item, for 300 stralatthesf bought 
for the same, '^. i6d. Item, for 1600 strabrodes** for the femoralft in the kitchen 
within the said house of the Heronpit, at 3d. per hundred, 4s. — Total 40&. 84. 21s. id. 

* Thak-NAILS. The nails or pins used in fastening thatch to the roof of a building. 

t That is, stone brods, "slate pins, generally made of the leg-bones of sheep." — Halliwell. The word is a 
reminiscence of the use of thin flags of stone as roofing material. 

X Eavesing board, the boards of which the eaves were constructed. 

11 We have schot-nails in the Durham Household Book. " Probably short nails." — Greenwell. 

§ " The mauntelct must be understood as the mantel or mantel-tree, the beam to support the chimney, now 
supplanted by a brick arch, and commonly decorated with a projecting mantelpiece." — Longstafft. 

% That is, straw-laths, — the laths to which the straw of a thatched roof wa3 pinned. 

*• ** Strabrods \i,e. Straw-brods]. The wooden pins or stobs used in fastening thatch to the roof of a building." 
— HahiwelL 

ff "Femerel. a kind of turret placed on the roof of a hall, or kitchen, so formed as to allow the smoke to 
escape without admitting the rain from outside." — Halliwell. 



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Monday next before the feast of Saint Peter in Cathedra [22nd Feb.] to John de 
Medelham and William Pratiman, carpenters, working upon the chemenay within the 
kitchen, each receiving in that week 2s. id., 4s. 2d. To Gilbert Pratiman, carpenter, for 
making the said 4 doors and s windows in that week, 2s. id. To William Red . . . . , 
slater, for a roof for the said house, made according to a certain agreement, containing 
2^ roods, at i8s. per rood, both for stone for roofing the said house, and for his work, 45s. 
Item, to Robert de Wigton and his two fellows, labourers, for daubing* the said 
chemeney according to a certain agreement, 5s. Item, for 3 chaldrons of lime, bought 
of John de Brinkelawe, for roofing the said house, at 2s. per chaldron, 6s. Item, for the 
carriage of the said lime, 9d. Item, for carrying 32 lades of sand to the castle for the 
same work, 1 2d.— Total 64s. 

Item, for 42 daubyngstoursf bought for 2 walls within the said house, namely, 
between the kitchen and the prison, and the other between a certain chamber and the 
prison in the same house, 2s. 6d. Item, for 5 kymples of rods bought for the said walls, 
4^4. lod. Item, for 100 thaknails for the said walls, lOd. 4d. To Robert de Wigton 
and his two fellows, labourers, working and daubing the said walls on 6 days, each 
receiving per day as above, Ss. 3d. Item, for 1000 waltelj bought for a certain wall of 
the said house 44 feet in length, 5s. To John fflendhachet, mason, working upon the 
said wall on 4^ days, receiving 4d. per day, i8d. To Richard de Ripington, labourer, 
working and serving the said mason for the same time, receiving 3id. per day, 4#4. i4d. 
— Total 1 6s. 7d. 

Total amount of expenses, ;^2 1 3s. 5d. 

T^^/^»■fc^ ■ft-vw Q f T»f^pn V>r>n ^Vif tf\ TYin Itp cm.iim.vn ax •fim nf^i* i2a Vm* *'Vt.rxit% ^n-nminr^.t. 
*) ■►^^ili^fi aA T^^»->-v O rt rt ■»■»-> /^v^ 4- /-two n'^ni'ln n fr rm i" nf> nnin irn I imvn "nrtT* iJL At\trci nn^i^ ■nr\jkr\rtTir\ r» 

li! TTTtttSTTj XyrX* XLL/IXX, W ^Uli IJ^UL^l U IT yji. UlUf. \jt^ VII.\J nXOTrr ^IMILiXf If U l.\Jl W UU I IT; KSUnSlT 1 UUUl \ X Ilfil 

KA ■r\i%ti i4f>TT Or\A T^-/-fi-v> -ft-m 1 O jr,4-/-^tr\rkn f> inA i^ -r^i-v^i yti-lrt rv-f ■i'w^y> V>/-vii <-»"Uj- ^■P A ^^■»-v-t X?^Ci«1yr\ - 

TtCX* UUl lAU) V J TCT7TT. l.Ll^UX) XUl J >U U LVJU^O rwTTCT ^ IJL*111HJ.U wT 11. xJlX KJyjKlS^U V tTT TTvXCtuI XVll JLU 

horlo , ppioo iS4. fe¥ otono , i^. 84. Te William de Whitoborn , omith , fe? making 
W paw& ef nookirooo ,!! ^ fern of manaoloo , fir»4 3 largo feeke fep ^be otocko , €^ #4. 

^^w r.4-^^/^ Aft Tnfnl Q^n lOd 

In 1400, Henry IV. granted a charter which separated Newcastle from 
Northumberland, and constituted it an independent county ; *^ but as castles 
and boroughs," says Mr. Longstaflfe, ** existing near each other were always 
separate in jurisdiction, the castle of Newcastle, though not excepted in the 
charter, was not affected by it." So it continued to be part of the county 
of Northumberland. 

♦ That is, plastering, 

•f " Dalbyngstours. Stours or pieces of wood, sections of branches of trees, &c., used in forming the frame- 
work of chimneys and partitions of rooms to be covered with plaster of lime or clay." — Greetvw^li, 

X That is, wall-tiles — bricks. 

II The Latin is, " pro x. paribus boyarum." Under boya Du Cange has " torques damnatorum." 



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6o 

Before the close of the fourteenth centuiy the keep had become the 
county gaol, and the use of the king's hall as the assize court had commenced. 
The former was thenceforward called the High Castle, and the latter the Moot 
Hall. 

In 1527, Sir William Lisle, a notorious outlaw of that day, of whose deeds 
and fate an interesting account, drawn from State Paper sources, may be seen 
in Mr. Welford's *^ History of Newcastle and Gateshead'* (Vol. H., pp. 98-1 1 1), 
escaped with his son from the prison in the castle, and, at the same time, 
liberated a number of other prisoners, some of whom were confined for felony, 
and some for murder and treason. For a few months Lisle and his followers 
maintained a lawless career in defiance of ward and warrant, but in 
January, 1528, several of them were apprehended by the agents of the then 
earl of Northumberland at Felton, and tried at a warden court at Alnwick, 
when nine of them were beheaded for march treason and five hanged for 
felony. On the 21st of the same month a party of the earl's servants and 
others attacked another band of Lisle's followers, when two of the ringleaders 
of the latter were slain, and others captured. On Sunday morning, the 26th 
January, as the earl returned from high mass at the parish church of Alnwick, 
Lisle and his son, with William Shaftoe and 18 others, *^in their linen clothes, 
and halters about their necks, kneeling upon their knees, in very humble and 
lowly manner," met him, and surrendered themselves to the king's mercy. 
Lisle, John Ogle, William Shaftoe, and Thomas Fenwick were hanged, 
drawn, and quartered, and their heads and quarters were ^^ set up upon the 
dongeon of the castell of Newcastell and in sondry other eminent and open 
places most apparent to the view and sight of the people to the hye conten- 
tation of all the trewe inhabitants of theis partes, and extreme terror of all 
other semlabel offenders." 

When the town of Newcastle was created a county, the castle, as we 
have already seen, remained part of Northumberland. Within the castle 
precincts the mayor and sheriff of Newcastle had, consequently, no authority. 
By this fact the ends of justice were not infrequently defeated. A malefactor 



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in the town need only escape to the castle to be safe from arrest. This state 
of things, however, was brought to an end by the charter granted to Newcastle, 
in 1589, by queen Elizabeth. Like all regal and legal documents of that and 
subsequent times the charter is tediously verbose, and, although the passage 
relating to the castle is of great interest, I must endeavour at once to translate 
and abridge. 

There is an old and ruinous castle within our town of Newcastle, but in our county of 
Northumberland, outside the liberties of the town, by reason whereof many most wicked 
persons, dwelling there, who would by no means be permitted to evade punishment 
within the town, nevertheless, by fleeing into the castle, do often evade merited punish- 
ments. The mayor and other officers have no authority to arrest or apprehend malefectors 
who in this way flee to the castle or its enclosure, precinct, ambit or circuit. The old 
castle, with its enclosure, circuit, precinct and ambit, have no use save to serve as a prison 
or common gaol for our county of Northumberland, and for a common hall called The 
Mouthall or sessions hall of the same county. We therefore grant to the mayor and 
burgesses full liberty and authority at all times to enter the enclosure of the castle, and 
every house and mansion within the ambit, circuit and precinct thereof (except our gaol 
therein, vulgarly called The Dungeon), and to exercise the same authority in arresting 
and punishing all sorts of evil-doers, and committing them to the gaol of the town, as 
they exercise in the town itself. 

The castle played its part in the Civil Wars. Towards the end of July, 
1644, the earl of Calendar, having taken Hartlepool and Stockton, ** advanced 
to Newcastle^ and endeavoured to possess himself of Gate-side^ and many 
Skirmishes pass'd thereupon between his Forces and those of the Town, but 
at last he made himself master of it [/>., Gateshead], and so blockt up the 
Town on that side.'* At that time, according to the Milbank manuscript, as 
quoted by Bourne, ^^Thc round Tower under the Moot-Hall, towards the Sand- 
Hill, called the Half-Moon, which was the old Castle of Monkchester, was by 
Sir John Marley [mayor and governor] made use of to secure the River and 
Key-side against the Scots, and the other Castle [i.e.j the keep] he put into 
good Repair^ which was very ruinous : On the former he laid great Guns 
for the Use above-mentioned ; and on the latter he laid great Ordnance^ 
to beat off those Guns which the Scots had laid upon the Banks of Gateshead 
against the Town. And this he managed bravely for a long time'' On the 



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loth August, general Leven arrived at the Tyne, crossing which he drew up 
his forces on the north of Newcastle, and at once commenced the erection of 
batteries, and the planting of mines beneath the walls. Several weeks were 
occupied in making various proposals to the mayor, Sir John Marley, who was 
also governor, for the surrender of the town. These not being accepted, the 
siege was vigorously commenced on the 19th October. The mines were 
sprung, breaches were made in the walls, and in a few hours the Scots were in 
possession of the town. The mayor, and four hundred other persons, besides 
women and children, ** took the Castle for a sanctuarie," and ** quickly pulled 
downe the red flag on the Castle tope, and set up the whyte flag of peace.'* 
On Monday, the 21st, Marley addressed a submissive appeal to general Leven, 
praying that he and those with him might have permission to go ^* to his 
Majesties next Garrison, which is not beleaguered, with our Horses, Pistolls, 
and Swords.'' On the following Wednesday the castle was surrendered, and 
** three score twelve Officers, Ingeniers, and prime Souldiers " were taken 
prisoners and *^ incarcerat within the Towne." Marley was conveyed to his 
house by a strong guard, ^* to defend him from the fury of the incensed people," 
but the day after he was returned ** unto a Dungeon trance within the Castle : 
Where now," says a republican writer of the period, ** that presumptuous 
Govemour remaineth, till the Hangman salute his neck with a blow of Straffbrds 
courtesie." He was afterwards sent up to the parliament, but whilst on the way 
found means to escape, and succeeded in getting out of the country. He 
remained abroad till the restoration of Charles H., towards the accomplishment 
whereof he was in some way instrumental. 

During the two following centuries the history of the castle is little more 
than a record of lease and release, varied by occasional Htigation. 

In the summer of 1778, Brand, the historian, examined the castle, and 
was surprised to find on the top of the keep *^ a little artificial garden, produc- 
ing apple-trees, rose-bushes, &c." Here a modest type of horticulture 
flourished for many years after this period, and the tenant used facetiously to 
describe the interior of the castle, which was then roofless, as a large pit in 



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63 

the middle of his garden. In Brand's day the chamber at the head of the 

fore-building was a currier's shop. The chapel, and, except during assize, the 

guard room also, were the cellars of John Fife, innkeeper, who occupied the 

adjoining "Three Bulls' Heads." 

In the Newcastle Courant oi 14th September, 1782, Mr. Turner, then the 
lessee of the castle, inserted the following advertisement: 

A WIND MILL in the Center of the Town of 

Newcaftle. 

To be LET, 

THE Old Caftle in the Caftle Garth, upon 
which with the grenteft convenience and advantage 
may be erected a Wind Mill for the purpose of grinding 
Corn and Bolting Flour, or making Oil, &c. There is an 
exceeding good Spring of Water within the Caftle, which 
renden it a very valuable fituadon for a Brewery, or any 
Manufactory that requires a conftant supply of water. The 
proprietor upon proper terms, will be at a confiderable 
part of the expence. £nquire of Mr Fryer, in Weftgate- 
ftreet, Newcaftle. 

In 1787, John Howard, the philanthropist, visited Newcastle. He tells us 
that ** during the assizes at Newcastle, the county prisoners are, men and 
women, confined together seven or eight nights, in a dirty damp dungeon, six 
steps in the old castle, which, having no roof, in wet seasons the water is some 
inches deep. The felons are chained to rings in the wall.'* On the Assize 
Sunday it was the practice to exhibit the prisoners to the public, ** and the 
vulgar and curious paid sixpence each for admission '' to the sight. 

When the nineteenth century dawned the castle had reached its darkest 
days of desolation. The keep, which still rose proudly above its squalid 
surroundings, was roofless and untenanted, except by bats. The Guard Room 
was still an occasional gaol. Most of the outer walls had been destroyed, and 
the Garth, which had *^many hundreds of inhabitants,'' was literally crowded 
with shops, tenements, and taverns. On Saturdays booths were erected on the 
open space before the Moot Hall. The shops were chiefly occupied by dealers 
in old clothes. Foremost in rank amongst the taverns was the " Three Bulls' 
Heads," built against the walls of the keep. ** There is," says Bourne, **an 
House in the Yard, where they say was the Chapel of the Garrison, which is 
called the Chapel-house to this Day ; it stands North-east from the Chapel 



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[within the keep] ; its common Name now is the three Bulls Heads!' This 
quotation, interesting as it is, may give rise to mistake if not followed by some 
word of explanation. The castle, in its best days, had two chapels, one within 
and another without the keep. The site of the latter, if tradition may be 
trusted, was occupied by the ** Three Bulls' Heads,'' whilst the former was 
utilized for cellarage to the same tavern. Another tavern within the castle 
liberties was the ** Two Bulls' Heads," which was entered by a passage through 
the vaulted chamber on the south side of the Black Gate.* 

In 1810, the keep became, by purchase, the property of the Corporation of 
Newcastle, and a better day dawned upon it. Considerable repairs were eflfected, 
principally by the energy of Alderman Forster. A new floor was supplied to 
the great hall, resting upon a pillar and arches, built at the same time. A 
vaulted brick roof was constructed, and the parapet and corner turrets were 
added. A freeman was appointed ** warder of the castle," with a salary of 
;^I2 a year, besides coal, rent free residence in the great hall, and the fees of 
visitors. The room beneath his spacious domicile was used as a day-school. 

A course of lectures on ** Castellated Architecture," delivered to the 
Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society, in March, 1847, by Dr. Bruce, 
had the effect of drawing considerable public attention to the old keep. 
Shortly afterwards its complete restoration was undertaken by the Society of 
Antiquaries, helped by a grant of £2y:> from the Corporation. The chapel, 
the warder's room, the main doorway, the windows, and other portions, were 
restored under the direction of the late John Dobson. On the 3rd August, 
1848, the completion of the repairs was celebrated, and the commencement 
of the Antiquaries' tenancy inaugurated by a grand banquet, given in the 

• One bull's head is not an uncommon tavern sign, but two or three,^ except in Newcastle, are very unusual. I 
imagine that the " Three Bulls* Heads" of the Castle Garth bore originally the arms of Alexander Stephenson, the first 
lessee of the castle precincts, which are, on a bend three leopards' faces. The " many cobblers," who, M. Jorevin de 
Rocheford tells us, then dwelt here, were certainly not learned in heraldry, and may easily have mistaken the artist's 
representation of the faces of leopards — animals they did not know— for the faces of bulls — animals with which they 
were well acquainted. " Three Bulls* Heads" would, consequently, be their description of the sign, and we all know the 
adhesiveness of a popular designation. The " Two Bulls* Heads,** formerly calledt he " Half Moon," had adopted the 
closest possible approximation to its more important neighbour's name ; and taverns in other parts of the town have 
copied the one name or the other, just as we sometimes find a modem inn styled " The Salutation." 



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great hall. The duke of Northumberland presided, and his pipers cheered the 
company with "Chevy Chase/* "Canny Newcassel/' " Felton Lonnin/* the 
"Keel Row/' and other airs which always appeal to the heart of a true 
Northumbrian. 

Forty years have passed since that festive evening, and, in the meantime, 
the Society of Antiquaries has pursued the even tenor of its way, regularly 
paying to the Corporation its rent of half-a-crown a year for the tenancy of the 
keep, publishing its valuable transactions, and preserving from destruction many 
objects of antiquity, from the stone implements and food vessels of the ancient 
Britons, and the altars and inscriptions of the all-conquering Romans, to the 
tinder-boxes and spinning-wheels of our own grandmothers. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Description of the parts of the castle which no longer exist is not easy ; 
but, at the outset, T avail myself of two invaluable helps. The first of these 
is an engraving of a model of the castle, made by my friend John Ventress. 
The construction of this model occupied many months of devoted labour ; and 
though some portions are necessarily conjectural, others are authenticated by 
patient measurement and repeated examination, made at a time when local 
operations rendered parts of the outer buildings and foundations accessible, 
which a younger generation has never seen. 

Our second help is a slightly altered copy of the plan prepared by Mr. 
LongstafFe to illustrate his paper on the castle, to which I have already fre- 
quently referred. This plan I have indexed with Roman letters. As my 
description proceeds, the occurrence, within parentheses, of the same letters 
will guide my readers to the portions of the plan which the structures of which 
T shall speak occupy.* 

Immediately in front of the Black Gate, and stretching towards the east 

• I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. Ventress and to Mr. LongstafiPe: to the former for permission to 
have a bird's eye view of his model engraved ; and to the latter for liberty to adopt such features of his plan as my 
description renders needful. 



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end of the street now known as the Back Row,* was the barbican (a), an 
important feature in the defence of the gateway. A barbican usually consisted 
of two walls, enclosing the roadway which led to the principal gate. Generally 
such walls terminated outwardly in small towers, between which was an arched 
gateway, and this was probably the arrangement here. Within the barbican 
was a draw-bridge (b) over a moat or pit. The site of the barbican, after 
its destruction, was occupied by quaint old houses and shops, similar to 







Model of the Casti.e. 



those we now see within the gate. These remained until the approach to the 
High Level Bridge was made. Their appearance in the early part of this 
century is shown in one of the plates in Scott's ** Border Antiquities.'' 

We now come to the gate itself (c), a gloomy portal truly. We have no 
difficulty in accounting for its name. Seventy-five years ago it was described 
as a ^^dark, narrow, and dangerous passage," though till that time it was the 
road by which the judges passed to and from the Moot Hall. In general plan 
the'gate resembles two semi-circular bastions, with a covered archway between 

• The Back Row was anciently called Gallow Gate. ** The prisoners to be executed from the county prison in 
the castle," says Brand, " are brought along it in their way to the gallows, erected for such executions without the West- 
Gate." A survey of 1540 mentions " Gallow-Gate foreanenst Castle- Yate." 



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Ph':t Dliikilprbd k Tt)ttt4 bf -^iwt AJKf>Hb,tii.QxM»tt £40*14,% C 



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67 

them, which formerly contained both a portcullis and a gate. There are 
vaulted chambers on each side of the gateway. The arrangement of the 
vaulting ribs, especially in the chamber on the south (d), is extremely peculiar. 
Four ribs span the chamber from side to side, but two additional ribs spring 
from one of the corbels, and cross the chamber diagonally. Five of the 
corbels on which the ribs rest are circular, and two are octagonal. One has 
been destroyed. The chamber on the north side (e) is entered through a 




Plan of the Castle. 

small passage, the top of which is vaulted. The vaulting of the chamber itself 
rests on three ribs, which radiate from one huge corbel on the inner side, and 
die into the opposite wall. Both chambers have arrow loops, the sills of which 
descend rapidly to the outer face of the wall, showing that they were intended 
as a means of attacking enemies who might have planted themselves in the sur- 
rounding moat. Alexander Stephenson (of whom more presently), according to 
the Millbank MS., *' began to build [upon] the Castle-Gate, but it was finished by 



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yohn Pickle^ who made it in the Fashion it is now, and kept a tavern in it ; 
and then one Jordan^ a Scotsman and Sword-Kipper^ built the House on the 
South-side of the Gate, and lived in it ; and Thomas Reed^ a Scotch Pedlar, 
took a Shop in the North-side of the Gate.'' The west front is the work of 
Stephenson, who brought even the archway further forward.* On the 12th 
January, 1739, the east wall of the gate fell, '*and although several shops 
adjoined the same, none of the occupiers were injured." There are four floors 
above the gateway. Till 1883 these were occupied as tenements. In that and 
the following year the whole building was restored by the Newcastle 
Society of Antiquaries, and the three principal rooms now form their museum. 
After passing the gateway the road turns abruptly to the right, and on the 
same side we have the site of the Heron Pit (f), one of the prisons of the 
castle. We learn from the sheriflPs accounts for 1356 that the Heron Pit was 
44 feet in length and 14 feet in breadth, and that over it was a house, occupied 
doubtless by the gaoler. This house had four doors and five windows. It 
would seem that part of it, as well as the pit beneath, was used as a 
prison, for we have reference made to the walls '* between the kitchen and the 
prison," and ** between a certain chamber and the prison in the same house." 
This house over the Heron Pit was built against the inner face of the wall which 
ran from the Black Gate to the Second Gate (i). Much of this wall still 
remains, and possesses some features of great interest. Chief of these is a 
pointed doorway, now unfortunately covered up, with bolt holes on the inside. 
Behind it is a room. Mr. Longstafie conjectures that this doorway, which 
opened into the castle moat, was intended as a dernier resort^ or secret means 
of escape. Immediately over this doorway is another, but circular headed, 
which, taking two abrupt turns, passes through the wall, and was possibly 
designed to defend the opening below. This higher doorway is walled up 
externally, but may be entered on the inner side through the second shop from 
the Black Gate. 

* The commencement of the original arch, about three feet from the present front, may be clearly discerned from 
beneath. 



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69 

On the opposite side of the road was a square tower, beneath which was 
another prison, called the Great Pit (g). These prisons were terribly dreary 
places, dark, damp, and noisome. They were in fact cellars, without any 
means of ingress or egress except through the trap door in the floor above. 

Between the Heron Pit and the Great Pit was a second drawbridge (h), 
and immediately beyond it the Second Gate (i), with a portcullis. 

The house over the Heron Pit and the tower over the Great Pit have 
disappeared, and for two centuries and a half their sites have been occupied by 
^ the old shops and houses which we now know as the Castle Garth. 

The old word garth simply means yard^ and until quite recently the Castle 
Garth was popularly understood to include the whole of the castle precincts. 
When the town of Newcastle was created an independent county by Henry 
IV., the castle and its liberties were not affected by the grant, but, as we have 
seen, remained in the county of Northumberland. Elizabeth's charter gave 
the mayor of Newcastle and his oflScers no jurisdiction within the castle 
liberties, except to pursue and arrest persons who had committed offences in 
the town. In the meantime the bye-laws of the various trade guilds of New- 
castle either totally prohibited '* strangers and foreigners'' from following their 
various crafts in the town, or imposed large fines for small privileges. When, 
therefore, in 1619, Alexander Stephenson, ''a Scottish man, who came in with 
King y^ames^'' obtained a lease of the castle precincts, except the keep and the 
Moot Hall, the open spaces within the walls were rapidly built upon, and the 
Garth became a busy place of trade. The occupants were people who could 
claim no civic privileges in the town itself, but neither were they subject to 
any of the town's restrictions. They were indeed as completely free from the 
jurisdiction of the mayor and burgesses of Newcastle as they would have been 
had they lived in the Orkney Isles. The Corporation in those days was zealous 
to preserve the privileges of the incorporated companies, and for this end 
sought many times, though in vain, to become the lessees of the Garth. From 
1652 to 1662, and again from 1701 to 1736, they were indeed the tenants, 
having, in the former case, purchased the remainder of Stephenson's lease, and, 
in the latter, entered under a reversionary lease granted them by James II. 



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In addition to this lease they also procured from James letters patent, taking 
the castle and its liberties out of Northumberland, and making them part of 
Newcastle; but in 1690 the earl of Macclesfield instituted a process at law 
to set aside the late king's act, and, although the Corporation contested the 
suit, he was successful. The Corporation stands charged, at this time, with 
vexing the tenants of the Garth with frivolous suits, breaking open their houses, 
seizing their goods, and prohibiting them following their several trades. 

In 1768 the Castle Garth was united to the parish of St. Nicholas, but the 
power of the trade companies was then rapidly declining, and the importance 
of the Garth as a refuge was passing away. The persecution to which the 
inhabitants were at one time subjected, and the privileges they enjoyed, despite 
the nearness of their adversaries, led to the establishment of a custom, which, 
even sixty years ago, was not extinct. ** Every stranger, immediately after 
opening a shop, is invited to a general meeting of all the dealers and chapmen 
within the precincts and liberties of the castle, at a public house. Each indi- 
vidual pays sixpence, and the evening is spent in promoting good fellowship." 

We must now proceed with our survey of the castle. We reach the head 
of the Dog Loup — ^now modernised to Dog Leap — Stairs. Here sto^ one of 
the castle gates — the east postern (k). Passing beneath the railway arch we 
find ourselves in front of the modern ** Three Bulls' Heads," a house to which 
the name of the old tavern was given when the latter was taken down. We 
now arrive at the gates of the Moot Hall. This building and its yard occupy 
the sites of the ancient Moot Hall (l), the King's Chamber (m), and the Half 
Moon Battery (n). The old Moot Hall, as we have seen, is described in the reign 
of Edward III. as **the New Hall of the king," and the adjoining room, used 
till 1810 as the grand jury room, was *'the King's Chamber, with the cellar 
beneath." Standing on the steps of the modem hall we may feel assured that 
we are within a few yards of the spot where our first Edward received the 
homage of John Baliol of Scotland. The general plan of the old Moot Hall, 
of which the only existing representation is given in that valuable repository of 
local history, Richardson's ** Table Book " (Vol. III., p. 90), was at right angles 
to that of the present building. 



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If now we pass round the east end of the new courts, and step down to 
the south-east corner of the yard, we are on the site of the Half Moon Battery, 
and before one word be said of this structure, the marvellous strength of the 
position, commanding the Sandhill, the bridge, and the opposite bank of the 
river, must be observed. Here it was that Sir John Marley planted guns to 
defend the river and bridge from the earl of Calendar, whose forces were 
drawn up on the Windmill Hills. This battery, or tower as it is sometimes 
called, w^as surrounded by a curtain or outer wall, styled in ancient documents 
the ** Queen's Mantle," within which were the kitchen, the butlery, and the 
pantry connected with the king's palace. 

Leaving the Moot Hall^ and descending a few steps of the Castle Stairs, 
__^ we reach one of the most interesting remnants of the fortress. 

This is the South Postern (o), possibly a part of the 
works of Robert Curthose, but almost certainly the 
oldest remaining fragment of the 
^ castle buildings. The pas- 
"^"^^ -% sage, which we must regard 
'" Q.. ,^ as passing through the 




basement of a tower, 
is barrel-vaulted, and 

ffS ^'^i'JWk- l^Si ^^^^-^^^^^^tIK BT has been closed at its 

tP ]m^^^» "^SifiSr '^^ '- ^£ll*' ^ It . outer face by a door, 

of which the bolt 
holes and one of the 
hinge staples remain. 
The basement of the 
tower consists of two distinct portions, which join at the point where the 
passage through them slightly changes its direction. The masonry of the 
two parts differs considerably. To me the suggestion is that the tower above 
has been an addition, to receive which the basement has been extended on the 
inner side. The doorway of the postern opens on its outer side into a lofty 



The South Postern. 



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arched recess, which is flanked by buttresses, and the arch of which is formed 

of two courses of voussoirs. A few feet above the arch there is a cross-loop 

in the wall. A little to the east is a slightly taller arch, constructed in 

precisely the same way, but without any recess. It was probably over this 

postern that the lord of the barony of Wark was required in 1336 to build a 

house. (See page 53.) Here, at all events, in later times the county gaoler 

had his residence, and, till near the close of last century, part of his house 

was used as an occasional gaol. Mackenzie mentions that Thomas Watson, 

who was executed for murder in 1790, was the last felon confined here. 

A little to the west of the postern we still find a considerable portion of 

the old outer wall of the castle,* nmning parallel with an ancient thoroughfare, 

now partially blocked, which bears the name of ^* Sheep's Head Alley.'' Still 

pursuing the same direction, and just before reaching the east side of the High 

Level Bridge, we find a fragment of one of the wall towers (p), of which the 

greater part has been destroyed. From this point the wall took an irregular 

course to the next tower (q), of which no stone is left. Thence it ran almost 

due north to the Bailey Gate (s), from which the opposite thoroughfare, now 

being removed, had its name. This gate, of which a delightful lithographed 

view illustrates Mr. Longstaffe's oft quoted paper, was built, it would appear 

from the Pipe Rolls, in 1178. Before the erection of the Black Gate it was 

the principal entrance to the castle, but afterwards it came to be regarded as a 

mere postern. A paragraph from Gray may here be read with interest. 

In the South Weft of the Town is the JVhite-Fryers^ and 
neer that a ftreet called Bayliffe-Gate which in former 
times belonged unto the Caftle and County of Northuni'' 
berland : there is a Poftern Gate, where Prifoners taken in 
time of Hoftility with Scotland^ (and Felons of the Coun- 
ty of Northumberland) were brought in privately into the 
Caftle in Newcaftle, where the common Gaile for the 
County is. 

* There has been considerable confusion in the use of the words inner and outer in describing the castle walls. 
Mr. Longstaffe adopts the usage of the surveys of 1620 and 1649, and designates the boundary wall "the outer wall of 
the castle." But this wall formed no part of the fortification, and, for this reason, I have described the fortified enceinte 
as the outer wall. The space enclosed within this wall 1 have estimated on the next page. The boundary wall, how- 
ever, enclosed three and a quarter acres. 



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From the Bailey Gate the wall continued to another tower (t), and from thence 
to the east end of the wall behind the Heron Pit. 

The outer wall of the castle was surrounded by a moat, which appears to 
have been made in the reign of John. When the Black Gate was added, the 
moat was carried round it also. 

The wall, the course of which we have now surveyed, enclosed a space of 
about two acres. This area was divided into two wards or baileys, an inner and 
an outer, by a cross-wall, which, leaving the outer wall just south of the Bailey 
Gate, passed a short distance on the south side of the keep, and is believed to 
have abutted on the old Moot Hall at its south-west comer. 

We now come to what has ever been, since the days of Henry H., the chief 
feature of this fortress — ^the keep (r). The description I am about to attempt 
of this part of the castle will perhaps be read with greater interest if preceded 
by some account of the purpose for which such structures were erected, and 
the nature of the defence they aflforded. On these subjects my readers shall 
have the words of the greatest living authority on English military architecture, 
Mr. George T. Clark. 

"In considering the limited and very inconvenient accommodation afforded by a 
Norman keep, it should be remembered that it was not meant for a residence, save 
during an actual siege, and that at such times it often only received the baron's armed 
tenants [or the king's chosen retainers], and not his mercenaries. Indeed, the builders 
of some of these keeps seem to have mistrusted their own troops as much as they feared 
those of the enemy. The staircases and galleries are often contrived quite as much to 
check free communication between the several parts of the building as between the inside 
and the outside. Further, the excessive jealousy in guarding the entrance, the multiplied 
doors, the steep and winding staircases, the sharp turns in the passages, although they 
helped to keep out an enemy, or, if he got in, placed him at a disadvantage, also rendered 
impracticable the rapid re-entry of the garrison, so that if the court or outer ward were 
taken by assault, the defenders had scant time to retire into the keep, which was thus liable 
to a coup de main. Otherwise, with a sufficient and faithful garrison, and ample provision 
and military stores, a Norman rectangular keep was almost impregnable, so great was its 
passive strength. Its windows were too small or too high for their shutters to be reached 
by fire-balls, and its walls were too thick to be breached or mined, if properly defended 
from the summit. This, indeed, was the true method of defence. An ordinary loop in 
a thick wall, however widely splayed, admitted of but little scope for an archer, or space 
to draw his bow. The lower loops were entirely for air, not for defence. Higher up, 

H 



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74 

with larger windows, a bow could be used with advantage, but there were no flanking 
defences, for the angles had no considerable projection, and the shoulders, or lateral faces 
of the pilasters, were not pierced. With military engines for throwing heavy stones and 
masses of rock from the roof much might have been effected, but in the early keeps this 
was not contemplated, and probably not to any great extent in the later ones. An 
arrow shot from a battlement 50 feet or 70 feet high would lose some of its force in the 
descent. ♦ • • fhe attack by sap was the only one to be employed against a 
rectangular keep, and was rarely practicable. Where, as was often the case, the keep 
stood upon a rock, the running a mine below it [before the days of gunpowder] would 
produce no effect. Where this was not the case, the foundations of the wall were so 
broad and so solidified as to stand even when much of the soil beneath them was removed. 
• * * The defence of such a keep was its passive strength alone. The loops were 
nothing in its defence; the roof being on a slope and of shingle would support no military 
engine and no great store of stones or heavy missiles. The narrow doorway <Hd not 
allow of a sally in force, and when seriously attacked the garrison had no resource but to 
trust to the thickness of their walls, their ample supply of water, their magazines of 
provisions, and thus patiently to await relief." 

" The governing principle in a Norman keep was to oppose passive resistance to all 
attacks. It was not meant to be regularly inhabited. It was a refuge during a siege ; a 
last resource when the outer works were carried. All the spare space was needed for 
stores, and there was but little provision for comfort, and none at all for luxury. There 
are no flanking defences, indeed it may be said no active defences at all. The great 
thickness of the wall prevented the proper handling of either long or cross bow [at the 
loops and windows], and the range, laterally, was very limited, neither could the archer 
reach those who stood at the foot of the wall, and might be engaged in mining it. Nor 
could much be done in the way of casting down missiles from the battlements. The 
original roofs were high pitched and covered with shingles, and concealed by high 
parapets. They afforded no footing for machines, and no storage for missiles. The walls 
defied the most powerful ram, and no engine could throw a missile of any great weight to 
the summit. The doors were of oak or iron, and even if broken down or burned the 
passages within were so narrow and so full of sharp turns that a handful of resolute men 
could defy an army. The enormous breadth of the foundations, sometimes as much as 
30 ft., defied the miner's art, and the provisions and stores were usually enough to 
support a garrison for an indefinite time. It was by treason and fraud rather than by 
force, * arte * rather than * marte,* by knavery rather than by bravery, that such keeps 
were usually taken, and it is little to be wondered at that such places, garrisoned by 
mercenaries, men without truth Or ruth, should be regarded with horror by the peasantry, 
no less than by the burghers and burgesses of the adjacent towns." 

The keep of the castle of Newcastle is rectangular in plan, but is not 
quite square. Above the pHnth it measures from north to south 63^ feet, and 
from east to west 74 feet. Its walls are of enormous thickness, measuring, above 
the plinth and between the pilasters, I4f feet on the west side, and 16^ feet on 



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75 

the south. Near the top the walls are from I2f feet to 13! feet in thickness. 
To the roof the keep is 82 feet high, and 107 feet to the top of the flagstaff turret. 
Externally the walls recede by three set-offs. Internally they recede by 
shelves at the levels of the first and second floors. The base is surrounded by 
a bold plinth. A few inches above this is a cordon, which runs round the 
whole building. Three of the comers are covered by broad pilasters, which 
meet at the angles, and ascend to the top of the keep. These pilasters would 
originally ascend above the parapet, and form the external face of comer 
turrets, as they still do at Dover. On the middle of each side there is an 
intermediate pilaster, very narrow on the north and south, but broad on the 
east and west sides. The middle pilaster on the east side is pierced by one of 
the principal windows. That on the west covers the shafts of the garde- 
robes, and has at its basement a circular headed doorway, through which a 
small cavern-like vault is entered, into which the shafts descend. The north- 
west comer differs from the other comers in being rounded, or rather six- 
sided. This arrangement is apparently purposeless, and no satisfactory reason 
for this peculiar feature of the structure has ever been given. The ingenious 
suggestion has been made that it is a mere ruse de guerre^ intended to deceive 
an attacking enemy into the belief that it contained the stairway, and was 
therefore the most vulnerable point to attack, whilst in reality it is the most 
soHd corner of the building. 

The east side of the keep is covered by the fore-building, which guards the 
principal entrance to the keep itself, and contains the stairs by which this 
entrance is reached. 

The openings in the wall of the basement storey are mere loops. In the 
second storey they are larger, but two of these at least have been enlarged. 
The finest windows are those of the third storey, on the south side of which 
there are two, and on the east and north one each. One of these windows 
consists of two lights beneath a single moulded arch, flanked by engaged 
shafts, with capitals and bases. 

There are two direct entrances to the basement of the keep. One of 
these is a doorway in the south wall. Externally this doorway is modem, but 



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76 

there can be little doubt that it occupies the place of an original, though 
probably narrower, entrance. The second means of direct ingress is by a 
doorway, clearly original, at the south end of the fore-building, which leads 
immediately into the chapel, whence there is communication with the whole of 
the basement. There is still another doorway to be noticed. This is on the 



fiim^:. 






west side of the keep, and its 
threshold is eleven feet from the 
ground. It is reached by a some- 
what intricate route from the prin- 
cipal room of the basement. It 
was in all probability intended for 
a sally-port. 

The south-east angle is occu- 
pied by a newel staircase, which, 
commencing on the ground floor, 
in 123 steps, reaches the roof. 
At the floor level of the great 
hall it gives off" a straight mural 
staircase, which traverses the east 
wall, and terminates in the north- 
east angle in a second newel 
staircase, which, in 43 steps, also 
ascends to the roof. 

The walls are honeycombed 
by almost innumerable passages, 
galleries, and chambers. 
The keep now contains three stories, though there were at one time 
more. In a Norman keep, the upper floor, says Mr. Clark, ^* was placed 
immediately below the roof." From the united testimony of Bourne and 
Brand, the latter of whom founds his statement on **the rows of square holes 
in which the beams rested," it would appear that there have been three floors 
above that of the present third storey. Some of the joist holes of the lower of 




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these floors, evidently however an addition, are now visible ; and a higher floor 
doubtless rested on the shelves from which the vaulted roof now springs. 
Possibly, both the historians of Newcastle mistook the holes which had 
received the timbers of the original roof for those of a highest storey. 

The principal room of the basement, usually called the Guard Room, but 
probably originally intended for stores, measures 26^ feet by 2o| feet. Like 
the basement chambers of Middleham and Mitford it is vaulted. The vaulting 
is supported by eight arches, which spring from a plain cylindrical central 
pillar. This rests on a square base, and bears an octagonal capital, both of 
which are moulded. The pillar is hollow, for the conveyance of water from the 
well-room, and near the bottom has a hole for a cock or spout. This room is 
ventilated by two loops, one in the south and the other in the west wall. Both 
have been enlarged, but had originally openings of about 9 inches only. Both 
loops, which are high in the wall, have been stepped, and one is still so. 
There is now a doorway in the north wall, which leads into a mural chamber, 
but this doorway is modern, and the chamber to which it leads originally could 
only be reached from the floor above. The great store room has now a fire- 
place, but both it and the flue are modern. 

From the loop in the south wall, a short passage on the west side leads 
into a mural chamber, lighted by a loop. From this chamber there is a ctil- 
de-sac passage, which has a cupboard at its further end. From this passage, 
near its commencement, another passage, of irregular shape, passes diagonally 
to the sally-port. 

The store room is reached from the newel stair by an L shaped passage in 
its south-east comer, into which the outer door of the basement also opens. 
At four steps from the ground a doorway leads into a dark chamber in the 
wall, between the store room and the chapel. In this chamber there are two 
or three peculiar features. In its south wall there is what appears to be a 
walled-up arched recess. A slit, 12 inches high and 3 inches wide, passes to 
the stairway through the same wall, in the middle of which, however, it changes 
its direction. Then, in the west wall, there is a pipe like opening into the 



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78 

Store room. Owing to difference of level, this opening, which is only 4 feet 
from the floor of the mural chamber, is 8 feet above the floor of the store 
room. Probably these arrangements could only be accounted for by an 
antiquary of that somewhat numerous school which has an explanation for 
everything. 

An original doorway in the east wall of the chamber just described opens 
immediately into the chapel, which consists of nave and chancel. The nave is 
17 feet long, 11^ feet broad, and 18 feet high. The chancel is 17^ feet long, 
1 1 feet broad, and 20 feet high. The length of the nave is from north to south, 
and of the chancel from east to west. The chancel is divided from the nave 
by an arch 9^ feet in height. Both nave and chancel are vaulted. South of 
the nave is a vestibule, with a plain barrel vault, and a loop on its east side, 
and a holy water stoup opposite. The vestibule is entered by a short passage 
from the outer door of the chapel. The nave is lighted by two round-headed 
windows in its east wall, and the chancel by two similar windows, one in 
the north and the other in the east wall. The east and west sides of the nave, 
and the north and east and part of the south sides of the chancel are richly 
arcaded. The mouldings of the arcade arches are varieties of the chevron 
and double cone ornaments. The moulding of the chancel arch consists of 
three orders of chevron, separated from each other by two plain rolls. Most 
of the capitals of the arcades bear the volute. The ribs of the vaulting are 
intersecting arches, and rest on corbels. Some of them are decorated with 
the ball ornament, and others with a lightly incised chevron pattern. In the 
north wall of the chancel, at its east end, is a large aumbry, and nearly opposite 
the remains of a piscina. 

Nothing finer than this part of the castle can be found in any military 
structure in England. More gentle, here, than is its wont, has been the 
touch of Timers unsparing hand, leaving little to be done by the nineteenth 
century restorer. We are duly grateful. 

The large room of the second storey could originally only be entered from 
the principal newel stair. The doorway is in a recess in the south-east comer. 



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79 

Where the main floor, or room of state, as here, was in the third storey, 
Mr. Clark believes the second storey to have been a barrack. This room is 27 j 
feet long, and 22 feet broad. It is lighted by four windows, two on the south 
side and two on the west. The window at the north end of the west side is an 
enlarged loop, originally the light of a garde-robe, which was entered from the 
adjoining mural chamber. The pier in the middle of this room, and the arches 
that rest upon it are modem. The doorway into the mural chamber in the east 

wall is also modern, and this chamber 

originally could only be entered 

^^. from the spiral 

stair. The fire- 




The Queen's Chamber. 

place is not original, but I believe the flue, which ascends to the roof, is so. 
A doorway in the north wall leads into a large barrel-vaulted mural apart- 
ment, usually called the Queen's Chamber. It has an original fireplace, of 
which the flue ascends to the roof, and is lighted by three loops in its north 
wall. Near its east end are two cupboards in the wall. At its west end a door- 
way admits to a passage, from which the destroyed garde-robe was originally 
entered. This passage, which goes first to the west, then to the south, then to 



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the west, then to the north, and lastly to the east, descends by 22 steps into a 
dark and miserable mural chamber below. This room, which, as I have men- 
tioned, can now be entered from the great store room, and thus forms a second 
means of communication between the first and second storeys, could only 
originally be reached by the descent just described. It was lighted by two 
loops in its north wall, one of which, however, is now blocked. 

The other barrel -vaulted mural chamber on the level of the second storey 
was originally lighted by two loops, one of which has been enlarged to a 
window, and through the other a doorway to the stairs of the fore-building has 
been broken. Its west wall, through which a second modem door has been 
made, formerly contained three cupboards. 

A little above the .floor-level of the second storey, the principal newel 
staircase has a doorway, through which an external gallery in the fore-building, 
immediately over the outer door of the chapel, is reached. ** It was probably 
intended to allow a safe parley with those who might seek to enter at the lower 
door,*' or to ascend the stairs of the fore-building. At the back of the gallery 
there is a large stone cistern, to which a canal in the wall brings water from 
the well-room. 

The great hall, or main floor of the third storey, can be reached either 
from the staircase of the fore-building, by the richly decorated doorway, which 
we may designate the principal entrance, or from the newel staircase. This 
room is 30 feet long, 24^ feet broad, and, to the middle of the modem vault, 
41 feet high. It is lighted by four windows, all of which are high in the wall, 
two on the south side, one on the east, and one on the north. I have previously 
described them. The fireplace bears the date 1599, but the flue is doubtless 
coeval with the building. The window in the north wall is stepped, and a 
doorway on the west side admits to a passage which, in turn, leads to a dark 
mural chamber in the multangular corner of the keep. From this chamber a 
long passage goes first to the south, and then for a short distance to the west 
when it is blocked. Another mural chamber is entered by a doorway in the 
west wall of the great hall. In a recess at its extreme end there is a garde- 



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robe, and in its west wall a water drain. Both chamber and garde-robe recess 
are lighted by loops. The finest mural chamber in the keep is entered from 
this floor by a doorway in its south wall. This apartment, which has usually 
been called the King's Chamber, is amply lighted by three good windows, two 
in the south wall and one in the west, besides a loop near the east end of the 
south wall. It has an original fireplace, the segmental arch of which bears the 
billet moulding. A doorway in its north wall leads to a very small L shaped 
chamber, lighted by a single loop. Adjoining this little room is a recess pro- 
vided with a garde-robe, which is also lighted by a loop. 

Here, as at Dover, the well-room is in the third storey. It is an L shaped 
chamber, lighted by two windows, and is entered by a doorway in the north 
wall of the great hall. The pipe of the well is cased with masonry. The well 
is 94 feet deep, and the depth of water is usually 46 feet. There are two 
stone basins in the wall, one on each side of the well. These basins have 
drains, one of which communicates with the cistern over the outer door of the 
chapel. The other is believed to have communicated with the pillar in the 
store room, but the connection is now broken. 

The windows in the south wall of the great hall are traversed by a mural 
gallery, which is entered from the spiral stairway. This gallery passes from the 
stairway to near the south-west comer of the keep, where it turns to the north, 
but is almost immediately blocked. Originally it extended further, and possibly 
joined the passage from the mural chamber in the multangular comer, with the 
level of the floor of which its own floor level almost coincides. The window 
in the east wall is traversed by the straight stairway which passes from the long 
to the short spiral staircase. 

About 30 feet above the main floor level the four sides of the keep are 
traversed by a triforial gallery, which may be entered from either of the newel 
stairways. It is lighted by eleven loops ; four in the west wall, three in the 
north, two in the east, and two in the south. There are also openings from the 
same gallery into the great hall ; two in the west and two in the east wall, one 
in the north and one in the south. If, as is probable, the shelf from which the 



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82 

modem vault of the great hall springs at one time held a floor, these openings 
would give access to the bratticed apartments into which this floor would be 
divided. 

It now only remains to consider the exterior of the fore-building. The 
interior arrangements of its basement I have already described. Externally it 
is surmounted by a tower at its south end and by a chamber at its north end. 
The tower is pierced by a vaulted archway, beneath which is the first landing 
of the exterior staircase. The same tower also covers the outer door of the 
chapel, and contains the gallery with the cistern. The battlements of the 
tower are reached through a large loop in the spiral stairway. On the west 
side of the archway through the tower there is a stone basin in the wall, which 
has been called a holy water stoup, which it certainly never was, but is far 
more probably a lamp niche. A few steps higher we have another of these 
basins in the opposite wall. The chamber at the north end of the fore-building 
is entered from the highest landing of the entrance stairs. Three of its sides 
are richly arcaded, and a corbel table runs round the whole room. The whole 
apartment has been restored. It has two windows, one on the north side, and 
one on the east. 

Antiquaries have with remarkable unanimity held that this ornate chamber 
served some sacred purpose. Brand ** suspected it to have been the chapel," 
although, he adds, ** it must have been a very small one." Early in the present 
century some local antiquary styled it "the oratory," a name by which it was 
long afterwards popularly known. Mr. Longstaffe says it is obvious " that it 
was devoted to sacred uses," and believes that "in this little room we seem to 
have the oriole." Mr. Clark pronounces it " a chapel." The popular mind is 
predisposed to connect almost all objects of antiquity with sacred things, but 
one does not expect archaeologists to be similarly affected. There are two 
reasons why this room has been called chapel, oratory, and oriole. First, the 
niches on the stairway, which are like holy water stoups. Second, the highly 
decorated character of the chamber itself. But if the niches were holy water 
stoups, why should there be two of them? Such stoups were, moreover. 



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83 

always within the church or chapel, or within its doorway or porch. Then as 
to the architectural ornament of the room, it is suflScient to mention that at 
Castle Rising, in Norfolk, we have, at the head of the fore-building of a 
Norman keep, a still more ornate chamber, which in fact is nothing more than 
the vestibule of the great hall, enclosing instead of standing beside the principal 
entrance. And lastly, I think I have already shown that this chamber is spoken 
of in the inquisition of 1334 as ** the house above the entrance '* to the keep. 



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Note (See Page 47). 

1 178. For the work of the New Castle upon Tyne and the gate of the same castle. 

1195. For the work of the king's houses in the New Castle upon Tyne ... 

1 1 96. For the repair of the king's houses in the castle upon Tyne 

[Items similar to this occur in almost every subsequent year.] 

For the repair of the gaol of the New Castle upon Tyne 

1 1 98. For the repair of the tower of the New Castle 

1206. For the making of trenches in the castle 

1212. The vacant see of Durham yielded to the defence of the castle 

1213. The work of the New Castle, and of the tower; and of the fosses (from the 

revenues of the see of Durham) 132 18 11 

"We grant and give to them a rent of no shillings and 6 pence 
which we have in the same town [Newcastle] for escheats, to be divided 
and assigned to those who have lost their rents by reason of the foss 
and the new works made below the castle towards the water." — King 
JohfCs Charter to the Burgesses of Newcastle^ dated 5 Feb., 12 13. 

1225. For the repair of the three bridges in the New Castle ... 5 7 

1227. For the work of a breach of the New Castle upon Tyne 34 7 8 

1234. For victuals bought and stored in the king's castles of New Castle and 
Bamburgh, and for other necessaries with which they were provided 
because of the coming of the king of the Scots towards these parts ... too o o 

For the repair of the gate of the New Castle upon Tyne and of other things 

which required repairs in the same castle ... 22 to o 

1236. To Walter de Kirkham for the king's wardrobe at New Castle 90 o o 



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84 

I237« For the repair of the chamber of the New Castle upon Tyne at the head of 
the old hall, and likewise the king's chamber in the old tower ; and for 
repairing and roofing with lead the king's new hall and new chamber 
in the same castle ; and for repairing the breach of the wall beyond the 
postern of the same castle, and the palisade before the gate of the same 
castle and near the old tower ;^33 14 ro 

To a certain priest serving the chapel of the New Castle upon Tyne 50s., 

which it is ordered he shall have every year for his sustenance 2 10 o 

[This item is repeated every year in the printed Pipe Rolls.] 

1238. For improving the houses of the king in the castles of Bamburgh and New 

Castle below the moon (subter luna) 10 o o 

[This is the earliest reference to the Half Moon Battery.] 

1239. For the repair of the king's mills at Bamburgh; and the king's chamber, 

the king's old hall, and the king's old kitchen appertaining to the 

same hall in the New Castle upon Tyne 18 4 9^ 

1240. For roofing the tower of the New Castle upon Tyne with lead • • • • 

and making a certain gaol at New Castle 40 o o 

1244. For improving the king's hall in the New Castle upon Tyne 5 5 7i 

The Mayor of Newcastle and Robert de Crepping, keepers of the 
provisions of the castle, commanded to sell the remainder of the King's 
corn and wine, and account for the proceeds to the Exchequer. 

1250. For the repair of the gate of the New Castle upon Tyne 36 o 8 

[It is somewhat singular that in the Pipe Roll of 1250 the sheriff of Northumberland 
includes this item, with the cost of building the Black Gate (see page 50), in one amount, 
the whole of which he puts down as " for the repair of the gate."] 

1267. For amending the defects of the New Castle upon Tyne and for its defence, 
that is, for victuals and expenses both of the knights and of servants 
and others holding the said castle in the 46th and 47th and three parts 
of the 48th year [of Henry III.], both in time of peace and in time of 
disturbance 513 9 8 

And for the wages of the servants at arms dwelling there for the defence of 
the New Castle upon Tyne, of whom each received 3d. per day, from 
the Lord's day next before the feast of St. Catherine in the soth year 
[25 Nov., 1265] to the Monday next after the same feast in the s^st 
year [1266], that is, for 353 days 45 7 6 

And for the wages of one bailiflf dwelling there who received I2d. per day 
from the Lord's day next before the feast of the purification of the 
blessed Mary in the 51st year [2 Feb., 1267] to the Monday next after 
the feast of the finding of the holy Cross in the same year [3 May, 1267], 
that is, for 100 days 500 



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85 

And for the wages of one foot bailiff dwelling there who received 6d. per day 

for the same time £2 10 o 

And for the wages of 8 servants at arms dwelling there of whom each 
received 3d. per day from the said Lord's day to the Easter next 
following 720 

And for 16 shields (targiis) bought for the defence of the same castle ... 568 

1271. For the repair and amendment of the tower of the New Castle upon Tyne... 67 5 o 

1 272-5. For a wooden enclosure to a breach of the wall of the New Castle upon Tyne 15 00 

1297. Writ in which the King commands the sheriff of Northumberland 

to store the castle of Newcastle upon Tyne with victuals and other 
necessaries, and to cause it to be safely guarded. 

1323. A quarter of the body of Andrew de Hartcla ordered to be set upon 

the tower of the castle. 
1338-9. An entry in the Abbreviatio Placitorum respecting a chantry within 

the castle of the town of Newcastle upon Tyne. 

1377. Parliament petitioned to repair the castle, and to provide a proper 

constable to reside therein. 




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86 



SANDGATE. 

The ancient glory of Sandgate has passed away. It is no longer pre- 
eminently the dulce dotnum of that hardy race — the keelmen — who one while 
above all other dwellers in Newcastle, gave character if not charm to the town. 
Formerly one of the principal thoroughfares by which Newcastle was entered, 
its importance has gradually declined, and now from end to end it is a rookery 
of poverty. Within recent years one side of the street has been almost 
entirely swept away. Of the remaining half, the frontage is chiefly a line of 
beer-houses, lodging-houses, and shops of petty tradesmen. Behind these are 
a multitude of dark, dingy alleys, crowded with the miserable dwellings of the 
very poor. 

Sandgate, in the older popular acceptation of the name, describes rather a 
district than a street. The church of St. Ann was formerly ** St. Ann*s 
chappel in Sandgate,'* though the street does not even touch its graveyard. 
The '* New Road '' to Shields, formed in 1776, was long known as ** Sandgate 
New Road." Sand Gate strictly was the gate in the town*s wall, which stood on 
the old Quayside, at the south-west comer of the Milk Market, and which was 
taken down in 1 798. When, at a very early period, the road eastward from 
this gate became skirted with houses, this too was Sandgate. Then the keel- 
men came hither and colonized ; and in time the street was flanked with 
** chares " and entries, and these also were Sandgate. The street itself has 
now three names. Only its western half is called Sandgate. The other half is 
St. Ann's Street, whilst a small portion in the middle is St. Mary's Street. 

Sandgate is mentioned as a street as early as 1336, and Roger Thornton, 
who died in 1430, owned three gardens at its east end, each of the yearly 
value of 4d. When, early in February, 1644, Newcastle was besieged by the 
Scotch army, the marquis of Newcastle, who was then here, '* for the better 
Guard of the Town, set the Sand-gate^ a Street without the Walls, and the 
other Suburbs, on Fire which continued burning all Sunday and Munday,'' 



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On the 22nd February the Scots withdrew, and after marching to Corbridge, 
turned their faces southward. In August, shortly after the victory of Marston 
Moor, they returned to the Tyne, and again laid siege to Newcastle. The earl 
of Calendar gained possession of Sandgate, ** and setting sundrie Regiments 
there, and about that place, he forthwith caused to construct a strong Bridge 
of Keill boats over Tyne (and within his quarters) for the passing and re- 
passing of his forces to both sides, and fixed the same a pretty way below the 
Glasse-house. This advantagious passage became very steedable [serviceable], 
not onely for the Souldiers, but also for the Countrey people, that brought in daily 
provision for the Armie." When, on the 19th October, the town was taken 
by the Scots, **it was entered by the Whytt Fryer Tower and Sandgatey 
where the Colliers of Elswick and Benwell were employed under one yohn 
Osbourn (a false rebellious Scot) to undermine the Walls ; which they did, and 
blew them up, and so got and plundered the Town.'* 

Sandgate commences, at its western extremity, in a large open space 
known as the Milk Market, where, from early in last century, this commodity 
was daily oflFered for sale. A keeper of the market was appointed by the 
Corporation in 171 7. A market of very diflferent character is now held here, 
but only on Saturdays. Then the space is crowded with the merchandise of 
tradesmen of the humblest type. The whole stock in trade of the most pros- 
perous of these merchants of Sandgate market might be bought for a few 
shillings. The variety of articles exposed for sale is by no means limited, but 
old clothing, old tools, and remnants of mercery form the staple. Occasionally 
a few old books are to be seen, but no one need hope for a more fortunate prize 
than a dirty copy of " Norie's Navigation" or "The Seaman's Assistant." 

The houses on the east side of the Milk Market, towards the river, are 
still labelled folly. The name records the hardihood of one Captain Cuthbert 
Dykes, "post-master and town's surveyor," who, in 1681, undertook to erect 
here a water-engine to supply the lower parts of the town with water, and who 
carried on his engineering operations, and, at the same time, a lawsuit in respect 
to the site, which cost him ;^2,ooo. 



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Leaving the Milk Market, we enter Sandgate itself. Between Nos. 7 and 
8 we have ** Sellers' Entry/' which contains one of the oldest buildings in the 
neighbourhood. It is perhaps worthy of mention that until recent years the 
boundary stones of the borough of Newcastle, numbered 65 to 69, stood at 
various points on the south side of Sandgate and St. Ann's Street.* 

Nearly opposite the point at which Sandgate becomes St. Mary's Street, 
a short street called the Swirle leads to the river side. The name of the street 
is adopted from that of a covered streamlet which here enters the Tyne.f In 





Half-Moon Lane (back of the Swirle). 



-^ -J 



the Swirle we have a fine block of old buildings, which extend to the parallel 
thoroughfare known as Half-Moon Lane, with Queen Anne gables, tall 

* The 65th stone stood at the corner of a narrow lane between St. Ann's Street and the river, known as " Wide 
Open," near the north-east comer of the Grain Warehouse ; the 66th stood at the north-west corner of the Swirle ; the 
67th near the north end of a thoroughfare called Malcolm's Chare; the 68th at the north end of Joiners' Chare, and the 
69th at the north end of Pothouse Entry. The 69th stone was the last of the series. From this point to that occupied 
by the 1st stone — ^at the foot of the Forth Banks, and near the mouth of Skinner Burn — we may regard the foreshore 
as the boundary of the Borough, and the same may be said of the distance between the 64th stone — at St. Peter's Quay— 
and the 65th ; but it would be interesting to know how the strip of land between the Sandgate stones and the river 
came to be considered part of " the town and county of the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne." 

t The word Swirle, according to the respectable authority of John Trotter Brockett, is "applied to express the 
meandering of a stream of water." 

"There was a rush and a jwjW along the surface of the stream, and 'Caiman, Caiman,' shouted twenty voices 

the moonlight shone on the great swirling eddy, while all held their breaths."— Kingsley's "Westward 

Ho !" ch. XXV. 



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89 

chimney stacks, and quaint dormer windows. One of these old buildings is a 
tavern, with old-fashioned outhanging sign. For a century at least it has borne 
the name of the '' Half Moon.'' 

Beyond the Swirle is St. Ann's Street, near the middle of which we have 
the interesting three- 
storey building, shown 
in the accompanying 
sketch, with deep in- 
flected parapet, and 
projecting gargoils. 

St. Ann's Church, formerly a 
chapel of ease to All Saints^ stands 
near the east end of St. Ann's Street. 
The first mention of it I have foxmd 
occurs in 1597, during a time of 
plague, when it was turned into a 
hospital for the infected. In the 
Corporation accounts foi August in 
that year we have the item, *'Paid 
for drinke and breade to St. Ann's Chapell this weike, 8s. id." In the reign 
of Charles II. complaint was made to Dr. Basire, then archdeacon of North- 
umberland, **that some of the inhabitants in Sandgate in the chappellry of All 
Saints' do use obscurely to bury their dead in an ancient chappelyard (as they 
pretend) there, persons excommunicate, as Christopher Milboume, [being] 
buried there." Bourne tells us that after the Reformation St. Ann's "was 
neglected and came into Decay." In 1682, however, it was repaired at the 
cost of the town.* Thus ** restored " it served the needs of the neighbourhood 

•The sermon preached on this occasion was printed, with the following title : — ^* T A* EsCMHlAo( St, Ann* s 
Chappel in Sandgate OR, A SERMON Preached May 3. 1682 Before the Right Worshipful, the Mayor, Aldermen, 
Sheriff, &c. of the Town and County of lUwcMtle upon Ui^nc Upon their erecting a School and a Catechetical Lecture 
for the Instruction of poor Children, and such as are ignorant. By John March B.D. and Vicar of St. Nicholas in 
Newcastle Mi^ox\ Tyne. ♦ * * * LONDON, Printed {or Richard Randal ^nd Peter Maplisden^ Bock stWtrs^ ^i t\it 
Bridge-foot in Newcastle upon Tyne^ MDCLXXXIL" 




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till 1768, when the present church was erected, the stones of which were 
taken from the portion of the town's wall between the Sandhill and the Sand 
Gate. 

The river bank between the Milk Market and the Swirle was formerly 
known as Sandgate Shore. Here, in 1840, the Corporation constructed an 
extension of the quay, and Sandgate Shore became thenceforward the New 




W.^,t<jto**^« v^p 



Quay. 

My collaborator, 

fortunately^ a 

few years ago 

sketched one 

of the old houses 
THE ..Jack Tar," Sandgate Shore. ^j^.^j^ ^^^^^ j^^^^^ 

and which has since been taken down. It w^as a large, lofty, half-timbered, 
three-gabled building, and bore the sign of the ** Jack Tar." It is still 
remembered as the scene of more than one local tradition. In its later days 
it was the meeting place of several "women's clubs," whereof the gatherings 
usually terminated with a ** cushion-dance."* 

* A minute account of the .'cushion-dance," formerly a favourite amusement in the neighbourhood of Newcastle, 
may be seen in Brand's *' Popular Antiquities " (Bohn's edition, vol. ii., p. 162) ; and a somewhat different description, 
which, however, coincides more closely with what was the practice in the North of England, is given in Hone's " Table 
Book " (first edition, vol. i., col. 161). 



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91 



THE CATHEDRAL. 

History. 

Newcastle boasts a Roman altar inscribed to the god of the waves, and a 
church, founded in the Nonnan era, dedicated to the patron saint of mariners. 
The altar of Neptune and the church of Saint Nicholas are evidence that, alike 
in pagan and in Christian times, Newcastle has been the home of those "tha^^ 
go down to the sea in ships, that do business -in great waters."* 

The church of Saint Nicholas is said to have been founded by Osmund, 
bishop of Salisbury, in the year 109 1, and there is good reason to believe that 
this date is at least approximately correct. Between 11 15 and 1128 Henry I. 
gave ** to God and Saint Mary of Carlisle and to the canons of the same place,'* 
** the church of Newcastle upon Tyne, and the church of Newbum, and the 
churches which Richard de Aurea Valle" then held. In 11 93, bishop Pudsey 
confirmed the possessions of the prior and convent of Carlisle within his 
diocese, reserving pensions to the incumbents of the several churches, amongst 
whom the parson of ** the church of Newcastle upon Tyne" was to receive 
26 marks yearly. In the following year the same bishop, with the consent 
of the brethren of Carlisle, ordered that **the vicar of the church of the 
blessed Nicholas in Newcastle" should receive for his sustenance **all the 
fruits, profits, oblations and obventions of every kind" belonging to the said 
church, except only the tithes of com sheaves. 

In 1 2 16, the church is said, on the authority of Dr. Ellison's MSS., to have 
been destroyed by fire. To what extent this destruction by fire necessitated a 

• Bourne says, " At the North Door of this Church, it is observable, that the largt Flagg which is the first Step 
into the Church, is cut all along the Surface with uneven Lines^ in Imitation of the Waves of the Sea. This is a silent 
Remembrancer of the Saint the Church is dedicated to." This stone has disappeared. A similar remark will needs 
occur very frequently in the present chapter. 



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rebuilding of the church, we have no means of knowing. Not far, however, 
from this period the builders were at work, and I have little hesitation in 
ascribing to this time the Early English pillar and capital which are enveloped 

in the fourteenth century north-east pier 
of the nave. 

In 1293, Edward I. brought an 

action against the bishop and prior of 

Carlisle, before the justices itinerant, 

then sitting at Newcastle, to recover 

X--L, Jp^<F rj [ fff ^i^fflv^*-— 4*1 ^^^ advowsons of the churches of St. 

' ^ Nicholas at Newcastle, of Rothbury, 

Corbridge, and Warkworth. The ver- 
dict of the jury was against the king. 

The church was rebuilt shortly after 
the middle of the fourteenth century, 
and completed, according to the Ellison 
MSS., in 1359. This statement only 
refers to the nave and transepts, for we 
have documentary evidence that the 
choir was built ten years later. In the 
same year (1359) an indulgence of forty days was granted by twelve foreign 
bishops, and confirmed by bishop Hatfield, to all persons who, being truly 
penitent and having confessed their sins, should resort to the church of the 
blessed Nicholas in the town of Newcastle on certain saints' days and other 
festivals, 

"or who should follow the host or the holy oil when carried to the sick, or who should 
walk round the graveyard of the said church, praying for the dead : besides those who 
should assist in providing the fabric with lights, books, chalices, vestments or other orna- 
ments, or who should give or bequeath gold, silver, or other of their substance to the said 
church, or who should say Pater Nosters at the ringing of the bell when the host was 
consecrated in the high mass : besides those who should pray piously to God for the 
soul of Catherine de Camera, whose body is buried in the said church, and for the welfare 
of John de Camera, Gilbert de Dukesfield and Agnes his wife, whilst they live, and for 
their souls when they die." 




Fragment of Pillar and CAPriAL, circa a.d. 1216. 



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93 

The re-erection of the choir was commenced in 1368. This was done 
without the permission of the bishop and prior of Carlisle, who, hearing of what 
was going on, sent a proctor to Newcastle on their behalf. This individual, on 
his arrival, found the works considerably advanced. A priest, named Roger de 
Merley, was sitting near the new work of the choir, ** hammering and working 
upon a certain stone." The proctor, after questioning the priest as to the 
authority with which the work was being done, and receiving no satisfactory 
reply, " threw a pebble at the aforesaid new work,*' and gave injunction that it 
should proceed no further, and that the demolition of ** the ancient choir" 
should be arrested, in testimony of which he threw a pebble at that also. Later 
in the same day, the proctor repeated the same inhibitions ** in a certain place 
in the town of Newcastle aforesaid, vulgarly called the Sandhill, to Robert de 
Angirton and John de Chambre [the John de Camera of the indulgence of 1359], 
burgesses of the said town of Newcastle," because, as he learned, ** by their 
council and aid, the said new work had been begun, built, and constructed." 
All this, however, was simply an assertion of authority, and the work would 
proceed, practically without interruption. 

In 1408, as we learn incidentally from the will of Cecilia Homildon, an 
anchorite was associated with the church. 

Roger Thornton, who died early in 143Q, bequeathed ** to ye Kirk of seint 
Nicholas for repac'on and eno'ments yerof xl m'rcz," besides 100 shillings **to 
the vicare of seint Nicholas kyrk for forgetyn tendes." Gray tells us that the 
great east window, which " surpasseth all the rest in height, largenesse, and 
beauty," and contained representations of **the twelve Apostles, seven deeds 
of Charity, &c.," was built by Roger Thornton, and bore the inscription: 

a)rate pro anfma Kogerf He ^t^ornton, $? pro anfmabu0 jfiUontm ic iiliamm. 

The tower and spire must have been built shortly after the middle of the 
fifteenth century, though no documentary evidence as to the precise time exists. 
Gray says this ** stately stone Lantheme, standing upon foure stone Arches," 
was ** builded by Robert de Rhodes, Lord Priour of Tinemouth, in Henry 6. 



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94 

dayes/* Bourne, however, was "rather inclinable to believe, that one Robert 
Rhodes^ Esq., who lived in this Town in the Reign of Henry the 6th was the 
true Person'' by whose munificence the tower and lantern were built* In 
Bourne's opinion all more recent antiquaries have agreed. The arms of Rodes 
are carved four times upon the vaulting of the tower, and round the lunette 
runs the inscription : 

€)rate pro aiifma Eobertf He Eotiesf. 
During the siege of Newcastle in 1644, an event is said to have occurred, 

• Robert dc Rodes was one of Newcastle's truest worthies. I have not the heart to leave him with the meagre 
words of the text. His memory shall be lovingly enshrined in these pages, for we must all honour the man whose soul 
conceived the glorious structure which to this day is supreme amongst all works of art which Newcastle possesses. 

Robert de Rodes was the son of John and Isabel Rodes, of Newcastle. He represented Newcastle in parliament 
in 1427, 1428, 1432, 1434, and 1441. His residence in Newcastle was within the parish of All Saints. In 1439 and 1440 
he lent to the prior and convent of Durham two sums of ;^20 each, and in 1444 that body issued their letters of fraternity 
to " Robert Rodes, esquire, and learned in the law." In 1441 he had become Henry the Sixth's comptroller of customs 
at Newcastle. 

Before the 1st September, 1435, Rodes had married Joan, the daughter and heiress of Walter Hawyck, and lady 
of Little Eden. She was, perhaps, in some way a relation of William Hoton, of Hardwick, in the parish of Sedgefield, 
who, after entailing his estates on some more immediate objects of his favour, calls in to separate remainders Roger 
Thornton, Esq., and Robert Rodes, Esq., and Joan his wife. He seems to have extracted from them a bell for Sedgefield 
church, which still presents the arms of Rodes and Thornton ; but the remote possibility of their succession never 
became a reality. 

Rodes, however, profited by the death of Hoton in another way. The latter was steward of the convent of Durham. 
He died i6th September, 1445, and was commemorated by a brass in Sedgefield Church. On the 17th September the prior 
of Diu-ham informed Sir Thomas Nevil, the bishop's nephew, of Hoton 's death, and of the necessity "of a learned man 
like as he was " being placed in the office, and begged him to *' charge Robert Rhodes, my Lord's servant and yours, and 
my trusty friend, to be our steward, for we had never more need." 

In 1446 it appears that Rodes was lessee of the manor of Wardley, near Jarrow, under the convent, for forty years 
at a rental of £i, Wardley was formerly a demesne residence of the priors of Durham. The year 1447 saw " Robert 
Rhodes of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, experienced in the law of the kingdom of England, and steward of the prior of 
Durham," presenting to St. Cuthbert's shrine a handsome cross of gold, containing portions of the pillar to which Christ 
was bound and of the rock in which his grave was hewn. There was a new parliament that year, but he was no longer 
a member for Newcastle. At Durham his residence was in the South Bailey, close to the Water Gate, which, in 1449, 
he was allowed by bishop Nevil to annex to his mansion and to open and shut at pleasure. 

Rodes's first wife, Joan Hawyck, died childless, but he remained in possession of Little Eden under a settlement 
until his death. 

The Durham " Book of Life " contains the names of " Rodert Rodes, esquire : Joan and Agnes, his wives." The 
second wife was evidently a lady of some social position. She is mentioned in the will of Agnes, successively wife of 
John Strother, Richard Dalton, and John Bedford of Hull. This document, dated 14th September, 1459, contains the 
legacy, " to Ag^es Rodes, one green girdle of silver and gold." A chantry of St. John the Baptist and St. John the 
Apostle was founded in the church of St. Nicholas, Newcastle, by license of Henry VI., before 1461, ** by one Robert 
Roodes and Agnes his wife." 

The following passage, though more than once printed, cannot, in the absence of Rodes's will, be omitted, either 
as a specimen of his orthography and notions of grammar, or in elucidation of his position as to Northumberland and 



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95 

of which the only record, for nearly a hundred years after that time, was pre- 
served by tradition. Bourne, however, tells the story, and though it is repeated 
in almost every book which has been written about Newcastle since, from the 
ponderous quartos of Brand to the latest sixpenny guide, it must not be omitted 
here. 

" There is a traditional Story of this Building I am now treating of, which may not 
be improper to be here taken Notice of. In the Time of the Civil Wars, when the Scots 
had besieged the Town for several Weeks, and were still as far as at first from taking it, 
the General [Lesley] sent a Messenger to the Mayor of the Town [Marley], and demanded 
the Keys, and the Delivering up of the Town, or he would immediately demolish the 
Steeple of St. Nicholas, The Mayor and Aldermen upon hearing this, immediately 
ordered a certain Number of the chiefest of the Scottish Prisoners to be carried up to the 
Top of the old Tower ^ the Place below the Lanthorne^ and there confined ; after this they 
returned the General an Answer to this Purpose, That they would upon no Terms 
deliver up the Town, but would to the last Moment defend it : that the Steeple of St. 
Nicholas was indeed a beautiful and magnificent Piece of Architecture, and one of the 
great Ornaments of their Town ; but yet should be blown into Attoms before ransom'd 

Durham : — " Be it to remembrc that I Robert Rodes satt, at the Castell in the Newe Castell upon Tyne in the Counte 
of Northumberland by force of a wryte of diem clausit extremum after the deth of the Erlle of Warwyke, and thar toke 
an inquisicion of the Castell of Bernarde Castell in the Bysshopryke of Dureham, and informed tham, that ware sworne in 
the saide inquisicion, that the saide Castell of Bernarde Castell was in the Counte of Northumberland, qwarin I hurte 
the liberte and title of the Chirch of Seynt Cutbert of Dureham, qwylk me sore repentis. Qwarefore I beseke my Lorde 
of Dureham of his grace and absolucion at the reverence of Jhesu. Wretjm of myne awne hande at Dureham the xxiz 
day of Aprill the yere of the reigne of Kyng Edwarde the iiij*** the fyrste." 

The same year (1461) also saw it certified that " Robert Rodes detains a missal of the value of 10 marks given by 
the Baron [of Hilton] deceased to the chapel [of Hilton] for ever." 

In 1465, among the memoranda to be attended to by the convent's agent, proceeding to Rome, was an item, "For 
a Veronica for Lord Robert Rodes." [A veronica (yera icon) was a representation of the face of the Saviour on a 
handkerchief.] In the same year bishop Booth granted him license for a chaplain to pray in a chantry in the chapel 
of St. John in Weardale, dedicated to our Saviour and the Baptist, for the happy estate of Edward IV., archbishop 
Nevil, bishop Booth himself, the honourable lady Elizabeth Burcestre [? Binchester], the said Robert Rodes and 
Agnes his wife, and for the souls of John and Isabel, his father and mother, and Henry Ravensworth. 

Rodes died without issue, 20th April, 1474. Little Eden then went to the Trollops under settlements ; but, for 
Wheatley Hill, his niece Alice, daughter of his brother John (then dead, evidently) and wife of Richard Bainbrigge, 
junior, was heiress. She was then aged only 14. Her descendants long enjoyed the estate. 

A grand brass with an imperfect legend, " hie Tumulatus — dono dei datus mitis clero^promotor Ecclesiarum," 
was in All Saints' Church, and was supposed to be that of Robert Rodes. About this brass more will be said in the 
chapter on All Saints. 

Rodes's second wife survived him, and in 1495 the grateful monks of Durham issued their letters of fraternity **to 
the honourable woman Agnes Rodys, once wife of Robert Rodys, for your well known deeds, your gifts also, and 
precious presents conferred upon us." She also was dead in 1500, when the Corporation of Newcastle gave to the priest 
of the Rodes chantry in St. Nicholas' Church a house to live in, out of respect for the memory of Robert Rodes. 

I have taken the substance of the above paragraphs, and, almost throughout, the language also, from a note by 
Mr. Longstaffe in his edition of the " Memoirs of Ambrose Barnes." 



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at such a Rate : That however^ if it was to fall, it should not fall alone ; that the same 
Moment he destroyed the beautiful Structure, he should Bath his Hands in the Blood of 
his Countrymen ; who were placed there on Purpose either to preserve it from Ruin, 
or to die along with it. This Message had the desired Effect. The Men were there 
kept Prisoners during the whole Time of the Siege, and not so much as one Gun fired 
against it." 

Such is the tradition, and there seems to be no reason to doubt its truth. 
It would appear, however, that about the period to which this story relates, 
injury of some kind was done to the steeple, for in the Common Council Books, 
under date 4th September, 1645, there is an order for its repair. 

In 1635, the nave was re-stalled, and a fine pulpit, with massive sounding 
board, was erected ; all in the Renaissance style which then prevailed.* The 
choir, however, retained its pre- Reformation stalls, and the ancient rood-screen 
was still in its place. Many fine monuments remained, which had escaped the 
destructive zeal of Reformers and Puritans. In this satisfactory state the 
internal arrangements of the church were allowed to continue till the year 1783. 
The interior is said at that time to have *' afforded a spectacle of extraordinary 
magnificence/ 't l^ut, alas ! the spirit of reverence for ancient art did not enter 
into the culture of the four individuals who then held the oflSce of church- 
warden, J and a ** restoration*' — I know not what they called it — was determined 
upon. (The proper phrase — always then, and often even now — is, ** violation 
and demolition/') The stalls of the nave were sold by auction,|| whilst those 

* I have no hesitation about this date. Brand's reference to the Ellison MSS. as authority for the statement 
that in the year mentioned in the text " some new pews or seats were made/' and the close resemblance between 
the stalls shown in Waters's view and those in St. Mary's, Gateshead, which we know were erected in 1634, are 
conclusive evidence. 

t A local artist, Henry Waters, made a sepia drawing of the interior of the nave before the alterations of 1783, 
which is now the property of the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries. The plate opposite is a reduced fac-simile of 
Waters's drawing. There is a delightful replica of the same picture, in aquatint, in the vestry of the Cathedral. 

X These worthies were — Thomas Sanderson, flax-dealer ; William Pollard, baker ; Anthony Johnson, hatter ; and 
Thomas Greenwell, ** tallow-chandler, cheese-monger, and salmon-pickler." 

n — To the trustees of a Presbyterian chapel then being erected at the foot of Mirk Lane, Gateshead. In 1783, 
and a few decades before and after, the love of art had died out of the Episcopalian heart, and had not been born into 
the Presbyterian heart, and these Gateshead Presbyterians cut ofiT the poppy heads of the stalls and painted the 
remaining portions. 



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97 

of the choir were put into the south transept, and where they have since gone 
I cannot learn. One solitary bench-end has, by some means, escaped into 
the safe refuge of the castle. The rood-screen was wantonly destroyed. The 
pulpit remained in the church as old lumber till it was rescued by alderman 
Forster about 1809, and placed by him in the chapel of the castle. There it 
was kept till the castle was turned into barracks during the keelmen's strike of 
1822, when vicar Smith begged 
it from the Corporation, had it 
repaired, and returned it to the 
church. Finally, it was trans- 
formed into a sideboard, which 
graced the dining room of Sir 
R. S. Hawks, in Clavering Place. 
To level the choir floor the 
grave-stones were taken up and 
removed to the nave, and **all 
the old tombstones, which were 
either not claimed, or belonged 
to families then extinct (many 
of which were very large and 
of blue marble),'* were sold to 
Christopher Blacket, the post- 
master, who employed them as 
foundations for a new post oflSce 
which he was then erecting in 
Mosley Street. 

I can only mention briefly the alterations and repairs of the nineteenth 
century. The great diflSculty has been with the steeple. Extensive cramping 
and binding in 1827 rapidly proved ineflFectual, and in 1832 the tower showed 
an evident disposition to fall over towards the south. Under the care of the 
late John Green new foundations were inserted, and massive buttresses, of 

J 




Stall-end, now in the Castle. 



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admirable structure for the purpose for which they were intended, were erected 
on the south side, and at the same time the south porch was added. Two years 
later the new north porch was built. About twenty years ago the north side 
of the tower showed signs of giving way, and was found to require extensive 
undersetting. This and other repairs to the tower and lantern were carried 
out under the direction of Sir G. G. Scott, at a cost of over ;^,ooo. In 1873 
and four succeeding years the body of the church was ''restored*' by an 
expenditure of ;^2 1,400. 

Historic Events. 

In this section of the present chapter, I must write of royal visits to this 
church, I must write of courts of justice held here, of treaties of peace signed 
here, of penances performed, and prisoners confined here. But with so many 
and such varied subjects all must be touched briefly. The history of this 
church, in any full and satisfactory way, is not yet written, but whenever this is 
done, a goodly volume will be the result. 

The courts of the justices itinerant were held in 1280, and probably in 
other years as well, in this church. Five hundred and thirty years after this, 
in 1 8 10 and 181 1, whilst the present Moot Hall was being built, the assizes for 
the county of Northumberland were held in the same place.* 

* An exhaustive paper on the secular uses to which churches have been put in England, both beiore and since 
the Reformation, would be extremely interesting. Musical festivals were held in this church of St. Nicholas in 1791, 
- 1796, 18 14, 1824, and, lastly, in 1842. 

I never think, without feelings of sincere admiration, of old Robert Walker, the perpetual curate of Seathwaite, 
whom Wordsworth describes as "a Gospel Teacher," 

" Whose good works form'd an endless retinue ; 
A pastor such as Chaucer's verse portrays ; 
Such as the heaven-taught skill of Herbert drew ; 
And tender Goldsmith crown*d with deathless praise." 
Robert Walker's clerical income was just one-fourth of that of the parson of " Sweet Auburn," yet he spread his table 
every Sabbath day, liberally, hospitably, freely, for such of his parishioners as lived in the outlying parts of his 
chapelry, and declined to become a pluralist by accepting, in addition to Seathwaite, the neighbouring curacy of 
Ulpha, lest this should cause dissension amongst his people, and lead them to accuse him of covetousness. On week- 
days, Robert Walker sat beside the communion table in his church, spinning voooly and teaching the children of his 
parishioners. The spinning wheel was surely as sacred as the edifice in which it stood, being authentically consecrated 
by the hand that used it, and by the charities of its owner's heart. Would you, reader, know more of Robert Walker ? 
Let me entreat you to buy John Evans's edition of canon Parkinson's " Old Church Clock," in which you will find 
ever3rthing that is known of him ; and, when you have read the book, to give it a place of honour on your shelves beside 
Izaac Walton's " Lives." My apology for this scarcely relevant digression is, I revere the memory of Robert Walker. 



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The church of the White Friars in Newcastle possessed in some measure 
the privilege of Sanctuary. In 13 12, certain persons, for the safety of their 
lives, took refuge in that church. Thither they were pursued, and, after being 
forcibly carried oflF, were executed. In the end it was found that one Nicholas 
** le Porter," of Newcastle, and one John de Keteryngham, were the persons 
who had thus violated the rights of the church. They sought absolution at the 
hands of the pope's nuncio. This he granted, but left the bishop of Durham 
to impose the necessary penance. The bishop, writing on the 13th April, 
1313, to the vicar of Newcastle, enjoined him to require from Nicholas **the 
Porter " the following penance ; ** namely, that on the next Lord's day, and on 
every Lord's day to the end of the present year, at the doors of the church of 
the blessed Nicholas, unshod, bareheaded, and clothed only in a linen gown, 
the congregation of the people standing by, he shall publicly receive fustigations 
from you, declaring in the vulgar tongue the reason of his penance, and con- 
fessing there his guilt." On each occasion the penance was to be repeated 
** at the doors of the church of the blessed Mary of the brethren of Mount 
Carmel," that is, the church of the White Friars.* On the Monday, Tuesday, 
and Wednesday in Whit-week, he was to be punished in the same way at 
Durham, at the doors of St. Nicholas's church, and at the Cathedral. Keteryng- 
ham's punishment is not recorded. He, or someone of his name, represented 
Newcastle in parliament at that time ; and probably he compounded in some 
way for his penance. 

An offence of a different nature, perpetrated by two Newcastle females in 
141 7, required a different penance. These girls, whose names were Matilda 
Burgh and Margaret Ussher, the servants of Peter Baxter, of Newcastle, ** led 
by diabolic instigation," went to the cathedral of Durham, ** clothed in male 
attire, with this purpose and intention, that they might personally approach the 
fereter of the most holy confessor Cuthbert, knowing this to be prohibited to 
all women whatsoever, under the penalty of the greater excommunication, "t 

• At this time the White Friars or Carmelites were located at Wall Knoll. 

t St Cuthbert's dislike to the presence of females appears to have been of an entirely posthumous character. 
We first read of it in the pages of Symeon of Durham and his contemporary Reginald. But see the whole subject 
learnedly discussed in a paper by the late Rev. J. L. Low, printed in " Archaeologia Aeliana,** Vol. XI. 



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The penance imposed upon these women was, ** that each of them shall go 
before the procession on three feast days round the church of Saint Nicholas, 
and on three other feast days round the church of All Saints, in the same 
male attire, and in the same manner and form in which they came so audaciously 
to the said cathedral church of Durham." They were also to be called on 
alternate days into the churches of St. Nicholas and All Saints, when the 
respective vicars were to ** declare publicly and solemnly to the people the 
reason why they perform such penance, so that no other women of similar 
character shall dare to break forth into such audacity of evil-doing." Peter 
Baxter and his wife were to be cited to appear at Durham, ** and show reason- 
able cause, if they have any, why they ought not, as fosterers, authors, and 
councillors in this aflFair, to be punished in form of law." To the document 
from which I have made these extracts, a certificate is appended, signed by 
Robert Croft, priest of the church of All Saints, stating that on the preceding 
Sunday the two women had '* devoutly performed" the enjoined penance, and 
praying that the rest of it should be remitted. 

In consequence of renewed hostilities between England and Scotland, 
commissioners representing the heads of the two kingdoms met in Newcastle 
in August, 1 45 1. On the 13th day of that month they met **in the vestry (in 
vestiario), within the church of Saint Nicholas in Newcastle upon Tyne, in the 
diocese of Durham, and situate near the choir of the same church on its south 
side."* They then agreed that a truce should be proclaimed on the marches 
and debateable lands. The following day the commissioners aflSxed their seals 
to the truce itself, and this is said to have been done " in the church of Saint 
Nicholas in the town of Newcastle." A similar treaty was sealed in the same 
place on the 12th September, 1459. 

A volume might be written about the distinguished clerics who from time 
to time have been connected with this church, but amongst them there is one 
personage of the i6th century who must not be passed over. I allude to the 
great Scottish reformer — John Knox. He appears to have first visited New- 

* The ancient vestry is shown in Horseley's engraving of the church, published in 171 5. Of this print, which 
is now extremely rare, the reader has here a reduced fac-simile. 



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castle in 1550, when he was summoned from Berwick, where he had been some 
time stationed, to answer, before the Council of the North, a charge of having 
taught ** that the sacrifice of the mass was idolatrous/** On his arrival, he 
** was sent into the pulpit of the great church of Saint Nicholas,'* to preach 
before the congregation as well as the Council. Knox selected, as the motto 
of his address, ** Spare no arrows/*t This was on the 4th April, 1550. 
Towards the close of the same year, he was removed from Berwick to New- 
castle, where he remained till about Easter, 1553, preaching sermons which 
bore unmistakeable reference to the events of those stirring times, and which, 
as Knox himself said, " Sir Robert Brandling did not forget of long time after." 
Knox*s fame, whilst in Newcastle was such that, to use the words of the then 
duke of Northumberland, **many resortes'* to his preaching ** out of Scotland, 
which is nat requisyt/' 

James the sixth of Scotland, on his way to assume the crown of England 
as James the first of the United Kingdom, passed through Newcastle, and 
attended service in St. Nicholas's Church, on which occasion the bishop of 
Durham, the famed Toby Matthew, was the preacher. 

The battle of Newbume, the initial engagement of the great Civil War, 
was fought on Friday, the 28th August, 1640. The following day Newcastle 
was deserted by the royalist army. The behaviour of vicar Alvey on this 
occasion will be related in a later chapter. The next day was Sunday, and, 
about noon, general Lesley, and the lords and gentlemen of the Scottish army, 
rode into Newcastle, ** where they were met upon the bridge, by the Major 
and some few Aldermen who were not so nimble at flight, as Sir Marloe, Sir 
Daveson, and Sir Ridles, and others that were concious of their guilt of their 

* Whibt at Berwick Knox became acquainted with the family of Richard Bowes of Aske, who was then governor 
of Norham Castle. A close intimacy with Mrs. Bowes followed, and before Knox left Berwick he had paid his addresses 
to her daughter Margery, and had made ** faithful promise before witnesses" to marry her. The match, however, 
was opposed by her father, and also by her brother, who was afterwards Sir George Bowes of Streatlam, and, probably 
for this reason, the union was deferred till near the end of 1553. As Mr. Surtees sa3rs, " The whole circumstances of 
this connection tend to place the domestic character of the stern reformer in a more amiable light than is perhaps 
generally understood.** 

t The selection of this text (Jer. 1. 14) had possibly in Knox*8 mind some significance beyond its theological 
import. The crest of his lady-love's family is a sheaf of arrows. 



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good service against the Scots, for which they got the honour of Knighthood at 

Newcastle and Barwicke/' *' After dinner," says colonel John Fenwick, ** I 

had the honour to Usher his Excellence [Lesley] and the Lords to the great 

Church [of Saint Nicholas], where Mr. Alexander Henderson preached, and 

Mr. Andrew Cant at All-hallows where the Organs, and Sackbuts, and Cornets 

were strucke breathlesse with the fright of their Vicars, and others of their best 

friends flight/' 

Charles the first, who had previously been at Newcastle more than once, 

entered the town in the charge of the Scottish army, on the 13th May, 1646. 

Shortly afterwards *'a Scotch minister preached boldly before him,'* it is 

believed in St. Nicholas's Church, ** and when his sermon was done, called for 

the 52nd psalm, which begins : 

Why dost thou, tyrant, boast abroad 
Thy wicked works to praise ? 

Whereupon his majesty stood up and called for the 56th psalm, which begins : 

Have mercy, Lord, on me, I pray, 
For man would me devour. 

The people waved the minister's psalm, and sung that which the king called 

for."* 

After the battle of Dunbar, early in September, 1650, the Scottish prisoners 

taken in that engagement were sent southward. ** When they came to New- 
castle,'* says Sir Arthur Haslerigg, then governor, **I put them into the greatest 
church in the town, and the next morning, when I sent them to Durham, about 
140 were sick and not able to march'' — the consequence of having, when 

• There was an evidently premeditated intention on the part of that " Scotch minister " to insult the unfortunate 
king. For this purpose the selected psalm was in every way suited. Not one whit less apposite, however, was the psalm 
chosen by Charles. Both may be seen in the quaint old version of Stcrnhold and Hopkins. 

This " boldly preaching " Scottish parson, we are sure, was not the famed and scholarly Alexander Henderson, 
who was in Newcastle at the time, and who was brought here for the purpose of converting the king from episcopacy to 
presbyterianism. A unique controversial correspondence was the result. The king wrote five letters, and Henderson 
three. Throughout these documents a tone of kindly consideration and charitable forbearance is maintained on both 
sides. Not one word of bitterness came from the pen of either controversialist. It has been said that Charles's letters, 
like the EIKON BASILIKE, had been written for him; but this is disproved by the fact that in the library of 
Lambeth Palace the original draft of the king's first letter, in his own handwriting, is preserved. The letters were 
printed with the following title :— 

«* The papers Which passed at NEW-CASTLE BETWIXT His Sacred MAJESTIE AND Mr Al: HEN- 
DERSON : Concerning tht Change ^ Church-Government. Anno Dom, 1646. LONDON, Printed for R: ROYSTON, 
at the Angel in Ivic-lanc. 1649." 



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almost famished at Morpeth, endeavoured to satisfy their hunger upon **raw 
cabbages, leaves and roots,'* — ** three died that night, and some fell down in 
their march from Newcastle to Durham, and died/' 

Chantries. 

In pre-Reformation days, St. Nicholas's church contained no fewer than 
ten chantries — ** adjectives," as Fuller calls them, **not able to stand of them- 
selves, and therefore united for their better support to some parochial, 
collegiate or cathedral church." My account of these foundations must be 
restricted to a mere catalogue, adding to such brief notice of each the 
inventory of its ** ornaments and goods," taken at the time of their dissolution 
in 1548. 

I. — The chantry of St. John the Baptist and St. John the Apostle, said to 
have been founded by Lawrence, prior of Durham, in 1 149. It was re-founded 
in 1 333, by Richard de Emeldon.* It is also said to have been founded a third 
time by Robert and Agnes Rodes, and licensed by Henry VL, in 1428. Its 
yearly value at the dissolution of chantries was £'] 7s. 6d. 

" One vestment of whyte damaske, one old vest of white sarcenett, one olde vest- 
ment of greene bawdkyn,t one of whyte fustyan with reade flowres, one vest of white 
linen clothe, with a crosse of blacke, with all their appurtenaunces, one paxe, ij. masse 
bookes, iiij. alterclothes, ij. peces of flowred tapestre worke, iiij. litle candlestyks of brasse 
and twoo lytle crewetts." 

2. — The chantry of St. Catherine, said to have been anciently founded 

by Alan Durham, and to have been augmented in the reign of Edward III. 

by William Johnson and Isabel his wife. Yearly value at the dissolution, 

• Richard Emeldon was an important personage in his day. He was mayor of Newcastle twenty times, between 
1307 and 1333. He also represented Newcastle in the parliaments of 131 1, 1314, 1324, 1325, 1328, and 1332. In 1332, 
he was appointed chief keeper of the castles, lands, and tenements in the county of Northumberland and the bishopric 
of Durham which the earl of Lancaster and other nobles had forfeited by their rebellion. Two years afterwards, 
Edward II. granted him the manor of Silksworth, in consideration of his long services and great losses in the wars 
with Scotland. He had letters patent from Edward III. permitting him to build upon a piece of vacant ground, near 
the chapel of St. Thomas, that he might therewith endow three chaplains to the chantry of Saints John the Baptist and 
John the Apostle. 

•f "Baudkin. a rich and precious species of stuff, introduced into England in the thirteenth century. It is said 
to have been composed of silk, interwoven with threads of gold in the most sumptuous manner." — HalliweU. 



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£^ 19s. 4d. "Ornaments, &c., nil. — because all the ornaments of this 
chauntrie doo serve also for the other chauntrie of Saynt Katherjnie within 
the same church." 

3. — ^A second chantry of St. Catherine, founded • by Nicholas and John 
EUerker. Yearly value, £}^ 15s. 

**One vestment of whyte chamblett [camlet], with flowres, one vest of white 
fustyan, one olde vest of sangwyne color, one olde vest of whyte fustyan, one olde vest of 
counterfett bawdkyn, with all ther appurtenaunces, ij. hangings of tapestree worke, with 
images, one masse boke, iiij. candlestyks of brasse, iiij. olde alterclothes, one lytle sacring 
bell, and two crewetts of tyne [tin]." 

4. — The chantry of St. Peter and St. Paul, founded by Adam Fenrother 

and Alan Hilton, and licensed by Henry IV. Yearly value, £d^ 19s. 4d. 

"One vest of Briges saten, one vestment of counterfete baudkin, one olde vest of 
grene dornix,* one olde vest of blewe cheker sylke, with ther appurtenaunces, ij. lyttle 
candlestyks, one bell, one paxe, one masse boke and two olde alterclothes." 

5. — The chantry of Saint Thomas, founded by John Shapecape, and 

licensed by Edward HI. Yearly value, £d^ 13s. 4d. 

" One rede vestment of satten, one olde vest of white fustyan, one olde vestment, 
whyte sarsenet, ij. vestments of tauney dornix, one olde vest of grene bawdkin, with ther 
appurtenaunces, ij. smale candlestycks of brasse, ij. crewetts, ij. alterclothes, one masse 
boke of parchement, one lytle bell and one vest of tauney dornyxe." 

6. — The chantry of St. Mary the Virgin, founded, it is said, in the reign of 
Edward I. Yearly value, £^ i8s. lod. 

"One vestment of chaungeable baudkin, one vestment of crauecolor fustyan, one 
vest of taffata, one vest of grene dornix, one olde vest of chaungeable dornix, and one 
vest of whit damaske, with the appurtenaunces, iiij. candlestiks of brasse, one litle bell, 
ij. crewetts, one masse boke, and iiij. alterclothes." 

7. — The chantry of St. Margaret, founded in 1394 by Stephen Whitgrayt 
and Mary his v^^ife. Yearly value, £^ 8s. 

** One vestment of blewe baudkin, one vest of white Brigs saten, one vest of rede 
Bridges satten, one olde vest of grene baudkin, with ther appurtenaunces, one masse boke, 
ij. brasse candlestycks, one litle bell, a paxe, with a sylver plate, iij. olde altercloth, ij. 
hangings for the alters, of grene Briges, with pictures." 

• "Darnex. a coarse sort of damask used for carpets, curtains, &c., originally manufactured at Tournay, called 
in Flemish, Dornick:' SallivoeU, 

t Whitgray represented Newcastle in the parliamenU of 1385 and 1390. 



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8. — The chantry of St. Cuthbert, founded in the reign of Richard II., by 
Thomas Harrington and William Redmarshall.* Yearly value, £^ 3s. 2d. 

" One vestment of blew saten Briges, one vest of bustian, one of yellowe baudkin, 
one of rede taffata, and one of blew dornix with the appurtenaunces, iij. olde alterclothes, 
vj, candlestycks of brasse, one litle bell and a masse boke." 

9. — The chantry of St. Eloi, founded by Robert Castell. Yearly value, 

£a ios. 

" One vest of grene baudkin, one vest of olde baudkin, with the appurtenaunces, one 
olde masse boke, ij. alter clothes, ij. broken candlestyks, ij. litle crewetts, and one lytle 
beU." 

10. — Another chantry of St. Mary the Virgin was founded in 1500 by 

George Carr, of whom I shall have more to say when I come to speak of his 

monument. ** The said chauntrie hath ben dissolved and the service therof 

discontinued syth the 4th day of FebruarV' 1536, its endowments having been 

seized *' by one Thomas Carr without any licence obteyned of the kinges 

majestie in that behalfe." 

Description. 

No part of the church founded early in the twelfth century exists now. 
Such fragments of Norman work as I have seen are of late date, and cannot be 
ascribed to a period earlier than the year ii50.t The one distinctive portion 
of the Early English work which followed the fire of 12 16 has been already 
mentioned (page 92). Probably, however, we should be correct in ascribing 
the walls above the nave arcades, and beneath the clerestory, to the same 
period. 

The statement of Dr. Ellison's MSS. that the church was rebuilt and 
finished in 1359 must be understood to refer only to the nave and transepts. 
Their architecture is of this date. The original features of these portions are 

* Redmarshall was several times sheriff of Newcastle, and its representative in the parliaments of 1382 and 1397. 

t Nearly the whole of the Norman stones to which I refer are preserved in the grounds of Mr. Richard Gail's 
residence at Gateshead Fell. They were saved from destruction at the time of Sir G. Gilbert Scott's restoration by 
Mr. Gail's intervention. There are two stones of the same character in St. Nicholas's grave3rard. Most of them seem 
to be portions of responds, but a smaller number are voussoirs. All of them are moulded with chevrons. I may here 
also mention that in the graveyard there are two stones of later twelfth century date. The decoration in each case is 
an engaged Transitional capital. 



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preserved in the arcades of the nave, two windows in its south wall, the row 
of arched recesses in the same wall, and some of the windows of both transepts. 
The crypt, beneath the north transept, is of the same date. The architecture 

of these parts is of 
much better character 
than that of the chan- 
cel. The transepts, 
too, present better 
work than the nave. 
It must, however, be 
confessed that, except 
the tower, the archi- 
tecture of the whole 
church is of an ex- 
tremely inornate type. 
There is abundant 
evidence of the desire 
of its builders to get 
a large result from a 
small expenditure. 

The nave is divided 
from each aisle by an 
arcade of four arches, 
which spring from 
plain octagonal piers, 
without capitals. The 
hood mouldings ter- 

IN THE North Aisle of the Nave. minate in sculptured 

heads. All the windows of the nave, except the two near the east end of the 
south wall, have been replaced by later ones with Perpendicular tracery. The 
arched recesses in the south wall, originally eight in number, were doubtless 
intended to receive the tombs and effigies of benefactors to the church. 




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The chapel on the south side of the nave was the chantry of St. Margaret 
(see page 104). Its erection may be safely ascribed to the time when that 
chantry was founded. It is now known as the Bewick Porch, having been, 
from 1636 to 1859, the burial place of the family of Bewick, of Close House, 
Heddon-on-the-Wall. 

The south transept contains two of the most beautiful windows in the 
church, both in its east 
wall. One is square headed, 
with a relieving arch above ; 
the other is pointed, and 
contains tracery of almost 
Flamboyant character.* The 
latter is an especially fine 
piece of work. When the 
church was built individual 
benevolence was doubtless 
directed towards special 
portions, and this may ex- 
plain the higher architec- 
tural character of parts in 
which persons had almost 
proprietary rights. The arched recess in the south wall of of this transept 
was constructed to receive the recumbent effigy which now lies in the Bewick 
Porch, and to which I shall again refer. In the same wall there is also a 
piscina. From time immemorial this transept has been called St. Mary's Porch, 
and here, there can be little doubt, was the older chantry of St. Mary, if not 
also the later chantry of the same dedication. 

♦ I accept the modern tracery of the windows of this church, with one or two exceptions, as representing, with 
varying degrees of accuracy, the original tracery which it has replaced. There is, in fact, scarcely a fragment of old 
tracery in the whole building. I must beg my most cursory reader to remember that throughout this chapter in 
speaking of windows I refer only to their architecture. It does not come within my province to notice aught modern, 
whether it be stained glass, reredos, or screen. 




The Crypt. 



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Beneath the north transept is the crypt. Its length from east to west is 
23 feet, and its breadth 1 1 feet. Its vault, a segmental arch, is constructed of 
large slabs of stone, and rests upon five plain chamfered ribs. In the east wall 
is a circular window, with flowing tracery, of the type called, even in mediaeval 
times, " Saint Catherine's windows." Near the east end of the south wall is a 
plain angular-headed piscina. Here, probably, was one of the chantries of St. 
Catherine. This crypt, after the Reformation, like similar structures elsewhere, 
became a chamel house. Previous to being cleared out, in December, 1824, 
**it was found nearly filled with human bones, the larger ones in regular piles/' 

In the west wall of the north transept we have a two-light window of very 
pleasing design. The north window of this transept is of five lights. The 
original tracery and mullions became ruinous early in the present century, and 
a new window, said at the time to be an exact copy of the old one, was inserted 
in 1824. The general outlines of the old window were retained, but minute 
details were evidently overlooked. 

The aisle of the north transept, which is on its east side, and is divided 
from it by an arch, has long being called St. George's Porch. There are two 
good two-light windows, with flowing tracery, of identical pattern, in its east 
wall. In the north wall we have a window of the same design as the two 
original windows of the nave. In the same wall, however, we have one of the 
most remarkable windows in the church. Though not by any means unique, 
it is a window of very unusual type. It is of three lights, the centre light with 
trefoiled head, and the side lights with cinquefoiled heads; but the upper 
portion is chiefly occupied by a circle, filled with what Mr. Freeman has 
happily described as "the Flamboyant version of the spokes of the wheel."* 

The chancel is about a decade later than the portions we have already 
considered. In every way its architecture is inferior to that of the nave, and 
this, to some extent, may be due to the rectorial rights of the bishops and priors 
of Carlisle. It is divided from its aisles by arcades, each of four arches, which 

• There are windows with flowing wheel tracery in the churches of Marston St. Lawrence, Northamptonshire, 
and Ancaster, Lincolnshire, and in the Cathedral of Exeter ; but the one example which most closely resembles this of 
Newcastle is a somewhat earlier and richer window in the church of Amport, Hampshire. 



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log 

were, even at first, too wide for their height, but which have been still further 
dwarfed by the floor of the chancel having been considerably raised. The 
windoAvs of the north and south walls are each of four lights, and the upper 
portions are filled with tracery of very meagre design. The windows at the 
east end of the aisles, each of five lights, are of the same type. The great 
east window, originally built, it is said, by Roger Thornton, has been twice 
re-erected, and, on the last occasion at least, without any attempt to follow 
the original lines. 

The clerestory has been completely modernized, and, for this reason, 
needs no description here. 

The roodloft had here its usual place at the west end of the chancel. The 
stairway by which it was reached still remains, and the doorway which opened 
upon the floor of the loft is yet left open. 

The roof .of the whole church is of one date, and may be ascribed to the 
latter part of the fifteenth century. Many of the bosses with which it is 
adorned were evidently added at the time of its erection. Most of these bear 
the arms of old local families, but a few have grotesques or conventional designs 
of foliage.* During the alterations of 1783 many new bosses were introduced, 

• The following is a list of the old bosses on the roof : — 

In the chancil. 



I. — Party per fesse, in chief a greyhound courant, and 

in base three annulets. KODES. 
2.— Barry of eight. Selby. 
3. — France and England, quarterly. 
4. — Barry of twelve, three chaplets. Greystock. 
5. — Ermine, a lion rampant 
6. — A cross. 

7. — A chevron and in base an annulet. 
8.— -France and England, quarterly. 
9. — Quarterly, first and fourth, a lion rampant, for 

Percy ; second and third, three lucies haurient, 

for Lucy. 



10. — A saltire. NEVILLE. 

II. — A chevron between three pears. (?) Peareth. 

12. — Per chevron, reversed. 

13.— France and England, quarterly. 

14. — Quarterly, first and fourth, a fesse between three 

crescents, for Ogle ; second and third, an orle, 

for Bertram. 
15. — Three clouds, over all two bendlets between as 

many estoiles. 

1-5 are in the row on the north, 6-10 are in the 

centre row, and 11-15 are in the row on the 

south. 



In the south transtpt. 



I. — A chevron, and in chief an estoile and a crescent. 
2. — A bend, counter embattled. ^?^ Wallis. 

3. — A bend between a in cnief and a roundle in 

base. 



4. — ^A saltire and in base an annulet. 

5. — A chevron between three keys. (?) Harding. 

I and 2 are in the row on the east, 3 is in the 
centre row, and 4 and 5 are in the row on the west. 



In the north transept. 



I. — Foliage. 

2. — Foliage issuing from the mouth of a grotesque head. 

3. — Foliage. 

4. — Foliage. 

5. — ^A fesse dancette. 



6. — ^A mermaid. 

7. — A merchant's mark. 

8.— Foliage. 

1-4 are in the row on the west, 5 is in the 
centre row, and 6-8 are in the row on the east. 



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bearing the arms of the principal subscribers to the cost of those alterations, 
and the arms of the churchwardens then in ofl&ce. The arms of the church- 
wardens, and of certain local banking companies, have been removed, but 
those of aldermen, common councillors, and tradesmen, many of whom had no 
claim to heraldic distinction, have been retained.* 

We now come to the steeple — the pride of every true Novocastrian. 
Whatever may be the merit of this structure from a merely architectural point 
of view, there can scarcely be a question that it is an extremely picturesque 
object. It has neither the refined elegance and peaceful serenity of the spires, 
nor the massive power and inspiring dignity of the towers of our southern 
counties, but there is about it a weird grandeur which is probably unequalled 
by any other English steeple. 

This steeple has had its detractors, amongst whom may be mentioned the 
bibliographer Dibdin, who, as William Howitt says, *' whatever he might know 
about old books, knew nothing about old churches;'* and professor Freeman, 
whose many invaluable services to architectural study I gratefully recognise, 
but who is probably incapacitated to appreciate anything architecturally unusual 
by the conventionalism of his culture, and whose preference for the hard lines 
of a Perpendicular window to the graceful curves of a Decorated one put him 
out of court as evidence on any question of beautiful forms.f As a counter- 



Between the chancel and the nave. 



I. — A chevron between three keys. 
2. — On a bend three lozenges. 
3. — A chevron between three martlets. 
4. — On a chevron three leaves. 



5. — On a cross a mullet of six points. 

I and 2 are in the row on the south, 3-6 in the 
row on the north. 



In the nave. 
On a bend three eaglets within a bordure engrailed. 

* The new arms fixed to the roof in 1783 included those of all subscribers of ten guineas and upwards to the 
alterations. To this rule the vicar, who probably declined the distinction, was an honourable exception. Clerics, com- 
mon councillors, doctors, and lawyers were admitted to the same honour for five guineas. 

t Dibdin describes the steeple as " one of the heaviest, coarsest, and most stunted church-towers in the kingdom ;" 
and adds, "there is nothing ecclesiastical 2ho\ii it. And then for the ornaments, or cap, upon the summit, these appear 
to me to be decidedly objectionable on two grounds ; the one that the whole additions are disproportionately short or 
compressed, — the other, that it does not belong to what it is fixed upon. It is the first cap of a young married woman 
placed upon the head of an elderly maiden aunt." Dibdin was a slipshod and careless writer. His books owe their 
whole charm to the beauty of their pictures and their luxurious typography. So far from the " cap," as he calls it, not 
belonging to the tower, both in reality constitute one design, and the tower has constructive features which were 



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poise to Dibdin and Freeman, I may adduce the testimony of Rickman, whose 
book, after seventy years of progress, is still a standard authority on English 
architecture. 

** The steeple is the most beautiful feature of the building, and is a most excellent 
composition ; it is early Perpendicular, not much enriched, but producing a very fine 
effect : it is a type of which there are various imitations ; the best known are St. Giles's, 
Edinburgh, the church of Linlithgow, the college tower at Aberdeen, and its modern 
imitation by Sir C. Wren, at St, Dunstan's in the East, London ; but all these fall far 

short of the original This steeple is as fine a composition as any of its date, 

and the lightness and boldness of the upper part can hardly be exceeded."* 

In attempting, in the next paragraphs, a more minute description of the 
steeple than that given by Rickman, w^hich I have omitted, my object is to 
guide the reader's attention to the many details vehich deserve examination. 

The tower is -engaged. From its basement a lofty arch opens to the nave, 
and lower arches to the aisles. On the west side is the principal entrance to 
the church. Over this is a five-light Perpendicular window, divided across its 
centre by a transom. The first stage, which is marked externally by a string- 
course and set-oflF, has a Heme vault, in the centre of which there is an 
octagonal opening to the floor above. The abutment of each principal rib 
upon this octagon is covered by a shield bearing the arms of Rodes. The 
inscription which runs around it I have already given (page 94). Over the 
arches on the north and south side are three-light windows. 

introduced with a view to the super-erection of the " cap." His remark that " there is nothing eccUsiastical" about the 
steeple is mere cant. The " ecclesiastical " may be divorced from art, and this possibility — often, alas, achieved — reveals 
their distinction. But they must never be confounded. The " ecclesiastical " may supply the wealth to raise an edifice, 
and art, if rightly invoked, will supply the beauty. But a work of art is simply a work of art. Its glory is not increased 
when the " ecclesiastical " enters, nor diminished when it goes out. The duty of a church to the works of art it 
occupies is to preserve them, jealously and reverentially. 

Mr. Freeman speaks of the steeple as a " strange anomaly," and after describing its architectural features says, 
" the beauty or propriety of so grotesque an arrangement it is indeed hard to understand." 

* I cannot agree with Rickman in speaking of the flying lanterns of Scotland as imitations of this of Newcastle. 
That of Linlithgow has been taken down, and I have not seen even an engraving of it, but those of Aberdeen and 
Edinburgh have individual characteristics which indicate independence of Newcastle in their designs. The lantern of 
St. Giles*?, Edinburgh, vras probably built in or about 1462, and is almost certainly earlier than that of Newcastle. 
That of Aberdeen dates from near the close of the fifteenth century, and, though structurally the strongest of the three, 
is in design the weakest. The steeple of St. Giles's, except its more recent central pinnacle, is really a very beautiful 
work, and when seen from a distance of twice its height, in any diagonal direction, presents an almost endless variety 
of picturesque aspects. There is also much excellent detail about it, and its parapet is especially beautiful. The stair 
way to its lantern, carried over one of its flying buttresses, is peculiar. 



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The second stage, which is also marked by string-course and set-off, 
contains the belfry and the clock. It has windows of two lights on the north 
and the west, and a window of three lights on the south. 

The third and last stage contains the bell chamber. It has two fine and 
lofty louvred windows on each side, each of two lights, and divided at mid- 
height by a transom. 

The tower has a pierced battlemented parapet. At each angle is a lofty 
octagonal turret, surmounted by a crocketed pinnacle, the base of which is 
surrounded by a battlemented parapet. The buttresses of the tower ascend to 
half the height of these corner turrets. On the top of each buttress is a 
pedestal, and on this again a statue.* The parapet is broken midway on each 
side by a similar but smaller and hexagonal turret. 

The lantern rests upon two very obtuse arches, which cross the tower 
diagonally, and intersect each other. They spring from the inner sides of the 
comer turrets. They are moulded and crocketed. The upper side of each 
arch springs by an ogee curve to the angle of the lantern, and thus serves the 
purpose of a buttress. The lantern has on each side an open two-light 
window, divided by a transom. It has also its own battlemented parapet, and 
panelled and crocketed pinnacles. The spire is octagonal, and rests upon the 
lantern. The angles are adorned with crockets. Four miniature flying but- 
tresses spring from the pinnacles of the lantern to the spire. 

The height of the tower to the top of its parapet is 1 17 feet. To the top 
of the vane of the spire the height is 195 feet. 

Mr. Poole, in his " History of Ecclesiastical Architecture,'* expresses 
surprise that the design of ** this beautiful steeple .... was not more 
frequently adopted by contemporary, and imitated by succeeding architects." 
Lack of genius on the part of architects, and lack of spirit on the part of their 

* " The statue at the south-east angle of the tower represents king David with a crown upon his head and a small 
harp in his hand, the strings of which he appears to be in the act of striking — that at the south-west angle, Aaron, the 
high priest, with a mitre on his head and an open book in his hands — at the north-west angle, Adam, who is represented 
in the act of conveying an apple to his mouth, — ^and at the north-east angle. Eve is depicted as having just presented 
the fruit to Adam."— M. A. Richardson. 



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patrons, are doubtless amongst the reasons. The decline 
commenced almost 
before this steeple 
was completed. 
One thing, how- 
ever, is certain. It 
is not because of 
any defect in the 
principles of its 
construction that 
its style has not 
been imitated. As 
a structural tri- 
umph it is perfect. 
All the bolting and 
buttressing which 
it has needed in 
the present cen- 
tury have been due 
to the ill treatment 
to which it had 
previously been 
subjected, when 
sewers were laid 
and graves dug 
close to its foun- 
dations. 

I must now 
describe the font 
and its exquisitely 
beautiful cover. The font. 




of architectural art 
The font and its 
p edestal are of mar- 
ble. The design 
is extremely plain. 
The shape is an 
octagon, each side 
being slightly hol- 
lowed. The sides 
of the bowl have 
shields, six of 
which bear the 
arms of Rodes. 
One of the re- 
maining shields 
bears, within a 
bordure engrailed 
a chevron between 
three birds^ proba- 
bly choughs. The 

. last shield bears 
the arms of 
Rodes quartering 
the arms just de- 
scribed. When Ro- 
bert Rodes died, in 
1474, his heiress, 
the daughter of his 
brother John, was 
a maiden of only 
fourteen summers. 



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114 

She afterwards married one Richard Bainbrigge, whose immediate ancestry is 
unknown, but who is said in the herald's visitation of 1575, to be a younger 
member of the family of Bainbrigge of Snotterton in the parish of Staindrop. 
His wife brought him the estate of Wheatley Hill in the parish of Kelloe, which 
was enjoyed by their descendants for several generations. The Wheatley Hill 
people in later times bore on a chevron between three choughs^ as many stags* 
headsy with an escallop in chief iox diflFerence from the arms of the Snotterton 
family. The probability is that the arms on the font are an earlier diflFerence 
of those of Bainbrigge. I confess to a strong disposition to regard this font as 
a memorial of Robert Rodes, placed beneath the tower which his benevolence 
had built, by his niece, Alice Rodes, and her husband, Richard Bainbrigge. 

The truly splendid cover is, I have little hesitation in saying, at least half 
a century later than the font. Despite the introduction of classic details, its 
general character is Gothic. One of its most beautiful features is its mimic 
vaulting, in the centre of which is a large boss, representing the coronation of 
the Virgin. 

Monuments.* 

The earliest memorials of the dead which this church possesses are 
gathered together in the Bewick Porch. Here are quite a number of frag- 
ments of early grave covers. One of these bears a portion of an inscription, 
but all that can now be read is, 

LAWLTVPOLAR 
►I* SIBELLA 

In the same place, however, are three whole grave covers. One of these was 
discovered in 1867, beneath the north arch of the tower. It is of fourteenth 
century date. The cross it bears is in low relief, with sunk spaces at the head 
and foot, in which the face and feet of the deceased are represented. The 
design of such a grave cover is readily understood when it is remembered that 

• I have only room for a selection of the more interesting monuments. My friend, Richard Welford, 
has written "A Descriptive and Historical Account of the Monuments and Tombstones in the Church of St. Nicholas, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne" (1880), which, like all his books, is a mine of valuable information. To this volume, and to 
Richardson's "Armorial Bearings in St. Nicholas's Church," I commend the reader who desires further information on 
the subject of the present section. 



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115 

these ancient slabs were really the lids of coffins. The symbols on the dexter 
side of the cross ^re a pick-axe and mattock, and on the sinister side a sword. 
The elaborate character of the monument forbids our regarding it as that of a 
labourer. Probably it is that of a yeoman. 

The two other grave covers were found in 1886, beneath the south wall of 
the chancel. One of these is an extremely beautiful example. Its date is the 
thirteenth century. The cross, which has foliations covering its base, springing 
from its stem and surrounding its head, is in bold relief. The symbols in this case 
are a pair of shears and a book. The shears always denote a female. Possibly 
the book means that she could read. 

The last grave cover is of the fourteenth century. The cross, which is 
only incised, is of very plain design. Each arm terminates with a fleur de lis. 

The only symbol in this case is a key, which denotes 
j>^ a female in the character of housekeeper.* 

The recumbent effigy, which also 
^^] lies in the Bev^ick Porch, and to which 
I have previously referred (page 
107), is ascribed by Mr. 
LongstaflFe to Peter 
ie Mareshal, who 
bad been sword- 
bearer to Edward I., 
and who was buried 
in this church on the i8th 
September, 1322. Edward II., 

Effigy of Peter le Mareshal. who waS then in Newcastle, 

not only paid 3s. 4d. for a mass to be said for MareshaFs soul on the day of 
his interment, but as we learn from the king's wardrobe accounts, 

" There was placed by the command of the lord the king upon the body of Peter 
Mareshal, sword bearer to the deceased king, on the day of his burial in the parish 
church of Saint Nicholas in the town of Newcastle, a cloth of gold." 

* See an interesting paper on these grave covers by C. C. Hodges, printed in Archaeohgia Aelianuy Vol. XII. 




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The effigy is clothed in chain mail, with a surcoat. The legs are crossed, 
and at the feet is a lion. The shield, which is supported by an angel, bears a 
bend. 

Fixed to the west wall of the south aisle is a portion, the only one left in 
this church, of the magnificent monument of George Carr and his wife. This 
interesting monument, though disfigured by the Scots after the siege of New- 
castle, was entire till 1783. Brand gives a rude, but now valuable engraving 
of it. It was a canopy-covered altar tomb, on which lay the effigies of Carr 
and his wife. Its sides were adorned with niches, in which were the figures of 
saints. The female effigy is now preserved in the chapel of the Castle. The 
monument bore two inscriptions, one in Latin and one in Enghsh. The 
former read : 

i^tate pro SLnhna (Btovsii Cat quontiam 9^af otij$ ittivm tille^ qui obiit Slnno 9Domf nf 
9^HUlimo €€€€ Cuiu0 animal taropittetur 9Deuj$^ 

George Carr died about 1503. The monument was doubtless prepared 

during his life, and a space left blank to complete the date, but this was never 

done. The English inscription commenced on the portion of the monument 

which is preserved, and which formed the end at the feet of the effigies. This 

portion reads : 

iSDur latip pteft ia bon to fap 8Lt tfie lauatotp ntp Hap 

— which means that the incumbent of the chantry founded by Carr, and dedicated 

to **our Lady,** was bound to say daily, at the piscina or altar,* what the 

remainder of the inscription implied. This remaining portion ran along the 

front of the monument, and was copied, though, I fear, very imperfectly, into 

a volume which still remains amongst the churchwardens* books. It is there 

given as follows : 

ifot (Btovst CatjS ^atoll W ^?Sj$ atiH C||iltierj$ &aVDlj$ all $c to mabe a &Dlem 
aDprjre a^aiJ W^ all W JBrutfierri in p« ^topre & bfrfe to fmo: ass aperpti) 
in W torttfno:— Rime. 

* I have two instances of the use of the word " lavatory " to denote what we now call ^ phcina : 

" And the ele [aisle] sail be alourde [a word which means to make the foot and water path behind the parapet 

of a building] acordant to the quere with an awterand a lauatoiy acordaunt in the este ende." — Contract for the building 

ofCatterick Church, A.D. 14 1 2. 

" In either wall [of the chancel] three lyghts and lavatoris in aither side of the wall, which shall serve for four 

Auters." — Contract for the building of Fotheringhay Church, A.D. 143 5. 



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117 

** His writing " means the foundation deed of the chantry, and the copyist's 
last word — **rime'* — I accept as his memorandum that the inscription was a 
rhyming one. This latter part of the inscription was secured by alderman 
Hornby, and placed in his garden, but, I fear, is now irrecoverably lost. The 
existing portion of the monument has borne a sculptured rood, and though 
this has been terribly mutilated, the figures can easily be traced. On the lower 
edge are two words which G. B. Richardson read as 

Jttn a^erci/ 
On the east wall of St. George's porch is a monument which has long 
been regarded as an enigma by local archaeologists. Brand briefly describes 
it (i. 300), but mentions no inscription. Later writers have assumed that it 
bears none, except the motto, 

En Diev est mon Esperance. 

The boss on the pediment, however, bears unmistakable traces of an inscrip- 
tion, though all that can now be deciphered is **maii . . 29." The centre of 
the monument is occupied by a shield, bearing the arms of Surtees and Grey, 
quarterly, and having for supporters, on its dexter side, a mermaid holding a 
mirror, and on its sinister side a naked man holding a club. Robert Surtees, 
the historian of Durham, engraved the shield and its supporters (III, 403), and 
gives the following, legible evidently in his day, as the inscription : 

Thomas Surteis, Armiger, juxta hunc tumulum suum sepultus est, y die maii, 1629, i€T. 63. 

This Thomas Surtees was the last male representative of an ancient family, 
who owned the vill of Gosforth as early as the reign of Henry II. 

The Maddison monument next claims attention. In their day the 
Maddisons were important people in Newcastle. Their pedigree is an ancient 

♦ A descendant of George Carr was Catherine, the daughter of William Carr, of Cocken. She married William 
Mompesson, the heroic rector of Eyam, in the county of Derby. When, in 1665, the plague invaded that secluded and 
charming village, Mompesson refused to leave his people, and his " young and beautiful wife '* remained by his side. 
He escaped, but she fell a victim to the pestilence. Central amongst all objects of interest at Ejram — and they are 
many — is the tomb of Catherine Mompesson. The beauty of her person and the goodness of her heart are there to this 
day a household tradition. The story of Eyam's great woe has been often told, but never so well as in the pages of the 
village historian, William Wood, and in the now almost inaccessible " Desolation of Eyam,*' by William and Mary 
Howitt, on the vignette of whose title page the Mompesson tomb is shown, as it really stands, and worthily, side by side 
with the early Saxon cross which commemorates the planting of Christianity in the glorious dales of Derbyshire. 



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one. The first Maddison who was connected with Newcastle was one Lionel, 
a younger son of Rowland Maddison of Un thank in the parish of Stanhope. 
Lionel Maddison's only son was Henry Maddison, to whose memory this 
elaborate monument was erected by Lionel, the eldest of his ten sons. This 
younger Lionel, in the early part of his life, was a royalist, and was kilighted in 
1633 by Charles L, whom he entertained at dinner; but he afterwards changed 
his political principles, and died during the commotions of the latter part of 
Charles's reign. The principal figures on the front of the monument are those 
of Henry Maddison and his wife. The two large figures on the left side are 
those of Henry's father and mother, Lionel and Jane Maddison. The figures 
on the right are those of Sir Lionel Maddison, and his wife Anne, the daughter 
of William Hall, of Newcastle, whose monument will be presently noticed. 
The first Lionel and his son are clothed in aldermanic robes, whilst Sir Lionel 
is in armour. Beneath the principal figures are two rows of smaH effigies ; the 
row on the left representing the ten sons of Henry Maddison, and the row on 
the right his six daughters. The second of the female effigies is much smaller 
than the rest, and represents a child who died in infancy. The figures on the 
top of the monument represent Faith with a cross. Charity holding a flaming 
heart, and Hope with an anchor. Below the figure of Faith are the words: 

MEMORI^ SACRVM. 

and below the figure of Hope, 

MEMORARE NOVISSIMA. 

A marble panel beneath the effigies of the first Lionel and his wife bears the 

following inscription : 

Here rests in christian hope y bodies 
of uonell maddison sone to rowland 
maddison of vnthanke in y covnty 
of durham esq & of lane his wife 
shee died ivly 9. 161i. hee having ben 
thrice maior of this towne depar 
ted dec 6 1624 aged 94 veares 
hee liued to see his onely sonne hen 
ry father to a fayre & numerous issue 

Below this inscription are the words : 

ANIMiE SVPEK iETHERA VIVuNT 



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119 
The panels under the principal figures are inscribed as follows : 

Here interred also are the bodys of henry mad Elizabeth his only wife had issve by him ten 

DISON, & ELIZABETH HIS WIFE (DAVGHTER TO ROBERT SONNES S» LIONELL M ADDISON KT RAPHE, ROBERT 

BARKER OF THIS TOWNE ALDERMAN) WHO LIUED TOGE WILLIAM, HENRY, PETER, GEORGE, TIMOTHY, & THOMAS, 

THER MOST COMFORTABLY, AND LOUlNGLY IN TRVE AND SIX DAVGHTERS lANE, SVSAN, ELIZABETH, BARBARA 

WEDLOCK Y SPACE OF 40 YEARES • HE WAS SOMTYME ELENOR & lANE. ALL THE SONNS AT HIS DEATH WERE 

MAIOR OF THIS TOWNE & HAVING LIUED IN GOOD LIUiNG BUT lOHN, WHO DIED IN Y LATE EXPEDITION 

NAME AND FAME 60 YEARES, DECEASED IN Y TKVE TO CADIZ. SHE LIUED HIS WIDOW I9 YEARS AND 

FAITH OF Christ the 14" of ivly 1634 being aged 79 years, dyed the 24 of septemb 

1653. 
Beneath these inscriptions are the mottoes: 

DECUS VTTJE EST HONORATA MORS BEATI MORTUi gul IN DOMINO MORIVNTUR 

The panel beneath the effigies of Sir Lionel and his wife was left blank when 
the monument was erected, in order that, after their death their descendants 
might inscribe upon it a record of their lives and virtues. It remained blank, 
however, until very recently. It now bears the following inscription : 

IN THIS CHVRCH ARE ALSO INTERRED THE 
MORTAL REMAINS OF SIR LIONEL MADDISON, 
KNT. (DESCENDED FROM THE ANCIENT 
AND WORSHIPFVL FAMILY OF MADDISON 
OF ELLERGILL & VNTHANK C9 DVRHAM) 
WHO WAS MAYOR OF THIS TOWN IN 1 632 
& DIED IN NOV. 1646. AGED 5 1 YEARS & OF 
ANNE HIS WIFE WHO WAS SISTER AND 
COHEIRESS OF SIR ALEXARDER HALL, KNT. 
AND DIED IN APRIL 1 633. 

Below this are the words: 

SERius AuT crrius metam properamus ad vnam. 

This monument was originally fixed to the pillar at the west end of the south 
aisle of the chancel, but was moved to its present place in the south transept 
during the restoration of the church.* 

* On the front of the monument are two shields, bearing arms, quarterly^ first and fourth^ two battle axes in sattsre^ 
for Maddison, secomt and tkirdy on a chevron between three martlets a mullet of six points^ for Marley. The marriage of 
Jane, the daughter and heiress of William Marley, to William Maddison, of Ellergill, brought Unthank to the Mad- 
disons, with whom it remained for many generations. Over the figures of old Lionel Maddison and his wife is a shield, 
bearing Maddison and Marley quarterly, impaling a /esse ermine between three pairs of wings conjoined in lure^ for 
Seymour. Lionel Maddison 's wife was Jane, daughter of Thomas Se3rmour. Over the ^ures of Sir Lionel and his 
wife is a shield, bearing Maddison and Marley quarterly, impaling a fesse engrailed between three griffins* heads 
erased^ for Hall. 

" Underneath the sixteen smaller statues, representing the 16 children of Henry and Elizabeth Maddison, is a 
beautiful series of small shields, pointing out their intermarriages." So wrote Brand in 1789. In 1820, when 



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The Hall monument so closely resembles that of the Mad^sons as to leave 
no doubt that both were designed and executed by the same artist. The two 
families were evidently intimately associated. Henry Maddison's two eldest 
sons married William Hall's two eldest daughters. The principal figures on 
the monument are those of William Hall and his wife, whose maiden name 
was Cock. The six smaller figures below represent their one son, and 'five 
daughters. The inscription, which is now not easily read, is as follows : 

GVLIELMVS Hall ARMIGER QVONDAM MAIOR HVIVS VILLiE, ET 
IaNA VXOR EIVS CHARISSIMA : FGELICI PROLE DITATI, IVXTA HOC 
MONVMENTVM IN DOMINO REQVIESCUNT . ILLE VICESIMO OCTAVO 
DIE IVLII AN. DO. 163I, iETATIS SVM 63. ILLA DVODECIMO DIE 

AVGVSTI AN DOM 1613, iETATIS 36. 
INQVORVM MEMORIAM ALEXANDER HaLL, EQVES AVRATVS, 
VNICVS EORVM FILIVS SVPERSTES HOC MERITO POSVIT. 

William Hall's only son. Sir Alexander, the ** Eques Auratus" of the epitaph, 
died leaving an only son who died in infancy, and with him this branch of the 
family, in the male line, became extinct.* 

During the recent alterations at the east end of the chancel, two grave 
stones of considerable interest have been found. One of these, shown in the 

Richardson's " Armorial Bearings " was published, these shields were still upon the monument. They have all since 
disappeared. The following list of Henry Maddison's sixteen children gives all that is known about their marriages : 

I. — Lionel, afterwards knighted, was sheriff of Newcastle in 1624 and mayor in 1632. He married Anne, the 
second daughter of William Hall. His only issue was a daughter, Elizabeth, who married Sir George 
Vane, the son of Sir Henry Vane the elder. 

2. — Ralph, married Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of the same William Hall. 

3. — Jane, married William, son of Sir Nicholas Tempest, of Stella. 

4. — Robert, married Draper. 

5. — Susan, died in infancy. 

6. — John, died unmarriecl " in the late expedition to Cadiz." 

7. — Elizabeth, married (i) William Bewick, of Newcastle and Close House, and (2) Thomas Loraine, of 
Kirkharle. 

8. — Barbara, died at the age of 13. 

9. — William, married Rebecca Gray. 

10. — Henry, married Gertrude, daughter of Sir George Tonge, of Denton, in the County of Durham. 
II. — Eleanor, married Sir Francis Bowes, of Thornton. 
12. — Peter, married Elizabeth Marley. 
13. — George. 
14. — Timothy. 

15. — Thomas, married Jane, daughter of Ralph Cock, of Newcastle. 
16. — A second Jane, born three years after the death of the first daughter. 

* The shield near the top of the monument bears the arms of Hall, a ftsse ingraiUd between three griffins* heads 
erased. The shield below bears the arms of Hall impaling Cock. The arms of the Merchants' Company of Newcastle 
are on the left side of the pediment. Sir Alexander Hall's estates, in Gateshead^ Pittington, and elsewhere, were very 
extensive. After his son's death, they were divided, partly in accordance with a will, and partly by mutual consent, 
between his cousin Nicholas Hall, rector of Loughborough, his brother-in-law and sister, Ralph and Elizabeth 
Maddison, and his four other sisters. 



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Here 
liiSth th 
of peter rid 
knight twise 
of this town who dep 




accompanying engraving, originally covered the grave of the first-bom child of 

Christopher and Anne He of Newcastle, to whom, F^^^iVif^MliW- Ifp^ 

though six female children afterwards came, no ^j^U-ii- • It4 If 

second son was born. This child, whose name was 

Robert, was bom in March, 1595, and died in 

January, 1599, old style. The lies were another 

wealthy and influential Newcastle family. 

The other grave stone found at the same time 

is that of Sir Peter Riddell. Only a part of the 

inscription, given in the margin, is decipherable. 

Sir Peter Riddell married, as 
his second wife, Mary, the 

second daughter of the Thomas Surtees whose monu- 
ment is described a few pages back. Sir Peter was 

TED TO THE MERCY OF GOD 

THE 18TH OF APRiLL ANNO mayor of Newcastle in 161 9 and 1635, and represented 

DOMINI 1641. Newcastle in the parliaments of 1624, 1626, 1628, and 

in the short parliament of 1 640. Above the epitaph is a shield bearing arms.* 

De Ultimis Rebus. 

The tower contains nine bells, eight of which form the peal. The ninth, 
a fixed bell, which weighs 8,064 pounds, was purchased in 1833, by a bequest 
of Major George Anderson, and is only used for the clock to strike the hours 
upon.t The whole peal, in Bourne's estimation, had ** a bold and noble Sound, 
and yet exceedingly sweet and Harmonious." But he, pure-hearted soul, had 

* As this is much effaced, and can only with great difficulty be deciphered, I venture to record the blazon : 
Quarterly ^ first and fourth a /esse between three gardsy second and third three icicles in bendy on an escutcheon of pretence a 
chevron between three covered cups ; tmpaliug qiiarterly^ first and fourth ^ ermine^ on a canton an orUy second and third a 
liott rampant within a bordure engrailed. On the west wall of St. Mary's Porch is a square stone bearing a Riddell 
shield, with six quarterings. i, a lion rampant within a bordure engrailed; 2, a f esse between three garbs; 3, three 
icicles in bend; 4, afesse between three mullets ; 5, a chevron between three martlets ; 6, barry of six and in chief three 
annulets. This was the coat borne by Thomas Riddell of Fenham, who married Mary, daughter of Edward Grey of 
Birchfield, and died about 1704. 

f It was cast at the foundry of Sir R. S. Hawks & Co., Gateshead, by James Harrison, of Barrow-on-Humbcr, 
the son of John Harrison, the inventor of the chronometer. 



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122 

been familiar with their tones from his childhood, and so, through all his life, 
they had the spell — the enchanted power — 

With easy force to open all the cells 
Where memory slept. 

Three of the bells are of pre-Reformation date, and bear Latin inscrip- 
tions. The first of these, the fourth in the peal, is inscribed : 

* J^nltia Slftto iMtlift ©rampana "yirocor pEiitatlits 
This bell was cast by William Dawe of London, who, on a circular stamp he 
used, called himself ** William Founder,*' and was best known by his assumed 
name. He was in business from 1385 to 141 8. The second ancient bell, the 
sixth in the peal, has the inscription : 

4^ jSum :if^fcolafu0 ®t)an0 €runcti0 ^^oHulamfna :f>roman0 
The third ancient bell, the seventh in the peal, is inscribed: 
•h & mater Hia me (ana tfcffo maria 
The inscription on this bell is followed by two stamps, one of which represents 
the Virgin and Child. The two latter bells are pronounced by Mr. 
Stahlschmidt to be of early fifteenth century date, and probably of York 
manufacture. 

The third bell bears an inscription to which it is not easy to attach any 
very intelligible meaning: 

COVRT TO THIS HEIGHT YOW WHEN THIS TOWRE WHEN 1 658 I H SEE IT WAS BVIl,T.* 

The first and second bells were cast by R. Phelps of London, in 1717, 
and the fifth by Thos. Mears of London, in 1791. 

The eighth, or tenor bell, is known as the Common or Great Bell. Brand, 
on the authority of the Carr MS., says it was cast in 1593. The following 
extract from the Corporation accounts seems to imply that the date should 

be 1595: 

1595, Oct. — Paide to Wm. Bome in consideration of a hauser which was spoilede in halynge 
[hauling = hoisting] upp the common bell of Sainte Nichol church to 
steple, 20^. 

Yet, according to Bourne, this bell ** was sent to Colchester to be new cast in 

♦ This bell bears the arms of Newcastle. When Robert Trollope was building the Exchange in 1658-9, he was 
sent by the Corporation to London, to have " a set of chymes " made for the tower of that edifice ; but it was found to 
be too weak for them, and this bell was given to St. Nicholas's Church. 



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123 

the Year 1615/' and then weighed 3,129 pounds. The present bell was cast 
by Lester and Pack of London, in 1754, and weighs 4,032 pounds. 

The uses which the great bell formerly served are detailed by Brand, in 
his '* Popular Antiquities." '*The tolling of the great bell of St Nicholas's 
church has been from ancient 'times a signal for the burgesses to convene on 
guild-days, or on the days of electing magistrates. It begins at nine o'clock in 
the morning, and with little or no intermission continues to toll till three 
o'clock, when they begin to elect the mayor, &c. Its beginning so early was 
doubtless intended to call together the several companies to their respective 
meeting houses, in order to choose the former and latter electors, &c. A 
popular notion prevails, that it is for the old mayor's dying, as they call his 
going out of office— the tolling as it were of his passing-bell^ But this was 
not all. The same authority tells us that on Shrove Tuesday, ** the great bell 
of St. Nicholas's church is tolled at twelve o'clock at noon ; shops are imme- 
diately shut up, offices closed, and all kinds of business cease : a little carnival 
ensuing for the remaining part of the day." Then might the urchins of 
Newcastle exclaim, in the words of the distich in " Poor Robin's Almanack," 

Hark, I hear the pancake bell, 
And fritters make a gallant smell. 

The same bell was also called the " Thief and Reaver Bell." A reaver was a 

border freebooter. Such persons were permitted to attend the great fairs. 

When the curfew had been tolled on the evening preceding the fair, the thief 

and reaver bell was rung, to announce that, during the fair, ** all people might 

freely enter the town, and resort to it, no process being issued from the 

mayor's or sheriff's courts without affidavit being made that the party could 

not at other times be taken." To the same effect we read, in the old Borough 

Laws of Scotland, ** after that the peace of the fair is proclaimed within burgh, 

in the time of that fair, na man sallbe taken nor attached ; except he break the 

peace of the fair, in coming to it, or returning from it, or remaining in it, or 

gif he be the king's outlaw, or ane traitor, or sic ane malefactor, quhom the 

peace of ye kirk sould not defend."* 

* The ancient fairs have passed away. The first fair, which formerly commenced on the ist, but afterwards on 
the 1 2th August, was called the Lammas Fair, and was granted by king John, and extended by Edward I., in 1284. 



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124 

Amongst the treasures of this church the famed '* Hexham Bible " must 
not be overlooked. This is a folio manuscript of the Scriptures, of thirteenth 
century date, said to have been written in the priory of Hexham. Scarcely 
anything is known of its history. Most of the illuminated initial letters have 
been cut out. The few which remain are beautifully executed. A note at the 
foot of the first page, apparently in the handwriting of Richard Mathew, 
records that the book was given to him on the 20th August, 1666, by John 
Weld, **clericus," who held the rectory of Ryton during the Commonwealth, 
was described as of Lamesley in 1666, and was curate of St. Andrew's, New- 
castle, from 1669 till his death in 1677. A later memorandum, in the hand- 
writing of vicar Ellison, states that the book was given, presumably to him, by 
Thomas Mathew, son of Richard Mathew. 

The only piece of old stained glass remaining in the church is a medallion 
in one of the windows of the south aisle of the nave. It represents the 
Virgin and Child.* 

The second great fair originally begun on the i8th October (St. Luke's day), but latterly on the 29th of that month, 
and was granted by Henry VII., in 1490. 

The proclamation, formerly read at the commencement of the fair, before the mayor and aldermen, on the 
Sandhill, in the Flesh Market, and at the White Cross, was in the following terms : 

" The right worshipful the mayor of this town and the aldermen his brethren, do give you to understand that the 
fair of this town doth begin at 12 of the clock of this present day, and will continue from that time for eight days next 
after, when it shall be lawful for all manner of persons to come to this town with their wares to sell, and it is strictly 
charged and commanded that no person of what degree or quality soever be so hardy during the time of this fair as to 
wear or carry any manner of weapon about him except he be a knight or an esquire of honour, and then to have a sword 
borne after him. And you are further to understand that a court of pie-powder will be holden during the time of this 
fair, that is to say, one in the forenoon and another in the afternoon, where all persons, both poor and rich, may have 
justice duly administered unto them, according to the laws of the land and customs of this town. God save the king." 

A court of pie-powder^ it may be explained, was established " to determine disputes between those who resort to 
fairs and the pedlars who generally attend them." Pied-pulderaux^ in old French, means a pedlar. In the old laws of 
Scotland we have the following passage : " Gif ane stranger merchand travelland throw the realm, havand na land, nor 
residence, nor dwelling within the schirefdome, bot vaigand fra ane place to ane other, quha therefore is called pied 
puldreux or dustifute," etc. 

♦ Of this medallion there is an engraving in the truly wonderful series of plates executed by William Fowler, of 
Winterton. 

In Bourne's day the remains of old stained glass in this church were considerable. Speaking of St. George's 
Porch, he says : ** It hath under it a Vault, and there is on the North Windows the Head of the King^ the Father of the 
Lady which St. George delivered from the Dragon, On the East Windows," he goes on to say, '* is still remaining some 
of the painted Glass. There is particularly the Picture of Saint Laurence^ and some Skin-marks^ and Coats of Arms. 
It has been a beautiful little Place : It is ceiled at the Top, and has been surrounded with carv'd Work in Wood ; some 
of which still remains, to speak the Curious Art and commendable Expence of the Days of old." Even in Brand's time 
some of this glass remained. *' The arms still preserved in the painted glass windows [of St. George's Porch] are those 
of St. Oswin, or Tinmouth monastery — of Edward the Confessor, and those of St. George. On the north window is a 
mermaid combing her hair, and a female saint below, with a whip in her hand, treading on some angry beast." 



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PILGRIM STREET. 

** This Street got it's name from the Pilgrims^ who came from all Parts 
of this Kingdom to worship at our Lady's Chapel at Gesmond'' 

So we read in the quaint and genial pages of Bourne. A derivation so full 
of poetic interest it would be unpardonable to disturb. Bourne's prosaic suc- 
cessor, Brand, however, surmises that ** pilgrims came hither too to visit 
certain reliques of St. Francis that were preserved in the house of Grey Friars, 
near the head of this street/' Be this as it may, it is certain that, as early as 
1292, the street was called the ** Vicus Peregrinorum " — the street of pilgrims. 
Gray describes it as *'the longest and fairest street in the town." 

In the early part of last century Pilgrim Street was the residence of the 
aristocracy of Newcastle. The Erick Bum was then an open stream, towards 
which sloped large gardens behind all the houses from Pilgrim Street Gate — 
which stood where New Bridge Street passes the foot of Northumberland 
Street — to the Manors. Beyond the brook was a large green field, called the 
Carliol Croft, which was bounded on the east by the town wall, behind which 
was the then romantic and sylvan dean of Pandon. Parts of Bourne's descrip- 
tion of the street are too interesting to be omitted here. 

"As you descend this Street, you have on the left Hand a Passage to the Carliol- 
crofts which is a large Field (formerly the Property of the Carliols^ now of John Rogers^ 
Esq ; ) bounded on one Side with the Town's Walls, and on the other by the Gardens on 
this Side of Pilgrini'Street, 

"On that Side of it, next the Town-Wall is a very agreeable Walk, generally 
frequented in a Summer's Evening by the Gentry of this Part of the Town ; The Prospect 
of the Gardens, some of which are exceeding Curious, affording a good deal of Pleasure." 

After mentioning the High Bridge, which he calls Upper Dean Bridge, he 

proceeds : 

"From hence downwards is the most beautiful Part of the Street, the Houses on each 
Side of it being most of them very pretty, neat, and regular ; such are the Houses of Mr. 
Edward Harly Mr. Thomas Biggs^ John Rogers^ Esq ; Thomas Clennellj Esq ; Nicholas 
Fenwick^ Esq ; Nathaniel Clayton^ Esq ; Edward Collingwoody Esq ; Mr. Perith^ Mr. 
John White, John Ogle, Esq ; Mr. Thomas Waters ; Matthew White, Esq ; &c." 



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126 

Near the head of the street, on the west side, a narrow thoroughfare runs 
off, now known as High Friar Street, but formerly as High Friar Chare, and 
Grey Friar Chare. These names it acquired from its proximity to the house of 
the Grey Friars, or Friars' Minors, which was founded at least as early as 1258, 
by the Carliols, who were wealthy merchants of Newcastle in the time of 
Henry HI. The exact site occupied by this house cannot be determined, but 
an Elizabethan mansion, which was built out of its ruins, stood on land now 
occupied by Grey Street, at the point where that thoroughfare is intersected 
by Market Street.* 

After passing three entirely modem streets, we reach the end of High 
Bridge, an ancient thoroughfare from Pilgrim Street to the foot of the Bigg 
Market. It was formerly called Upper Dean Bridge, because it crossed the 
higher of the two bridges which spanned the Lort Burn in the neighbouring 
dean. The course of the dean through which this stream passed is approxi- 

♦ This mansion, which Gray describes as a " Princely house," was built about the year 1580 by Robert Anderson, 
mayor of Newcastle in 1567, and who was clearly an ancestor of the Andersons of Bradley. Bourne describes the house 
as " no less than very stately and magnificent ; being supposed the most so of any House in the whole Kingdom, 
within a walled Town. It is surrounded," he continues, " with a vast Quantity of Ground ; that Part of it which Faces 
the Street, is thrown into Walks and Grass Plats, beautified with Images, and beset with Trees, which afford a very 
pleasing Shade : The other Part of the Ground on the West Side of it, is all a Garden, exceedingly neat and curious, 
adorned with many and the most beautiful Statues, and several other Curiosities." The gardens here described are now 
covered by some of the modern streets of Newcastle. 

When Charles I. was a prisoner in Newcastle he is said to have been lodged in this house, and to have attempted 
an escape hence by the passage of the Lort Burn, but was discovered and captured in the middle of the Side. Till the 
old mansion was destroyed a room was shown in which, it was said, the king had slept. A bed, described by Brand as 
" of a very antique fashion," believed to have been occupied by Charles, remained in the room till early in the present 
century, when it was removed and sold by a domestic, during her master's absence from home. Every possible effort 
was made to recover it, but without success. 

The house was sold by Sir Francis Anderson to Sir William Blackett in 1675, by whose son, the second Sir 
William Blackett, the north and south wings were added. Sir Thomas Blackett offered the estate to the Corporation 
of Newcastle in 1783, but that body declined to effect a purchase. He afterwards sold it to George Anderson, an 
architect and builder, whose son, " Major " George Anderson, afterwards occupied the house, and substituted a pair of 
iron gates, now at the Hermitage, Sheriff Hill, for the old wooden gates by which the Pilgrim Street entrance to his 
grounds had been previously closed. Major Anderson is remembered for his many benevolent and humane deeds, 
and scarcely less for having, in a dispute in which the rights of the freemen were his contention, pulled the nose of 
the then town-clerk of Newcastle, Nathaniel Clayton. For this hasty act he was fined, incarcerated for three months 
in the King's Bench Prison, and bound over to keep the peace. On his return from imprisonment, the people of 
Newcastle, with whom he was a favourite, made great demonstrations of joy, and the bells of the churches rang out 
merry peals. 

There is a very beautiful aquatint view of this house by Sonander, from which the engravings in Straker's 
*' Memoir of Sir Walter Blackett " and in Mackenzie's " History of Northumberland " are copied. There is also a 
valuable bird's eye view amongst Kip's engravings. 



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127 

mately that of Grey and Dean Streets. The High Bridge contains several 
large houses, built in last century. Behind a modern tavern, called the 
" Reindeer," is a square building, now used as a billiard room above, and 
cgUarage below. This is the edifice built in 1765 for the Rev. James Murray, 
a Scotch dissenting minister, who refused to identify himself with any eccle- 
siastical organisation. He died in 1782, and, a few years afterwards, his 
congregation joined the sect of Scotch Presbyterians.* 

Descending the street, we reach, on our right, a large building, now the 
Liberal Club, but formerly the '* Queen's Head '' Inn. It was probably built 
early in last century. The interior of the house has been almost entirely 

* Murray was a somewhat eccentrici but thoroughly honest and fearless character. He threw himself with his 
whole soul into the political life of Newcastle in his day, and was regarded as a most powerful antagonist by parlia- 
mentary candidates of whom he did not approve. His Sunday evening lectures frequently bore reference to the political 
events of the times, and on one occasion at least the town's Serjeants were present, as the corporate authorities appre- 
hended danger from what they regarded as Murray's inflammatory addresses. He was an unflinching advocate of civil 
and religious libert3\ A fine vein of satirical humour runs through many of his writings, which, however, gives place to 
a serious and reverential tone whenever he treats of sacred things. The foNowing is a more complete list of his works 
than has hitherto been printed : 

I. — Select Discourses, upon several important Subjects. 8vo. Newcastle, 1765. 

2. — Sermons to Asses. Fcp. 8vo. London, 1768. (The dedication of this work is addressed " To the very 
excellent and reverend Messrs. G. W[hitfield]., J. W[esley]., W. Rfomaine]., & M. M[ather]. ;" and 
commences with the following words : " There are no persons in Britain so worthy of a dedication of a 
work of this kind as yourselves. Some of you have preached for many years to the members of the 
congregation that these Sermons are designed for.") 

3. — An Essay on Redemption by Jesus Christ. 8vo. Newcastle, 1768. 

4. — Sermons to Men, Women, and Children. 8vo. Newcastle, 1768. 

5. — The Rudiments of the English Tongue. 2nd ed. i2mo. Newcastle, 177 1. 

6. — A History of the Churches in England and Scotland, from the Reformation to this present time. 8vo. 3 vols. 
Newcastle, 1771, 1772. 

7 — The Travels of the Imagination ; a true Journey from Newcastle to London, in a Stage-Coach. Fcp. 8vo. 
London, 1773. 

8. — New Sermons to Asses. Fcp. 8vo. London, 1773. 

9-— EIKQN BA21A1KH ; or the Character of Eglon, King of Moab, and his Ministry. i2mo. Newcastle, 1773. 

10. — Lectures to Lords Spiritual ; or, an Advice to the Bishops concerning Religious Articles, Tithes, and Church 
Power. 8vo. London, 1774. 

II. — The Freeman's Magazine. Newcastle, 1774. (This was a monthly periodical publication, of which, I believe, 
only six numbers appeared.) 

12. — The Contest. Beine an Account of the Matter in Dispute between the Magistrates and Burgesses, And an 
Examination of the Merit and Conduct of the Candidates in the present Election for Newcastle upon 
Tyne. 8vo. 1774. 

13. — A grave Answer to Mr. Wesley's Calm Address to our American Colonies. 4to. 

14. — ^An old Fox Tarr'd and Feathered, occasioned by what is called Mr. John Wesley's Calm Address to our 
American Colonies. i2mo. London, 1775. (On the title is a woodcut representing a fox in clerical 
dress, holding a book, and supposed to be reading the " Calm Address.") 

15. — Lectures upon the most remarkable Characters and Transactions recorded in the Book of Genesis. l2mo. 
2 vols. Newcastle, 1777. 

16. — Magazine of Ants ; or, Pismire Journal. (Only five or six numbers appeared.) 

17. — The New Maid of the Oaks, a Tragedy. 8vo. London, 1778. 



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128 

modernized, but it still retains a very fine old staircase. Before the era of 
railways this was one of the principal coaching houses in Newcastle. After 
the royal mails ceased to run from the **Cock," at the head of the Side 
(see page 2), they ran from the ** Queen's Head." In Mitchell's Newcastle 
** Directory for the year 180 1/' appear the following notices : 

NEWCASTLE and LONDON MAIL COACH, [by York], sets out every morning from 
Mr Turner's, Queen's-Head, Pilgrim-street, half an hour after the arrival of the 
North mail, (generally about half past nine) arrives in York same evening at nine, 
and in London the following night. 

NEWCASTLE & EDINBURGH MAIL COACH, sets out every day from Mr Turner's, 
Pilgrim-street, half an hour after the arrival of the South mail, (generally about 
one o'clock) and arrives in Edinburgh, at Mr Drysdale's, New-town, about seven 
next morning. 

At that time a letter sent from Newcastle to London cost iid. for postage, 

and one from Newcastle to Edinburgh, 8d. The mail coach fare to London 

was £4 4s., and occupied 39 hours. The speed of ordinary coaches was much 

slower. The last mail coach to Newcastle, from the south, arrived on the 7th 

July, 1844, ^^d th^ l^st from the north on the 5th July, 1847.* 

Opposite the Liberal Club is a house which acquires some distinction 

from the distance at which it stands from the street. It is now occupied by 

the offices of the Poor Law Guardians. Formerly it was the town residence of 

18. — Lectures upon the Book of the Revelation of John the Divine. i2mo. 2 vols. Newcastle, 1778. 

19. — An Impartial History of the present War in America. 8vo. 3 vols. Newcastle, 1778 and following years. 
(Part of the third volume was written after Murray's death by the Rev. Wm. Graham, of the Close 
Meeting-house.) 

20. — Popery not Christianity. Fcp. 8vo. Newcastle. 

21. — Sermons to Ministers of State. Fcp. 8vo. Newcastle. 

22. — An Alarm without Cause. i2mo, Newcastle. 

23. — The Protestant Packet ; or British Monitor. (A periodical, of which from 30 to 40 numbers were printed.) 

24. — News from the Pope to the Devil, * • * to which is added, the Hypocrite, by Judas Guzzle Fire, A.M. 
i2mo. 1781. 

25. — Sermons to Doctors of Divinity. 

Besides these works the following are attributed to Murray : " The Fast,** a poem ; " The History of Religion," 
1764 ; "An Appeal to Common Sense," 1764 ; " A Letter to the Minister and Session of the Ass — te Congregation, in 
the Close, Newcastle," 1766. 

In 1819 William Hone reprinted the works numbered 2, 8, 10, 21, and 25 in an octavo volume. In 1828 
W. Fordyce reprinted " The Travels of the Imagination." In both these reprints, as well as in Mackenzie's ** History 
of Newcastle," are biographies of Murray. 

* The old Directories of Newcastle contain much curious information, and are now almost our only authorities on 
the coaching arrangements of bygone days. The first Directory I have seen is dated 1778. It was prepared by one 
William Whitehead, a musical instrument maker and the inventor of a swell for the pianoforte, who liyed in High 
Bridge. Though this tiny volume, which measures 5-1^ by 3iV inches, and contains just 60 pages, has an elaborate 



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129 

the Peareths of Usworth, and was occupied by members of that family till 
1837. The front has been recently modernized, but the walls of the rooms are 
panelled with oak, and the staircase has stuccoed walls and ceiling ; but neither 
the wood nor the plaster work has much merit. 




— n!:lP*^#-i-ti*- ^— . 



The Queen's Head. 

The building now numbered 106 to 112 occupies the site of the ancient 
** Pilgrims' Inn." Bourne speaks of its ** great Antiquity,'* and tells us that it 

" List of Carriers, that come weekly to Newcastle," it gives us no information about coaches. The next Directory, 
also prepared by Whitehead, was printed in 1787, and from it we learn that at that time the coaching houses were : 

The Cock, head of the Side (Royal mail coaches to London and Edinburgh, and a " Diligence " to Leeds) ; 

Turk's Head, Bigg Market (coaches daily to London and Edinburgh, " with a guard in the night ") ; 

Crown and Thistle, Groat Market (coach daily to York) ; and 

Queen's Head, Pilgim Street (coaches to London, Leeds, and Edinburgh). 
Whitehead's next and last Directory appeared in 1790, and the coaching arrangements are almost the same as before, 
except that a coach is announced to run to Durham daily from the Crown and Anchor, Dean Street. In 1795 we have 
'"l^^ Newcastle and Gateshead V^X^'^QIOK^, * * * By WILLIAM HILTON, and ASS/STAN TS." The 
mails then still ran from the Cock, and London and Edinburgh coaches from the Turk's Head. From the Queen's 
Head, however, only one coach, for York and Leeds, started each day. The Durham coach had begun to run from the 
Nag's Head, Butcher Bank. From another Nag's Head, in the Bigg Market, coaches ran daily to Morpeth and Durham ; 
whilst from the Rose and Crown, in the Bigg Market, a coach ran daily to Morpeth, and "Adam Main's Diligence" to 
Hexham and Carlisle every Tuesday and Friday. In the Directory of 1801 the mails are for the first time recorded as 
running from the Queen's Head. The Shakepeare Tavern, in Mosley Street, had then come into eminence as a coaching 
house, and coaches ran thence to London, Edinburgh, and Leeds. From " Sunderland's," Groat Market, coaches ran 
daily to London, and on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday to Hexham and Carlisle. Coaches ran at the same time to 
Sunderland, Durham, and Morpeth, from the Rose and Crown, Bigg Market, and the George, Dean Street. Akenhead's 



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130 

was ** exactly 1 16 Yards one Foot, from the Southmost Comer of Upper-Dean- 
Bridge/' and was **holden of the Dean and Chapter of Durham."* In the 
reign of Henry VIII., the house seems to have been called ** Seynt Cuthbert's 
Inne," and to have been held at a yearly rent of 34s. 8d. Gray*s annotated 
copy of his **Chorographia" informs us that near the inn was **a place of 
Sanctuary." The old house was taken down a few years before the publication 
of Brand's " History," and, when this was done, ** windows of a very ancient 
model, thick walls, &c., as also a crucifix of wood, were found." 

The house now numbered 135 during the latter part of last century was the 
residence of alderman Hugh Hornby, who combined with his municipal 
duties and his business as a woollen draper, the pursuits of an antiquary. He 
not only compiled valuable manuscript collections, but gathered into his house 
and garden many objects of great antiquarian interest. Two relics remain, 
both from the old Tyne Bridge, which was destroyed in 1771. One of these 

" Picture of Newcastle upon Tyne " (1807) is our next source of information. The Turk's Head was then the principal 
coaching house, with two coaches to London daily, one to Edinburgh daily and an additional coach thither thrice a week, 
and a coach to Carlisle also thrice a week. The Half-Moon, Bigg Market, also sent out a coach to London every day. 
Only the mails then ran from the Queen's Head. The next Directory, Mackenzie & Dent's, appeared in 181 1, and then 
the travelling facilities of Newcastle were much the same, except that a Royal mail coach left the Queen's Head daily 
for Carlisle, and a coach ran every day from the Crown and Thistle, Bigg Market, to Hull. The information afforded 
by Hodgson's " Picture of Newcastle " (18 12), is practically the same. Another Directory did not appear till 1824. 
The mails still ran from the Queen's Head, as well as a daily coach to Leeds, but the Turf, Collingwood Street, had 
then become the chief posting house, and the Turk's Head had disappeared from the list. From the Turf three coaches 
ran daily to London, two to Edinburgh, one to Carlisle, one to Lancaster, and one to Leeds. The coaches to nearer 
places, as Hexham, Alnwick, Morpeth, Sunderland, Durham, and Shields, were very numerous, and started from 
taverns of lower rank. In 1838, when Richardson's Directory was published, the coaching facilities of Newcastle were 
at their best. The mail coaches, as well as ordinary coaches to Berwick, Leeds, and Scarborough, ran from the Queen's 
Head, whilst from the Turf there were three coaches daily to London, three to Edinburgh, two to Leeds and Manchester, 
one to Lancaster and Liverpool, one to Nottingham and Leicester, and one to Richmond. 

In Akenhead's '* Picture of Newcastle," after the list of coaches we have the following statement : 
" N.B. There are no hackney coaches in Newcastle, but sedan chairs are much in use." 
Hackney coaches were established in January, 1824, but chairs continued to be used as late as 1838. 

* Bourne also states that the Pilgrims* Inn adjoined " to the North Side of the House of Mr. Edward Colling- 
wood " Collingwood 's house is now the George Inn. As we have other evidence of the correctness of Bourne's 
measurement we know that he, or his printer, has used the word north instead of south. There is a rent charge of £2 
per year left by George Collingwood in 1695, to the curate and wardens of All Saints, to be given by them to two poor 
widows, and to be paid out of the house which is now the " George." 

John Sykes, in his " Local Records," quotes Bourne's measurement of the distance of the Pilgrims' Inn from the 
High Bridge, and adds, " Consequently the present Queen's Head Inn will stand nearly upon the site." John Hodgson 
Hinde paraphrases Sykes's " nearly " into " the very spot," and Sykes or Hinde has been followed by everj' writer who 
has since referred to the Pilgrims' Inn. The measuring line, however, decides the question finally. 



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131 

is a slab bearing the arms of Newcastle with supporters, motto, and date, the 
latter being given as follows: 

Ffortiter Defendit 
Triumphans 1645. 
This stone was originally placed immediately below the battlement of the south 
front of the tower on the bridge. The other relic of the great bridge of Tyne 
is a similar stone bearing the arms of bishop 
Crewe, and formerly occupied an analogous 
position over the gate at the south end of the 
bridge. Both these stones are inserted in the 
wall of Messrs. Gilpin and Company's offices, 
and may be seen by anyone who will walk down 
the passage numbered 137. 

Presently we reach the end of Manor Street, 
a thoroughfare which derives its name from the 
neighbouring grounds of the Austin Friars, which, 
after the dissolution of monasteries, became **the 
king's manor." As this street contains nothing 
which is not modern it shall not detain us. We 
now enter what is popularly known as ** low " 
Pilgrim Street, and the epithet is correct in more 
senses than one. There is much here to interest 
the antiquary, but the work of exploration is 
not especially pleasant. This district might fitly 
be described as the ** Seven Dials " of Newcastle. 
Squalid poverty has here undisputed sway. Yet 
the most cursory visitor could not fail to discover evidence that wealth and 
splendour had once dwelt here. Large buildings, almost every one of which 
is the wretched abode of as many families as it contains rooms, were once the 
homes of the rich and the titled. 

At the head of low Pilgrim Street we are close upon some of the oldest 




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132 

and best known taverns in Newcastle. On our right we have the *' Fox and 
Lamb." The house has borne this name more than i6o years, but the building 
is still more ancient. In the corridor there are two pointed doorways, one of 
which, if not both, must date from the fifteenth century. In a room on the 
first floor, over a fireplace, are two curiously carved panels, one of which bears 
a rose between two fleurs-de-lis and the date 1651, and the other represents a 
grifiin or some such monster. The " Bird in the Bush,*' almost opposite, is part 
of a later building, but the name is as old as that of the " Fox and Lamb." 
Other old signs are the *' Blue Posts," which has been rebuilt; the "Old 




Queen's Head," an old building with half-timbered work in the rear; the " Pack 
Horse," also rebuilt; and the ** Robin Hood," which, though much modernized, 
has portions which are ancient. DiflScult as it may now be to realise, the 
whole of these houses were considered in the early part of the present century 
as amongst the most respectable inns in the town.* 

As we leave this crowd of taverns and descend the street, a few of the 
more interesting houses shall be noticed. 

On our left we have what has once been a magnificent mansion (Nos. 
177-183). It still retains a richly and beautifully carved projecting cornice, 
whilst within is a broad panelled staircase, with massive rail and exquisite spiral 

* In 1565, says the Carr MS., ** Partragc was put downc for coyninjjre fals monnye in the Great Innes in Pilgrame 
Streat." All that is known of Partragc, his deeds and his accomplices, is told by Mr. Welford, in his " History," 
Vol. II., p. 397. 



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PLoto Ltko^ra|>liml ftRiDhxl by Umev ALeman.G.QuvM Squar«.WC. 



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balusters — altogether the finest staircase in the street. Directly opposite 
(No. 1 66) is a large, low, plaster-covered, overhanging house, which extends a 
considerable distance along the adjoining street, which here runs oflf and 
descends into Dean Street. This street, or rather alley, is now called Low 
Bridge, but was formerly known as Nether Dean Bridge. It led across the 
lower of the bridges in the dene, and up the opposite bank into St. Nicholas's 
churchyard. 

A little further, on our left, is another mansion (Nos. 1 91-195), popularly 
known as ** Eldon House." Lord Eldon never actually lived in it, but he once 
intended doing so. It was afterwards occupied 
by his comparatively unknown brother, Henry 
Scott. It also contains a good staircase. 

In the first floor of the opposite house (No. 
178) there is a room with panelled walls and 
stuccoed ceiling. 

We now reach the head of Painter Heugh, 
another thoroughfare which descends into Dean 
Street. 

Going on a little further, we reach a passage 
on our right (No. 202) into which we turn. After 
we have passed the buildings which front the 
street, we have on our right an excellent example 
of a half-timbered, overhanging house, probably 
of early sixteenth century date. When built 
the front of this house had, doubtless, an uninter- 
rupted view across the Tyne ; but, alas ! in the 
course of time this delightful outlook was com- 
pletely blocked. Another house was built on the opposite side of the passage. 
The wall of the latter is quite vertical, and comes over our heads into direct 
contact with the front of its older neighbour. 

We now pass Silver Street on our left, about which I have something to 
say in a later chapter. 




Passage, No. 202, Pilgrim Street. 



M 



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The house numbered 212 to 216 has, on its first floor, a large room 
fronting the street, and extending the whole length of the building, which has 
been panelled in the style which prevailed in the middle of the seventeenth 
century. Most of the wainscot has been stripped off, and certain curiously 
carved panels were sold by a recent occupant. 

Immediately opposite we have one of the grand old mansions (Nos. 227- 
229), a house of four stories, with beautifully moulded string courses, entirely 
worked in brick, at the level of each floor. This house, again, has a good 
staircase. 

Passing All Saints' Church, with the line of old houses on the south side 




^ ^ *. li^ _/^^L 

i'l'fil, 1 

Olp Houses, south of All Saints' CHUjirH- 
of its graveyard, one of them with three 
quaint dormer windows, we reach Akenside Hill on 
our right and Dog Bank on our left, and find our 
selves at the foot of Pilgrim Street. 




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KING JOHN'S PALACE. 

The people of Newcastle are proud, and justly so, of their great and 
inalienable freeholds. . Their ancient inheritance of moorland has been 
splendidly supplemented in modern times by the formation of parks, so that 
now, in open common and garden and lawn, where men and women and 
children may walk at liberty or rest beneath the shade of venerable trees, 
Newcastle is one of the richest and most favoured places in England. But 
whilst one of the moors is linked inseparably with the memory of Sir Aymer 
de Athol, and another with that of the nuns of St. Bartholomew, the parks, 
which occupy so large a portion of the vale of the Ousebum, have their 




^-'>'--^^:msl 






King John's Palace. 



historic associations. Jesmond Dene was the home of an early religious 
foundation, dedicated to **our Lady," and of which the ruined chapel, with 
Norman and later features, is still left ; and Heaton Park encloses the grey, 
ivy-clad remnants of a fortress, in which, in the thirteenth century, lived Adam 
de Gesemuth, or, as we should say, Adam of Jesmond. From time imme- 
morial the old ruin has been popularly known as " King John's Palace." 



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136 

This Adam de Gesemuth was high-sheriff of Northumberland in 1262-4 
and in 1267. ** He acquired the same odious character for peculation and 
extortion that was common to all the sheriffs of that time, except John de 
Plessis and Robert de Insula, who were appointed by the party of Simon de 
Montfort. The unfortunate Roger Bertram of Mitford, who was taken 
prisoner while fighting in the cause of justice and liberty at Northampton, had 
to make over to Adam de Gesemuth his lands at Benridge and the advowson 
of Mitford. In the winter of 1265, Adam de Gesemuth was one of the northern 
barons summoned to treat for the liberation of Prince Edward, who had been 
taken captive by earl Simon's party after the battle of Lewes. This shows his 
great personal importance, as he held most of his property as a feudal tenant 
of the barony of EUingham. In 1269, he had a grant of a market and fair at 
Cramlington ; but all his wealth and influence did little to preserve his memory. 
He apparently left no family, as Ralph de Stikelowe, chaplain, and Marjory de 
Trewick appear as his heirs in 1275." 

Anciently Heaton possessed a chapel, the very site of which is forgotten, 

but which was probably within the precincts of the fortress. Edward I. was 

at Heaton in 1299, and witnessed in this chapel the ceremony of '*the boy 

bishop.'* The king's Wardrobe Accounts of that year contain the following 

record : 

" The boy-bishop (episcopus puerorum). On the 7th day of December, [paid] to a 
certain boy-bishop saying the vespers of St. Nicholas before the king in his chapel at 
Heton near Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and to certain boys coming and singing with the afore- 
said bishop, out of the alms of the king, by the hand of Lord Henry the almsgiver, to be 
divided amongst the aforesaid boys, 40s."* 

* Much curious and interesting information about boy-bishops may be found in Brand's " Popular Antiquities," 
and in that delightfully entertaining book, Hone's "Ancient Mysteries." 




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137 



St. MARY'S CHURCH, GATESHEAD. 

History and Description. 

The ecclesiastical history of Gateshead goes back to a very remote period. 
When Peada, the son of Penda, king of the mid-Angles, came to Oswy, king 
of the Northumbrians, seeking his daughter, Elfleda, in marriage, he was told 
she could never be his wife unless he accepted the faith of Christ and was 
baptized. 

" But he, having heard the preaching of the truth, and the promise of the heavenly 
kingdom, and the hope of the resurrection and of future immortality, freely confessed 
himself willing to become a Christian, even though he should not receive the maiden. 
* * * He was therefore baptized by bishop Finan, with all his earls and soldiers and 
their servants who came with him, at a noted place of the king's, called *Ad Murum.* 
And having received four priests, who, by their learning and conduct, were deemed 
worthy to teach and baptize his people, he returned home with great joy. These priests 
were Cedd and Adda and Betti and Diuma, of whom the last was by birth a Scot, but 
the rest were English. But Adda was the brother of Utta, a renowned priest, and abbot 
of the monastery which is called * Ad Caprae Caput.* " 

This was in the year 653. Ad Caprae Caputs literally, ** at the head of 
the goat," is almost certainly Gateshead.* Of Utta the priest and abbot of 
Gateshead all we know is that he was sent by king Oswy into Kent, to bring 
thence Oswy*s wife, Eanfleda, the daughter of king Edwin. His journey to 
the south was accomplished by land, but he returned by sea, and Bede tells us 
how he miraculously calmed a storm by pouring on the waves a flask of holy 
oil which had been given him for this purpose by bishop Aidan. No fragment 
of Utta's monastery exists, and the tradition which fixes its site where bishop 
Farnham's chapel of St. Edmund stands is perfectly valueless. 

* Some respectable authorities have doubted whether Ad Caprae Caput can be fixed at Gateshead, the genuine 
etymology of which must unquestionably be sought in the Saxon Gatesheved, the gatis htad^ i.e.^ the head or 
terminus of the road. Symeon, however, in his " History of the Church of Durham," calls the place where Walcher 
was murdered, "Ad Caput Caprae," and in the " Historia Regum " we are told that the tragedy occurred "in loco qui 
dicitur Gotesheved, id est, Ad Caput Caprae." An identification which obtained in Symeon's day need not be disputed 
now. 



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138 

From this time to the year 1080 we have no records of the history of 
Gateshead. Walcher, a Norman ecclesiastic, was then bishop of Durham. 
After the execution of Waltheof, the last Saxon earl of Northumberland, the 
earldom was bought by Walcher. Some of the chroniclers represent his 
government as oppressive, unjust, and cruel. Even Symeon of Durham, who 
seeks to screen the bishop's character, admits that his ministers were guilty of 
great wrongs against the people. Gilbert and Leofwine were chief amongst 
these ministers. The former was Walcher*s relative, and was entrusted with 
the aflfairs of the earldom. The latter was his chaplain, and was his confident 
in all private matters. Liulph, a Saxon lord, and founder of the noble family 
of Lumley, had fled from the south before the invading Normans, and had 
taken up his abode on the banks of the Wear, within the domains of St. 
Cuthbert. Here his nationality, his rank, and his virtues endeared him to the 
down-trodden Saxons, with whose cause he identified himself. Although he 
enjoyed the friendship of Walcher, and was a frequent guest at his table, the 
esteem in which he was held by the people, and the fearless remonstrances 
against the injustice of Leofwine and Gilbert which he frequently poured into 
the bishop's ear, kindled against him the hatred of these men. Leofwine 
determined upon his destruction, and this decision Gilbert undertook to 
execute. Attended by troops, he surrounded Liulph's house in the night, and 
put him and the greater part of his family to the sword. Walcher protested 
his grief, and declared that he had no part in the design. But he made no 
attempt to bring the criminals to justice ; and the assassin and his instigator 
continued in their master's favour. The dissatisfaction of the people now 
knew no bounds, and open rebellion seemed imminent. Shortly afterwards the 
bishop summoned a public meeting at Gateshead, and thither the enraged 
people flocked. All he could do to appease them proved fruitless, and, 
foreseeing the gathering storm of outraged human passions, he, with a few 
followers, retired to the little church (ecclesiola). Thither the crowd followed 
him. He then induced Gilbert to go out to the people and endeavour to calm 
them, but he was instantly slain. Presently Walcher himself went forth ; but 



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^39 

on his appearance the cry was raised, "Short red, good red, slay ye the bishop/' 
and he perished miserably. Leofwine still remained in the church, and refused 
to come out. The people then set fire to the edifice, and when at last Leof- 
wine was driven out by the advancing flames he shared the fate of Walcher 
and Gilbert. Many others of the bishop's followers perished at the same time. 
These tragic events occurred on the 14th day of May, 1080. 

This narrative affords evidence that Gateshead had a church in very early 
Norman times, which, there can scarcely be a doubt, had been built before the 
Conquest. Whether the church at the doors of which Walcher was slain 
occupied the site of the present church of St. Mary it is impossible to say.* 

The church as it now stands has been strangely stripped of its architectural 
features, and to the really ancient portions it is not easy to ascribe even 
approximate dates. The old parts of the north and south walls of the nave, 
and portions of the walls of the south transept, have the appearance of early 
Norman work. The masonry is of cubicular character, and there are no traces 
of buttresses. I have little doubt that these parts of the church were built 
soon after the death of Walcher. 

The north wall of the chancel, with its one ancient window, is probably 
much later. This window, which is blocked by a tablet inscribed with the 
Decalogue, and is only visible from the chancel, is widely splayed, and sur- 
rounded by a bold roll-moulding. The eight corbels which support the modern 
roof, and are excellent examples of Norman sculpture, are of the same period. 
In ascribing a later date to the chancel I am borne out by the testimony of 
old engravings, which show two flat, pilaster-like buttresses on its south wall. 
My opinion, though I state it with great diffidence, is that the existing 
portions of the ancient chancel date from about the middle of the twelfth 
century. 

* Bourne mentions a tradition that the church at which Walcher was slain stood " in the Field below where 
Brick-Kilns now are," a spot which Hodgson's invaluable "Picture of Newcastle upon Tyne" further describes as 
"the field on the north east side of the [old] rectory [in Oakwellgate], once called Lawless-Close, and afterwards the 
Miller's-Field." 



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140 

The south door of the nave, of which the only original portion is the 

deeply moulded arch, with its doubly indented label, 
is still later, and belongs to the Transitional period, 
or about the close of the twelfth century. 

The arcades of the nave, each of five arches, 
resting on plain octagonal piers, without capitals, 
but with bold and well-moulded bases, are of late 
Decorated date, and belong to near the middle of 
the fourteenth century. The walls of the clerestory 
were probably built at the same time, but it must 
be remembered that their windows, like all other 
windows in the church, except the one in the north 
wall of the chancel, are entirely modern. The present north transept was 
built in Perpendicular times. There had, however, previously been a transept 
here, for the chantry of St. Mary, founded before 1324, is repeatedly spoken 
of as being **in the north porch (in porticu boreali)." The roof of the nave 
is of Perpendicular character, and may be ascribed to the latter part of the 
fifteenth century. It bears along its centre a series of good bosses, carved 
with foliage. The old tower was taken down, and the present one built in 
1739-40. The walls at the west end of the nave were rebuilt at the same 
time. Triple sedilia and a piscina were removed from the south wall of the 
chancel by one Dr. Prossor, who was rector of Gateshead from 1808 to 18 10. 
The church underwent extensive ** restoration" in 1838-39. The whole edifice, 
but especially the chancel, suffered greatly from the terrible Gateshead explo- 
sion of October, 1854. The south and east walls of the chancel were 
shortly afterwards rebuilt, and much repair was required in other parts. 

Chantries and Anchorage. 

St. Mary's had three chantries. The following brief notices of these 
foundations are followed, in each case, by the inventory of ** ornaments and 
goods" which they possessed at the time of their dissolution in 1548. 



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141 

I. — The chantry of St. Mary, founded before 1324, when Alan of Gates- 
head, priest, and custodian of the altar of the blessed Mary in the north porch 
[t'.e.y the north transept] of the church of Gateshead, leased a tenement in 
Akewelgate to Roger Redesdale of Newcastle. In 1330, Alan, son of Alan 
Prester, and Alan Prester of Gateshead, confirmed to the priest of this chantry 
ten messuages in Gateshead, and an annual rent charge of 6s. 8d. from another 
messuage in the same place. Its yearly value at the dissolution of chantries 

was j^S 6s. 4d. 

" Plate, one challis, gylte, ponderis xvj. di. unces. Ornamentes not praysed. Lead, 
bells, none." 

2. — The chantry of St. John the Apostle and St. John the Baptist, some- 
times styled the chantry of St. Eloi,* founded by John Dolphanby in 142 1. 
On the 29th June in that year he gave to the priest of this chantry, " now 
founded by me,*' and his successors, fourteen tenements in Gateshead. Yearly 
value at the dissolution, £7 i6s. 8d. 

" Plate, one challis, the shelle of silver and gilte, wayinge iiij. ownces. Goodes and 
ornamentes not praysed. Stocke, &c., none." 

3. — The chantry of the Holy Trinity, said to have been founded **by one 
Alan Prestore." Yearly value, £6 3s. lod. 

** Plate, one challis, percell gilte, ponderis xiij. ownces. Ornamentes not praysed. 
Leade and bells, none."t 

* Brand, Surtees, and others have regarded the chantry of St. Eloi as a separate foundation, which they state was 
founded in 1442 by John Dolphanby, who, however, died in 142 1. This John Dolphanby, on the loth April, 142 1, 
granted to Henry de Etton, rector of Gateshead, John de Vescy [priest of Dolphanby's chantry of Saints John the 
Baptist and John the Apostle], and Robert de Helton, priests, all his lands in Gateshead in trust for his grandson 
Robert; and on the 12th March, 1429, Vescy and Helton released to this Robert all the lands whereof they, with Henry 
Etton, then dead, were formerly enfeoffed by John Dolphanby, " except fourteen tenements which John Vescy holds in 
right of his chantry of St. Eloi." These fourteen tenements are clearly John Dolphanby's endowment of the chantry of 
Saints John, which, however, had in some way acquired a second dedication to St. Eloi in less than eight years after its 
foundation, but yet thirteen years before the assumed foundation of a separate chantry of St. Eloi. 

t In 1541, Richard Towgall, priest, died, and, in his will, made the following bequest : 

*' Item I gyve my chales vnto the chirche [of St. Mary, Gateshead] of this condition and if it pleas god 

that thair fawU a chantre within this forsayd chirche beynge at the p'ochinars gyfte and the p'ochinars to 

be so good vnto my cousinge Sir Jhoane [Hutchinson, son of the testator's sister] as to gyve and promote hym 

befoir another this doven then this Chales to stand as gyft And if he be not promotid and spedde be thos 

forsaid p'ochinars then this chales to stand as no gyft but onlye to go vnto my executors And thay to dispojme 

it for the health of my souU." 

In I $44 John Hutchinson was presented to the chantry of the Holy Trinity, which he held till the dissolution of 

chantries. It is, of course, impossible to determine whether Towgall's chalice became the property of the chantry held 

by his nephew, or, as is more probable, of the church itself. 



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142 

In an inventory of the ** Church Goods, &c. within the Countie of the 
Byshopricke of Duresme," taken in May, 1553, we find that the church of 
Gateshead possessed **one challice, with a paten, all gilt, weying xviij. unces, 
thre gret bells and one lyttell bell in the stepell,* and x. sacring bells." 

On the 14th November, 1340, the bishop of Durham granted licence to 
John Wawayn, rector of Brancepeth, to select and appoint a sufficient space in 
the graveyard of the church of St. Mary of Gateshead, adjoining the said 
church, to build thereon a habitation to be the dwelling of a certain anchoress. 
The name of the lady has not been preserved. The position chosen was on 
the north side of the chancel, and the structure erected there, although it has 
once, at least, been almost entirely rebuilt, is still called **The Anchorage. "t 

Monuments. 

Amongst the memorials of the departed at St. Mary's the early grave 
covers must be first noticed. Of these, three fragments are inserted in the 
walls beneath the chancel arch. An almost complete fourteenth century grave 
cover on the south side is interesting as being that of a child, and bearing the 
most usual emblem of a male — a sword. In the walls of the porch are two 
grave covers. One of these, of thirteenth century date, on which the only 

* All the bells now in St. Mary's steeple are modern. They were cast by Messrs. Mears, of London, in 1788. 
The church of Ileworth, however, possesses an ancient bell which formerly belonged to St. Mary's, and is doubtless one 
of the hells mentioned above. The occasion of its removal to Heworth is recorded in a missing volume of St. Mary's 
vestry books ; 

** 22 April, 1 701. Ordered by the Rector and Twenty Fouer, that the litell bell now in the bellfry in the 
parish church of Gateshead be presented to Robert Ellison Esq., for the use of Heworth Chappell, in leiwe of 
the arrerages due to the said Robert Ellison for the Blew Quarry Spring." 
This old bell bears an inscription and three crosses. These are engraved in the Archceologia jEliana (old series), vol. I., 
and are explained in the following volume of the same publication, though I cannot say satisfactorily, to have been : 

4* (110 E.Qai >{< He 9^ 4* 

Mr. Robert Blair, of South Shields, who has devoted much attention to the church bells of Northumberland and 
Durham, reports that the inscription " is now so corroded that, beyond the crosses, nothing can be made of it." 

f The reader who wishes for information about the life of an anchor or anchoress may be referred to a paper by 
the late M. H. Bloxham in the second volume of the " Reports and Papers of the Associated Architectural Societies," 
afterwards embodied in the last edition of the same writer's ♦' Principles of Gothic Architecture," and to the third 
volume of Rock's " Church of Our Fathers," a valuable, but by no means unbiassed, authority. Cutts's " Scenes ard 
Characters of the Middle Ages," may also be consulted, and bishop Poore's "Ancren Riewle," printed in one of the 
volumes of the Camden Society, will repay examination. 



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143 

emblem is a pair of shears, denoting a female, is an ornate, though roughly 
executed, example. The head of the cross, which is S35^!''^^^pi*^ 
in low relief on a sunk circle, is a beautiful design. 
The other grave cover in the porch is of the four- 
teenth century, and is especially interesting from the 
very unusual character of one of the emblems. The 
cross itself is of the simplest design. On its sinister 
side is a key — a female emblem — whilst on the dexter 
side is a large fish. Much has been said about the 
symbolism of this figure, but the analogies afforded by 
other mediaeval English grave slabs forcibly confirm 
the opinion that the fish is here simply the emblem 
of a worldly calling, and that the worthy woman 
whose grave this stone originally covered was a fish- 
wife.* Both these grave covers were found during 
the progress of alterations in the church in 1838. 
We now come to monuments of a much more recent 
date. The following epitaph, inscribed upon a mural grave cover. 

tablet now fixed to the wall near the tower arch, deserves to be preserved : 

163Z 

Reader in that piece of earth 
In peace rests Thomas Arrowsmith 
In peace hee livd in peace went hence 
With god and men and conscience 
Peace for other men hee sovght 
And peace with peeces sometime bovght 
Pacifici may others bee 

BVT EX PACE FACTVS HEE 

Peace reader then doe not molest 
That peace whereof hees now possest 
The god of peace for him in store 
Hath iov and peace for evermore 
pangit plangit 

ET 
A MORE DOLORE 

RoBERTvs Arrowsmith ;•; 

* That the fish had a mystic significance in the early Christian church cannot be doubted. The Greek word 
IXGYS (a fish), forming the initials of the sentence, *lijaov9 Xpi<rro9 Ohov Y/09 'Swri^p (Jesus Christ the Son of God 
the Saviour), was early introduced as a mystic symbol into inscriptions ; but even on the monuments of the catacombs 
the figure of a fish has been conclusively shown to mean only that the deceased was a fisherman or a vendor of fish. 
See Didron's " Christian Iconography " (Bohn*s edition). Vol. I., pp. 354-364. 




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Herch>tK inteiYcl flieBody] 
oflmo\hylxzAcKe VifirfM 
^dvefihiiw fElizabdh his : 
ii^ife u)ho had tefuc by him") 
Children a^urvivd Xhem y\% 
TTiTiotb^ S^Georg 3he]3<?pt^. 
Chis life yj5 day of October ' 
c/r>noj6s'9 Hc^Deptcd thi?j 
life j^ 6 xfe^ofgbriui^ jfo 



144 

This Thomas Arrowsmith was one of the **Four and Twenty*' of Gates- 
head from 1627, when the vestry books commence, till 1630. His important 
standing in Gateshead society is indicated by his being placed fourth in the 
lists, his name being only preceded by the names of **Mr." Joseph Browne, 
" Parson," Sir Thomas Riddell, and " Mr." Ralph Cole. Arrowsmith himself 
has the distinction of ** Mr." before his name in one year's list, but elsewhere 
he is plainly "Thomas.'** He died in September, 1632. 

But the most noteworthy monument in the 
church is that of Timothy Tyzack. .He was 
probably a son of **Tymothie Teswicke, glase 
makar, a ffrenchman," one of whose sons, John, 
was baptized at St. Nicholas's, Newcastle, on 
the 22nd November, 161 9. Of Timothy Tyzack 
of Gateshead, our only information is gathered 
from the vestry books and the registers of St. 
Mary's. In 1654 "Mr. Tymothie Tisick" was 
appointed one of the "Collectors or overseers 
for the Poore." Three years later the register 
records the burial of " Henrie Collingwood, 
servant to Mr. Timothy Tyzack." In 1662 he 
was elected one of the churchwardens, and the 
accounts for that and the following year are in 
his handwriting. His caligraphy is bold and 
somewhat florid, and is adorned with broad black 
borders, and other decorative penmanship. In 
1663 he became one of the "Four and Twenty," an ofl5ce which he held till 

• Abstract of Thomas Arrowsmith's Will. — In the name of God, Amen, the Twentith daie of November, 
1631, I Thomas Arrowsmyth thelder of Gatesid in the Countie of Durham yeoman etc. To be buryed w'^'in the p'ishe 
Church of Gatesid. To Elizabeth my nowe wife the some of Eight pounds by the yeare. To John Arrowsmyth my 
Sonne All those my two Burgags or Tenements on both sides of the streete in Pipewellgaite in Gatesid. To my said 
Sonne John Arrowsmyth all the furniture and ymplementes of household stuffe w**»in my Chamber next adjoyneing 
unto the Ryver of Tyne, togeather with my best Byble and One silver Cann double guylte. To my sonne Thomas 
Arrowsmyth my two cottage howses in Gatesid in a streete or place theare called Ackwellgaite. To my sonne Robert 
Arrowsmyth One hundred pounds. Residue to my said sonne Thomas Arrowsmyth. 




The Tyzack Monument. 



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1677, and perhaps later; but after that date the vestry books are missing. 
In 1674 he was appointed, with three others, to **goe about w*^the Parson and 
Churchwardens throughout the whole parish to make discovery of all such 
Inmates, strangers or others that are or may be troublesome to the parish, and 
the same so found to present to the fower and twenty against their next 
meeting/' Tyzack is described on his monument as a ** Merchant Adventurer." 
The commodities in which he dealt were of varied character. Amongst the 
items of wardens* expenditure in 1660 we have : 

"to M' Tissicke for a pound of powder and math [match] ... 00 01 05" 
And, in 1680, the missing account book has the item : 

** Tim. Tyzack, for figgs 00 02 06" 

Three other tradesmen supplied prunes to the value of 4s. Prunes and 
figs were required for distribution amongst the boys ** when we ridd the 
bounderie." Tyzack was a member of the Gateshead incorporated company 
of Drapers, Tailors, Mercers, Hardwaremen, Coopers, and Chandlers, who had 
a charter from Oliver Cromwell and another from Bishop Cosin. In 1660 
Tyzack described the stewards and members of his company as " fools and 
knaves," and also ** departed the meeting, and encouraged 13 brethren and the 
Company's Clerk to do the like without leave of the Stewards." (See note at 
the end of this chapter.) 

Stalls. 

The very eflfective stall-ends in the nave and transepts of St. Mary's church 
were erected in 1634. On the 24th June in that year, the "four and twenty" 
ordered ** that a fForty weekes Assessment according to the Collection Booke 
shalbe levied for the building of the stalls in Gateshead Church." Three 
months later a second assessment for the same purpose, also of forty weeks, 
was ordered. The vestry books contain no entry of the amount thus realized, 
nor any statement of the cost of the stalls. The two assessments, however, 
would produce from ;^ 90 to ;^ioo. In due time the stalls were completed, and 

N 



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the rector and wardens, by virtue of 
a commission issued to them " ffirora 
M' Thomas Burwell Maister of Arts, 
viccar general and principall oflBciall" 
to the bishop of Durham, proceeded 
** to settle and place in the seats newly 
erected in the parish Church of Gates- 
head all and each parishioner and Inha- 
bitant according to our discretions 

and their severall 
qualUties," With 
the exceptions of 
a few wealthy 




families, males 
and females 
had different 
parts of the 
church assign- 
ed to them. 

Four of the 
bench ends 
have the anns 

of the families by which they were occupied 
carved upon them. One of these, now in 
the north transept, bears the arms of Sir 
Thomas Riddell, who was sheriff of New- 
castle in 1601, mayor in 1604 ^i^d 1616. and 
representative in parliament for the same 




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147 

town in 1620 and 1628. His wife was one of the daughters of Sir John Con- 
yers, of Sockburne.* On another, now in the south transept, are the arms of 
Sir Alexander Hall (see page 120 above). A third bench end, which now forms 
part of the reading desk, bears the arms of Liddell impaling those of Tonge, 
with the motto, fama semper vivit. This was the coat borne by Sir Francis 
Liddell of Redheugh, who married Elizabeth, one of the daughters of Sir 
George Tonge of Denton, near Gainford. Sir Francis was sheriff of Newcastle 
in 1640 and mayor in 1664. The fourth bench end, also incorporated wuth the 
reading desk, bears the arms of Cole, a family about which I have much to say 
in a later chapter.t 

The stalls of the chancel were erected during the short incumbency of Dr. 
John Smith, the editor of the historical works of Bede, Smith, the most 
distinguished scholar who has ever held the rectory of Gateshead, was collated 
to the living in June, 1695, and resigned it in December of the same year. It 
is pleasant to find his initials, in a double monogram, carved upon one of these 
later stall ends, and the year, during part of which he was rector, carved upon 
another. 

The church possesses an old oak chair, chiefly remarkable as bearing the 
arms of Gateshead in a form, I believe, not found elsewhere until a com- 

* 20 August, 1609. " The presentment of the churchwardens of the parish of Gaitshed.— 
I. We knowe no recusants who are confined to our parish. 2. We have onelie one gentlewoman, Mrs. Ryddle the vryic 
of Mr. Thomas Ryddle Esquire, who refuseth to come to church and to communicate with us ; but we must neades 
testifie this, that hir husband, together with his children and servantes, doo dewlie and verie orderlie and relig^ouslie, 
resort everie Sabaoth day to the church, ther to heare the word of God read and preached." 

t "Stalls and Pewes setled and placed in Gateshead Church by the Parson and Church- 
wardens THERE By virtue OF A COMISSION FROM Y" PRINCIPALL OfFICIALL OF DURHAM BEARING DATE Y« 

17 December 1634. Also the severall Rates of every perticuuler seat heerin menconed. NORTH. 
* • * 4. S' Alexander Hall for 4 roumes pd i" 6» 8<*. 6. M' ffrancis Liddell his wife. 7. M' ffrancis Liddell. 
8. M" Anne Cole, Susan Peareth, Ellinor Mallett. 9. M'** Cole. 10. S' Thomas Riddell and his ffemely. ii. S"" 
Thomas Riddell, M' Ralph Cole. * * * SOUTH. • * * 4. M' Nich« Calvert, M' John Cole, M' Cha Tempest, 
M' Roger Liddell." 

The following are the arms carved on the stall ends : 

I. — Riddell. Quarterly ; first and fourth, within a bordure indented a lion rampant, second and third a fesse 
between three garbs. 

2. — Hall. A fesse engrailed between three griffins' heads erased. 

3. — Liddell. Fretty, on a chief three leopards' heads, for Liddell, impaling a bend between six martlets for 
Tonge. 

4. — Cole. A chevron engrailed between three scorpions, on a chief three fleurs de lis. 



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148 

paratively recent date. The authentic arms of Gateshead are, a castle with 

two wings. But the arms on the old 
chair are, a goat's head erased, with a 
goat's head also as crest. The initials 
on the chair back are those of the 
churchwardens of 1666, Lancelot Ayer, 
Peter Bell, John Woolfe, and Peter 
Trumble. In the wardens' accounts for 
that year, we have the item : 




'' Paid for a New Chaire and 
Covering a stoole for y® 
Vestry £1 



2s. od." 



The volume from which this extract 
is taken contains the Gateshead parish 
accounts from 1626 to 1677, and is an 
exceedingly interesting book. 



Old Chair, St. Mary's. 



NOTE ON THE TYZACKS, TYTORYS, AND HENZELLS. 
• Abstract of Timothy Tyzack's Will.— In the Name of God, Amen. I Tymothy Tizackc of Gatesydc in 
the County of Durham, etc. To my loveing ffriends William Aubone Esq*" now Maior of the Townc of Newcastle 
upon Tyne and George Morton Esq*" one of the Aldermen of the said Towne my part Interest Tenant* right and Terme 
of yeares of in and to a certaine Glasse house situate at holden panns in the County of Northumberland [in trust for] 
my eldest son Timothy Tizacke to have take and receive to his owne use the rents issues proffits and benefitt of 
the said Glassehouse. To my son George Tizacke my owne Bedd and Bedstead with all the ffurniture thereunto 
belonging togeither with two paire of linnen sheets one dozen of linnen Napkins and one linnen Table cloath. To my 
said son George Tizacke the summe of ffive hundred pounds. To my sister Prudence Smith Tenn pounds. To 
my sister Elizabeth Langley Tenn pounds. To my sister Isabell Westwood Tenn pounds. To my maid Anne Roome 
ffive pounds. Residue to my eldest son Timothy Tizacke. 6 January 1684. 

The Tyzacks are one of three families, about which Bourne has an oft -quoted passage which must be repeated here : 
" Sometime in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth came over to England from Lorrain^ the Henzels^ Tyzacks 
and Tytorys. The Reason of their coming hither was the Persecution of the Protestants in their own Country, 
of whose Persuasion they were. They were by Occupation Glass-makers. At their first coming to this Town 
they wrought in their Trade at the Close-gate, after that they removed into Staffordshire^ from whence they 
removed again and settled upon the River Side at the Place called from their abiding in it the Glass-houses, 
Deservedly therefore have so many of these Families being named Peregrines from the Latin Word Peregrinus 
which signifies a Pilgrim or a Stranger. 

"Having at last settled here they became very numerous, and generally married into each others Families 

to preserve the three Names of Henzel^ Tyzack and Tytoiy. But the latter of them within this Few Years 

became extinct. There are of the Tyzacks several remaining ; but the Henzels are most numerous." 

The period assigned by Bourne to the arrival of these families is probably too early. Our local parish registers afford 

no evidence of their presence in this district before 1619, though the late George Bouchier Richardson discovered a 

document, dated 17th April, 1568, to which "Thomas and Balthazar de Hennezes [certainly a copyist's mistake for 



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149 

Hennezel\ Esquiers, dwelling at the Glass-houses in the Vosges, in the countrie of Lorraine," were parties, and by 
which they, " the said Thomas and Balthazar," undertook to transport themselves " as sone as possible maybe, to the 
said countrie of Englande, and there to cause to be builded and edifyed two ovens to make great glas, and with us to 
conducte, bring, and entertayne fower gentlemen glasiers ; that is to saye, two terrieures and two gatherers, and with 
their aydc to make every daye, in eche of the said ovens, the quantitie of thirtie bundells of glas, whites or coulters, 
goode, lawfull, and merchauntable, of good height and largenes, well proportioned." 

To these families we are indebted for the establishment on the banks of the Tyne of a most important industry, and 
it is interesting to find Joshua Henzell, as recently as 1838, described as the manager of the North Tyne Glass Works. 

In Lorraine the Henzells, Tyzacks and Tytorys were ancient families. " Le Dictionnaire de la Noblesse de France " 

(1774)1 ^ves a pedigree of Henzell which goes back to before 1392. The pedigree is introduced in the following terms : 

" Hennezel : A noble family originally from the kingdom of Bohemia, of which the principal branch has 

been established in Lorraine, during nearly four centuries. It has enjoyed, during this time, the highest 

distinctions of the Province, having been allied with the families of the ancient knighthood, and having taken 

part in Assizes. Many branches have actually settled in Switzerland, Hainault, Franche Compte, Nivernois, 

Champaigne, and other provinces of the kingdom. It everywhere constantly maintains its station by its grand 

alliances, its possession of fiefs, and of military dignities." 

Bourne alludes to the intermarriages of these families. , The genealogy of the Hennezels of Lorraine, from which 

I have just quoted, records eight instances, between the closing years of the fifteenth century ^nd the year 1707, in 

which a Hennezel married a Hennezel, nine instances in which a Hennezel married a Tytory (de Thifetry), four in 

which Hennezel married Tyzack (du Thisac), and one in which Tytory married Tytory. One case deserves especial 

mention. Catherine de Hennezel, granddaughter of Didier de Hennezel and Marie Anne de Thi^try, married, in 1520, 

as her first husband, Henri de Thi^try, and, in 1535, as her second husband, Charles du Thisac. The parish registers 

of All Saints*, Newcastle, present a similar record. Between 1623 and 171 2, seventeen marriages of Henzell with 

Henzell, five of Henzell with Tyzack, one of Henzell with Tytory, and one of Tyzack with Tytory are recorded. 

In the seventeenth century some of the Tyzacks and Tytorys joined the Society of Friends in Gateshead and 
Newcastle, but the Henzells, I believe, without exception, remained in the Church of England. 

The "sumptuous heraldry," as Mr. Clephan calls it, of Timothy Tyzack's gravestone, demands a passing word. 
The arms of the Hennezels of Lorraine were, de gueuUs^ h irois glands montans d' argent^ posis deux et une : the arms 
borne by the Henzells in England, gules^ three acorns slipped or^ two and one, Mr. Charles W. Henzell of Tynemouth 
possesses a magnificent glass bowl, questionless of Tyneside manufacture, on which these arms are engraved, with a 
crescent in chief, and the name and date, JOHN HENZELL, 1756. The same coat appears, in this country at least, to 
have been borne by the Tyzacks, and possibly by the Tytorys. Timothy Tyzack's seal, impressed upon his will, is a 
shield with mantle, helmet and crest, bearing three acorns slipped^ two billets in chief. The arms impaled on Iiis grave- 
stone are, a /esse between three lambs passant. Whom he married, I regret to say, I have been unable to discover. 
The frontispiece to Mr. Grazebrook's book, mentioned below, is a copy of an old painting on vellum, recently, if not 
now, in the possession of a Mr. Charles Pidcock of Worcester, bearing the Henzell arms, with crest and motto, the 
latter, as on Tyzack's gravestone, being, 

Seigneljr je te prie garde ma vie. 
Beneath is the following inscription : 

"This is the true Coate of Armes, with Mantle Helmet and Crest, pertayninge to the ffamely of M*" 
Joshua Henzell of Hamblecott in the County of Stafford gentleman : Who was the Sonne of Annanias Henzell ; 
De la Maison de Henzelly tout pre la Village de Darnell^ en la Pie del' Lorraine: Which Armes of his Auncestours 
were there sett upp in the Duke of Lorraines Gallery windowe amongst many other Noblemens coates of 
Armes, there Aneald in glasse. Being thus blazed ; Henzell On a ffeild Gules beareth Three Acornes Slipped 
Or ; Twoe and One ; Ensigned with a Helmett propper ; Thereon a Wreath ; Or and Gules ; A ffire-boulte 
and ffire-ball ; Or : Mantled ; Gules ; Ljmed Argent ; And Tasselled, and Buttoned ; Or ; 

Edmund Blount : f^-' 
The late H. Sydney Grazebrook published " Collections for a Genealogy of the Noble Families of Henzey, 
Tyttery, and Tyzack (De Hennezel, De Thifetry, and Du Thisac) Gentilshommes Verriers, from Lorraine " (Stourbridge, 
1877), but' his book, though extremely interesting and valuable, is chiefly concerned with the Staffordshire branches 
of these families. A systematic search through the wills at Durham, the registers at Newcastle and Wallsend, and the 
local archives 0/ the Society of Friends, would bring to light much additional information about the branches which 
settled on the Tyne. 



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PERCY STREET. 

Percy Street, anciently Sidgate, and so named, Brand supposed, as being 
**the way leading straight to the street called 'The Side,' '' is one of the old 
extra-mural suburbs of Newcastle. It is mentioned as early as 1491. Bourne 
describes it as consisting "of Houses very indifferent, most of which are 
inhabited by poor People ; but very sweetly situated, having the Leases or 
Gardens behind them." Sidgate had advanced socially before the time of 
Brand, who mentions that, "of late, by its politer inhabitants," it had been 
called Percv Street. 




Birthplace of Charles Hutton. 



On entering Percy Street at its south end we first notice a group of old 

houses on our left. The lintel of one of the doors bears the date 1706, and the 

initials aPt A little bevond, we reach, still on our left, a narrow uninviting 
Al I. '' 

thoroughfare, now known as Leazes Lane, but formerly called Miln Chare, and 
afterwards Blind Man's Lonnin. Immediately beyond this we have four 
examples of domestic architecture of the very humblest type. Sixty years ago 
these cottages, or rather hovels, were roofed with thatch. A tradition, which 



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J.* 







C^^iiMUUiiK 



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I thiiik may be credited, affirms that Charles Hutton, the mathematician, was 
bom in one of these humble dwellings. It is even said that he was born in the 
cottage near the door of which, in our engraving, a child is standing.* 

* John Bruce, the father of our distinguished citizen, Dr. John Collingwood Bruce, wrote a short " Memoir of Dr. 
Charles Hutton," which was printed in 1823, and the industrious Mackenzie has a valuable biographical notice in his 
'* History of Newcastle." These accounts of Hutton are reliable, and, I believe, are the only accounts hitherto about 
which this can be said. Dr. Olinthus Gregory, Hutton's successor at Woolwich, in a memoir contributed to the 
" Im]>erial Magazine" in 1823, started certain fables about Hutton's origin and parentage which are still current. He 
says, for instance, that Hutton "was descended from a family in Westmoreland, one branch of which had removed into 
Northumberland, and another branch into Lincolnshire, where a female of the family married into that of Sir Isaac 
Newton, being indeed the aunt of that illustrious philosopher." This is probably as reliable as what follows. " Dr. 
Hutton's father, though not a man of theoretical science, had considerable knowledge and skill in practical mechanics, 
and had extensive employment as a viewer of mines ; being also ... for some years land-steward to the then Lord 
Ravensworth." Mr. Bruce, however, who knew Hutton intimately, and had all the advantages of local knowledge, says 
distinctly that his father was simply a pitman. 

Charles Hutton was born on the 14th August, 1737. He was the youngest son of Henry and Eleanor Hutton. 
His father died about the end of May, 1742. In November, 1743, his mother married her second husband, Francis 
Faim, also a pitman. Charles's first schooling was received from an old Scotch woman who lived in a house, now 
removed, at the corner of Gallowgate and Percy Street. " This school-mistress was no great scholar, as it was her 
practice whenever she came to a word which she could not read herself to desire the children to skip it, for it was Latin." 
Hutton^s parents afterwards removed to Benwell, and he was sent to a neighbouring school at Delaval. Their stay here 
was short. High Heaton was their next place of abode, and Charles went to a school in Jesmond Village, kept by a 
clergyman named Ivison, In September, 1755, and March, 1756, he was working as a hewer in the Rose Pit at Old 
Long Benton Colliery ; but, from the amount of wages he received Mr. Bruce infers that he was " a very indifferent 
hewer," the consequence, doubtless, of a neglected injury to his right arm when a mere child. Shortly after this Mr. 
Ivison became curate of Whitburn, and Hutton took his place in the Jesmond school. His success here soon neces- 
sitated a larger room, and he engaged part of the old house at Jesmond known as Stote's Hall. At the same time he 
attended an evening school in Newcastle, kept by a Mr. James, and here he formed a friendship with George Anderson, 
afterwards the purchaser of the Blackett mansion, but then a builder's apprentice. In 1760 James gave up his school, 
and was succeeded in the mastership by Hutton. The latter's advertisement on this occasion is a curiosity, worthy, 
I think, of reproduction here : 

TO BE OPENED 

On Monday the 14th of April inft. at the Head of the Flefli market, 
down the Entry, formerly known by the Name of the Salutation 
Entry, Newcaftle ; 

Writing and Mathematical School ; where 

Perfons may be fully and expeditioufly qualified for Bufine&; 

and where fuch as intend to go through a regular Courfe of Arts 
and Sciences, may be compleatly grounded therein at large, viz. 
In Writing, according to its lateft and bcft Improvements ; Arith- 
metick, in all its Parts ; Merchants Accompts (or the true Italian 
Method of Book-keeping ;) Algebra ; Geometry, elemental and 
practical ; Menfuration ; Trigonometry, plain and fpherical ; Pro- 
jection of the Sphere; Conick Sections; Mechanicks; Staticks and 
Hydroftaticks ; the Doctrine of Fluctions, &c. — Together with 
their various Applications in Navigation, Surveying, Altimetry, and 
Longimetry ; Gunnery, Dialling, Gauging, Geography, Aftrono- 
my, &c. &c. &c. — Alio the VCe of the Globes, &c. — Likewife, 
Short-hand, according to a new and facile Character, never yet 
publi/hed. By C. HUTTON 

For the Accommodation of fuch Gentlemen and Ladies, as do 
not chufe to appear in the publick School, I propofe (at vacant 
Hours) to attend them in their own Apartments. 

This advertisement, which appeared in the Newcastle Courant of 12th April, 1760, attracted the notice of Robert Shafto, 



A 



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152 

The large house (No. loi) at the north corner of Percy and St. Thomas's 
Streets, with the buildings and yard behind it, occupies the site of an old bury- 
ing ground, which was used for the interment of dissenters from the early days 
of nonconformity. When William Durant, the ejected minister of All Saints', 
died in 1681, he was buried in the garden of his own house in Pilgrim Street. 
Very soon after this his family seems to have acquired the Percy Street burying 
ground, and here his son John Durant, a physician, was buried in 1683. A 
grave stone bore the following inscription : ** Mors Christi est vita mea. 
Johannes Durant, M.D., obiit . . . 2"" anno 1683, aetatis 35. Vixi dum 
volui, volui dum, Christe, volebas, Christe mihi spes es vita corona salus.*' In 
1688 James Durant, another son of William Durant, bequeathed to his sister 
Jane, ** all that my close or parcel of ground situate near a street called 
Sidgate without the walls but within the liberties of Newcastle upon Tyne, 

of Benwell Hall, who became Hutton's friend, and helped him in many ways. Meantime the school prospered, and 
various rooms became successively too small. From the Flesh Market Hutton removed to St. Nicholas's Churchyard, 
from thence to the Back Row, and finally built a school-room for himself in Westgate Road, opposite the library of the 
Literary and Philosophical Society. Here he remained till 1773, when, urged by his friend Shafto and others, he 
became a candidate for the position of mathematical professor in the Woolwich Military Academy. On his way to 
London he visited William Emerson at Hurworth, his greatest English mathematical contemporary, to whom he had 
a letter of introduction from George Anderson. He was appointed to the professorship, and left Newcastle. He never 
re-visited his native town, but, especially towards the close of his life, took a warm interest in its welfare, and subscribed 
liberally to some of its institutions. He died on the 27th January, 1823. 

Hutton's marital life was neither felicitous nor exemplary. Mackenzie, with characteristic honesty, tells the whole 
story, but Mr. Bruce, actuated by the charity which seeks to hide the infirmities of others, is silent about it. About the 
time when Hutton commenced his school in Newcastle he married a distant relative, Isabella Hutton. By her he had 
three daughters and a son. The son and two of the daughters survived their father. When Hutton removed to Wool- 
wich his wife continued to reside in Newcastle or Jesmond. After a time her children were taken from her, though her 
daughters were allowed occasionally to visit her. Meantime her husband entered into relationships which it could serve 
no good purpose to detail now. Mrs. Hutton died at Jesmond on the 26th January, 1785, and was buried in the Percy 
Street burying ground. Mackenzie speaks of her as " a genteel woman, of rather superior manners and attainments." 
Shortly after her death Hutton married again. His second wife died in 1817. By her be had a daughter, born out of 
wedlock, who was " her father's amanuensis and assistant, was highly accomplished, and promised to become a second 
Hypatia," but died in 1794, at the age of 16. 

A bust of Hutton, executed by Gahagan, and presented to him in 1822, is now in the Library of the Literary 
and Philosophical Society of Newcastle. Of this bust there is an excellent engraving in the " European Magazine " for 
1823. There is also a very beautiful medal, engraved by the Wyons, having on the obverse Hutton's head in profile, 
surrounded by the inscription: 

CAROLUS HUTTON, LL.D. R.S.S. iET. LXXXV. 1 82 1 ?*. wyon wr. 
The reverse represents two of Hutton's mathematical achievements, the estimation of the density of the earth and of 
the force of gunpowder, and bears the inscription : 

FULMINA BELLI PONDUSQ. TERRiE iESTIMATA 



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153 

which I lately purchased of my late mother Jane Durant, and which is now 

used for a burial place."* In the parish register of St. Andrew's we have, 

in 1708, the following entry: 

Elizabeth Coulson buried in Sidgatt in the Quigs Buring plas near the Swrill 
Nouember the J.f 

Amongst the many interments which took place here were those of Robert 
Marr, minister of the Garth Heads meeting house, who died about 1733 ; 
George Ogilvie, the first minister of the Silver Street Presbyterian congrega- 
tion — now represented by the Bath Road Congregation alists — who died in 
1765 ; and Alexander Gibson, minister of the Wall Knoll meeting house, who 
died in 1786. The burying ground continued to be used till the beginning of 
the present century, when the house to which I have referred, occupied till 
recently as an ^* academy,*' was built on part of it. In Mackenzie's time the 
grave stones were preserved in the walls surrounding the play ground, but since 
then they have been lost or destroyed. 

* I am indebted for this extract to my friend Maberley Phillips of Whitley, who is investigating the history of 
the Percy Street burying ground. 

t Qu>& — whig. The orthography of the word Szoirl in St. Andrew's Register, which, by the way, has never 
hitherto been correctly primed, leads me to think that the old pronunciation must have been SwerU^ with the e very short. 
*' Some old houses," says Brand, "that stood near the burying-ground of the dissenters, and which were lately purchased 
by the Corporation, and pulled down, were called • The Swirle Houses,* from their situation near the swirl or runner 
which at this place empties itself into Sid-Gate or Percy- Street." 




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THE KEELMEN'S HOSPITAL. 

The keelnien of Newcastle are mentioned as a fraternity as early as 1516.* 
At later periods they were associated with, and in some measure dependent 
upon, the Hostmen's Company. Near the close of the seventeenth century 
they appear to have organized a charitable fund for the relief of their own aged 
members. This fund, during the year 1698, had an income of ;^233 3s. iid. 
In July, 1700, the keelmen petitioned the Corporation for a piece of ground 
whereon to erect for themselves a hospital. Their request was granted, and in 
October of the same year the ground now occupied by the hospital was leased 
to the governor, wardens, and fraternity of hostmen, for the use and benefit of 
the keelmen, at a rent of is. a year. In 1701 the building was completed. It 
cost over ;^2,ooo. 

The building extends round a quadrangle, is two stories m height, and 
contains sixty dwelling-rooms, besides a board-room. 

* The keel is a vessel peculiar, I believe, to the great coal rivers of England — ^the Tyne and the Wear. It is a low, 
flat, and broad kind of barge, bows and stern scarcely differing in shape, and is navigated by a square sail. The word 
itself is ancient. One text of the Saxon Chronicle mentions that, about A.D. 449, Vortigern, king of the Britons, 
invited the Angles into his country, " and they came to Britain in three ceols, at the place called Wippidsfleet." 
Formerly the word was used in a more general sense than now, but in Chapman's " Revenge of Bussy d*Ambois"(i6i3) 
the king's brother, seeking to insult Clermont d'Ambois, exclaims, 

some say 
Thou and thy most renowmed noble Brother, 
Came to the Court first in a Keele of Sea-coale. 

The cabin of the keel is called the huddock or huttock, A great oar, " used as a kind of rudder," is a swape. The poles 
with which the keel is propelled in shallow water are puys. The wives and daughters of keelmen, when employed to 
sweep out the keels, are keel-deeters. Keelmen themselves are, or were, described as keel-bullies. 

Keels and keelmen enter largely into the anthology, such as it is, of the district. Two instances, " The Keel 
Row," and " My bonnie keel laddie," are notable examples. The former has been satisfactorily proved by Mr. John 
Stokoe to belong to the Tyne, to Newcastle, yea, to Sandgate. Both have ancient melodies. That to which " My 
bonnie keel laddie " is sung may be regarded as a musical curiosity. The tune of " The Keel Row" is a popular and 
" catching" air, though I cannot agree with Mr. Stokoe in describing it as a " beautiful melody," and still less with 
Dr. Bruce, who considers it " exquisitely beautiful." 



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155 

In the turret over the entrance is a clock, and beneath this a sun-dial, with 
the date, MDCCI, and below this again the following inscription : 

S^he SfCeelmena SfCofpital 

Built at their own Charge 

Anno DoiTi 1701 

r 

Matthew White Efq. Govern 

M' Edward Grey ) - 

,* ^ ^ } Stewards 

M' Edward Carr ) 

Of the HoASTMENS Company 

(for the time being) 

AMD 

ffru/tees for the SfCofpitah 

Very soon after the completion of the edifice disputes arose between the 
keelmen and the hostmen, which, for a time at least, resulted in defeating the 
object of the charity. Bourne says : 

** I have been told, that Dr. Moor^ one of the late Bishops of Ely^ upon going down 
the River in the Town's Barge with the Magistrates, observed it, and made Enquiry 
after it. And being told, that it was built by the Keelmen themselves (every one allowing 
towards it a Penny a Tide) he said, that he had heard of, and seen many Hospitals, the 
Works of rich Men; but that was the first he ever saw or heard of, which had been built 
by the Poor. Tis a great Pity that the Design of its Building is not throughly answered ; 
but there are some Miscreants, who would rather starve in Sickness or old Age, than not 
guzzle a Penny in their Health and Youth." 

The disputes between the keelmen and the hostmen continued till 1788, 
when they were terminated by an act of parliament. But in 1 730 about 200 
" industrious and prudent keelmen " had formed themselves into a benefit 
society, undertaking at the same time the management and maintenance of the 
hospital. This society still exists, and the hospital is still under its control. 




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ST. JOHN'S CHURCH. 

From the days of William Rufus the growth of Newcastle must have 
advanced rapidly. Scarcely half a century can have elapsed after the founda- 
tion of the mother church of St. Nicholas before the increasing population 

required additional ecclesiastical 
accommodation. To meet this need 
the church of St. John the Baptist 
was built, probably in the latter part 
of the reign of Henry I. The early 
Norman work of St. Nicholases has 
totally vanished, and, with the ex- 
ception of the South Postern of 
the Castle, the earhest post-Roman 
architecture in Newcastle is to be 
found in the walls of St. John's. 

Enough, fortunately, of the 
earliest architecture of this church 
is left to enable us to determine its 
original character and size. It con- 
sisted of a chancel and an aisleless 
North Wall of Chancel. nave, of exactly the dimensions of 

the present chancel and nave.* It was then a long, narrow structure, wnth 
a high pitched roof, the water table of which may still be partially seen in 
the west wall of the nave, a little below the present roof. The nave was 
lighted by small round-headed windows, placed high, as was the practice of 
the early Norman builders, in the side walls. The jambs of two or three of 

* I do not think the Norman work of the nave is quite so early as that of the chancel. But a discussion of this 
question here would be out of place. 




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:/, 

PbcloLtliograph»d4Rint>'d by .'ani'-j Ak^rmftn.o.Quten Square. W C 



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157 

these windows may yet be traced over the arcades. The windows of the 
chancel were lower, and probably larger. Part of one of these, though filled 
with masonry, yet exists over the vestry door. The existing portions of the 
original church are, the north wall of the chancel, the north and south walls 
of the nave above the arcades and below the clerestory, and parts of the 
west wall of the nave. Three fragments of external Norman string-courses 
may be seen. One of these, at the north-east corner of the chancel, is a 
plain roll. The two other fragments are portions of string-courses, which, at 
a height of about five feet from the ground, have extended the whole length 
of the north and south walls of the ancient nave. A very small part of the 
east end of each of these walls is left, and therein we find the fragments of 
string-courses to which I refer. The one in the north wall, which is unfor- 
tunately much weathered, and is rapidly perishing from exposure to the 
external atmosphere, has a plaited band ornament worked upon it ; whilst 
that in the south wall, which can only be seen from within the modern organ 
chamber, is decorated with what is known as the star ornament, and is the 
one feature of the original church which has led me to ascribe its erection to 
the reign of Henry I. 

The church was originally without a tower. In this state it must have 
remained at least a century. During what is known as the Early English period 
of architecture, the present tower was built, and the lofty tower arch was 
pierced through the west wall of the nave. 

Near the middle of the fourteenth century the north wall of the nave was 
pierced by an arcade of four arches, and a narrow north aisle was added. The 
arches, which are of two plain chamfered orders, rest on shafts, the section of 
which is a regular octagon. The inner-hood mouldings terminate in shields, 
which bear the rebuses or arms of persons who were benefactors to the church 
at the time when the north aisle was added. The first shield bears in its chief 
point the letter to, and beneath, the letters ^ u followed by the representation of 
a tun. This is clearly the rebus of some W. Hutton or Hotun. The second 
bears a chevron between two pellets in chief and a leaf in base. The third 

o 



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158 

bears a device which I know not how to describe, but my shortcoming here is 

more than atoned for by the accompanying engraving.* 

After an interval of perhaps one or two decades a narrow south aisle was 

added. The south wall 
was pierced to receive an 
arcade of four arches, sim- 
ilar to that on the north, 
but of inferior character, 
and having shafts of irre- 
gular section. As yet the 
The nave retained 




Rebuses in 

church had neither 
its ancient high- 
aisles were continu- 





^j^ 



North Arcade. 

transepts nor clerestory. 

pitched roof, of which the roofs of the added 
ations. The aisle walls were necessarily very 
low, and, as the Norman windows had been blocked when the aisles were added, 
the nave must have been a region of deep gloom. But to the spectator, 
standing in the darkness, and looking towards the blaze of light which filled the 
chancel, rendering the altar and its surroundings and the vestments of the 
priests resplendent, the effect must have been indeed very fine. 

The next change in the plan of the church was the erection of the north 
transept, towards the close of the fourteenth century, and possibly at the time 
of the foundation of the chantry of the Holy Trinity. The north aisle was 
shortly afterwards taken down, and the present wider and loftier aisle built. 
The new aisle extended further to the west than the old one, and engaged the 
tower. Next followed the erection of the chapel or aisle on the west side of 
the transept, in the early part of the fifteenth century. Of this date are the 
two arches which divide the chapel and aisle from the transept. These arches 
rest on a stunted octagonal pillar with a moulded capital. It is needless to say 
that the ugly window in the west wall of the chapel is an insertion of very 
uncertain date. 

* Are the singular charges of this shield fuller's clubs? Brand quotes the following interesting passage from 
Dr. Ellison's MSS : "In one of the south-east windows of the south-cross [f>., the south transept] there is a coat of 
arms in the glass, but not coloured, viz., two fuller's clubs (I think), and in base a tun. W. H. are set in the dexter 
and sinister points of the clubs." The glass which Ellison describes in Brand's time was "still preserved," but since 
then has been lost. 



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IroH- KVujwtt^ . 



Ph..toLti».^wph,>l V [v,„;..,; I V ',,:,.... .\>.:m,n 6 Qu*-d .\uJre V/ C 



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159 



We now come to alterations and enlargements of an extensive character, 
which, there is reason to believe, were carried out, in part at least, by the 
munificence of Robert Rodes. We have reached the latter half of the fifteenth 
century. The high pitched Norman roof was at that time taken down, the 
clerestory added, and the pre- 

The 



sent nave roof erected 
earlier south aisle was re- 
moved, and the present aisle 
and transept were built. This 
new south aisle, like the one 
on the north side, extended 
further westward than its pre- 
decessor. At the isame time 
the vault was introduced into 
the tower. This vault, which 
is simpler and poorer than that 
in the tower of St. Nicholas's, 
is of about the same date. Its 
effect, however, when seen 
from the nave, is spoiled by 
the tower arch rising above it. 
To the same period we may 
ascribe the two arches which 
are pierced through the north 
and south walls of the tower. 

The boss in the centre of 
the tower-vault bears the arms 
of Robert Rodes, surrounded 
by the inscription : 

€)rate pro anfma Eoberti Eotieis. 




Tower Arch and Vault. 



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A square stone in the gable of the south transept bears the same arms, and did 
bear the same inscription * 

I have hitherto not referred to the vestry. It was originally a structure of 
two stories, and was built in the fourteenth century. Considerable portions of 
its walls are of this period. A walled-up two-light Decorated window still 
exists in its north wall near the present outer door. There can be little doubt 
that the upper apartment, to which this window belonged, was the abode of a 
recluse. The curious stone, pierced by a cross-shaped loop, inserted into the 
north wall of the chancel, was doubtless intended to enable the anchorite to 
witness the services of the altar.f 

The stairway by which the rood loft was reached may still be traced on 
the south side of the chancel arch. 

The later history of the structure is soon recorded. In 1710 the porch 
was rebuilt, and, as shown in old engravings, had a Queen Anne gable, in which 
was a sun-dial. In 1784 or 1785, St. John's Lane, the course of which is 
covered by Grainger Street West, was formed, in order to aflFord communica- 
tion between the head of the Bigg Market and Westgate Street. The new 
thoroughfare was made across part of the churchyard, and, at the same time, 
the north-west corner of the north aisle was taken down, and the aisle itself 
shortened in a somewhat singular way. In 1848, the south and east walls of 
the chancel were taken down and rebuilt. These walls must have been of 
much later date than the north wall. In the course of their demolition several 
discoveries were made. A piscina of Early English date, was found in the 

* The ancient stone in the transept gable bad, some forty years ago, weathered into indistinctness. It was removed 
to the Castle, and a copy, close as could be made, put in its place. What followed shall be told in the words of the most 
genial of our local historians, the late James Clephan. " Not long had the new shield and inscription occupied the place 
of the old, ere an iconoclastic chisel was raised against the legend, and ^ Orate pro anima' fell before its edge — leaving 
the grammar of * Roberti Rodes ' to shift for itself as it might. • This was the most unkindest cut of all' — an indignity 
which might well have been spared to the escutcheon of Robert Rodes. However opposed the prayer may be to Pro- 
testant feeling— (although Bishop Heber's * opinion was on the whole favourable to the practice ' of prayers for the dead) 
—it was but historical in the restored relic of the past, and it might surely have been left in its integrity, among many 
other evidences in our churches that the Establishment does not date from the Reformation." 

t " Then he [Sir Launcelot du Lake] armed him, and took his horse, and as he rode that way, he saw a chapel 
where was a recluse, which had a window that she might see up to the altar, and all aloud she called Sir Launcelot, 
because he seemed a knight-errant." — " The History of the Renowned Prince Arthur," B. HL, Ch. Ixiii. 



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south wall. Two fragments of an inscribed grave-cover, forming together 
about three-fourths of the whole, and part of the shaft of a cross, all of which 
had been used as building material, were also found. The grave-cover is of 
Norman date, and is probably almost contemporary with the foundation of the 
church. The fragment of a cross is of Transitional date. Piscina, grave- 
cover, and cross are preserved in the chapel of the Castle. 

At a later period the porch was again rebuilt. In 1862, the south transept 
and the clerestory windows were restored. In 1875-6, the whole church 
was subjected to the process of ** restoration," and the chancel arch was rebuilt. 
Since then an organ chamber has been erected in the angle of the chancel and 
the south transept. 

The north window of the chancel is almost filled with old stained-glass, of 
which the greater part consists of small broken fragments. These have been 
put together in a kind of mosaic, in which the brilliance and purity of the 
colours produce a pleasing eflFect. There are, however, several larger por- 
tions, consisting of armorial bearings, monograms, fragments of inscriptions, 
and sacred representations. Of these I venture to attempt a brief descrip- 
tion. 

A. — In the first light (on the left) : 

1. A medallion containing in monogram the letters f to^ 

2. A medallion bearing a representation of our Lord. 

3. A shield bearing the arms of Newcastle. Mr. LongstafFe describes this as ** the 
earliest existing example of the arms of the borough, in interest only second to the fabric 
from which the town derives its name." Each of the three castles is surmounted by a 
central turret, whilst within a gateway a portcullis is seen. 

4. A shield bearing the arms of Thornton : sable^ a chevron argent^ a chief indented 
of the second. The elder Roger Thornton bequeathed " to seint John kyrk iiij fothers 
leed.'' 

5. A shield bearing a merchant's skin mark. 
B. — In the centre light : 

1 . A medallion containing a representation of an angel. 

2. A medallion containing the sacred monogram (^C^ within a crown of thorns. 
In the margin are the words \^t %^l tit attlOt XM\X%^ (Jesus Christ is my love.) 

3. A larger fragment containing several white-robed figures in the act of adoration, 
in the midst of whom is the Creator holding the globe and cross. 

[Below this is a panel of modern glass, the work of a local house-painter, named 
Gibson.] 



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1 62 

C— In the third light (on the right) : 

1. A medallion containing in monogram the letters (Q, ^^ 

2. A medallion containing a representation of the Virgin. 

3. A shield, azure, bearing a pair of scissors open, saltire-wise, argent, and in chief a 
lion's face, or. 

4. A shield bearing the arms of Ord, sabley three fishet hauriant^ argent, 

5. A fragment of inscription, of which all that can be read is : 

ab; Oome gre? pffenftoru ae p afab;/ 

6. A shield bearing in chief the letters S G. The glazier has reversed this piece of 
glass, so that the letters are read backwards. 

All this old glass, together with an important fragment which I shall 
presently notice, and at least one piece which has since been destroyed, in 
Brand's day was in *' the great eastern window/'t 

One of the windows of the south aisle contains the larger fragment of old 
glass which I have just mentioned. It represents the arms of the Percies, 
earls of Northumberland. Henry Percy, the first earl of Northumberland, 
and the father of Henry Hotspur, married Maude Lucy, the widow of Gilbert 
de Umfraville, between 138 1 and 1384. By a marriage settlement it was 
rendered compulsory for all his descendants to bear the arms of Percy, or, a 
lion rampant^ azurCy quartering those of Lucy, gules^ three lucies haurianty 
argent. This is the quartered coat in the window of St. John's. J All this old 
glass, though not necessarily of one date, may be ascribed to the first half of 
the fifteenth century. 

One of the mediaeval arrangements of this church is described by Bourne, 
who tells us that in his day there still remained '* the Funnel^ or Wood Box^ 

• Sir Thomas Grey, of Wark, took part in 141 5 in a conspiracy against Henry V., for which he was tried at 
Southampton, and beheaded. His head was sent to Newcastle to be placed on one of the gates of the town. Is he 
the person named in this fragment of inscription ? 

f Brand mentions amongst this old glass " the arms of England, quarterly, three lions passant gardant, and three 
fleurs-de-lis. Supporters, a dragon on the side facing the spectator's right — the other seems a lion." The supporters 
of the royal arms during the reigns of Henry VHI., Edward VI., and Elizabeth were, dexter, a lion, and sinister, a 
dragon. 

X The first earl of Northumberland was a leader in the Yorkshire rebellion of 1409 against Henry IV. At the 
battle of Bramham Moor he was slain. His body was afterwards quartered. His head was set up on London Bridge, 
and one of his quarters was placed on the walls of Newcastle. Are the Percy arms in St. John's a memorial of the 
first earl ? 



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1 63 

in the Form of a Spout," which hung '^ from the Top of the Quire/' He then 
explains that : 

** This was a Conveyance for an Artificial Dove^ on the Day of Pentecost^ in the Times 
of Popery, to represent the Descent of the Holy Ghost. That there were such Things in 
Churches, tho* in none that I know of in this Town, but this; is Matter of Fact." * 

The ancient font perished during the civil wars. Bourne, quoting the 
Milbank MS., says : 

**In the Year 1639, when the Scots sought to deface the ancient Monuments, and 
said they were Papistry, and Superstition, they began with the Spoon of this Church's 
Font, and broke it all to Pieces. It had been given by one ^ohn Bertram. For there 
was written about it ; For the Honour of God and St. John, John Bertram gave this 
Font Stone. Cuthbert Maxwell^ a Mason, observing the Barbarity of the Scots^ came in 
Haste to St. Nicholas y and saved the Spoon of that Font in it's Vestry, and also that of 
All-hallows. He lived, after the King returned, to set them up again." 

The cover escaped the fury of the Presbyterian soldiers. It is of very similar 
character to that at St. Nicholas's, and, though not so elaborate in design, 
is certainly of about the same date. The present font was erected by Andrew 
Bates, who was curate and lecturer at St. John's from 1689 to 17 10. On one 
side there is a shield bearing the arms of his family, a fesse engrailed between 
three dexter hands couped at the wrist bendwise.\ 

We have mention of an organ, or rather organs, here, at a comparatively 
early date. In the will of John Wilkinson, merchant, dated ist February, 
1570, the testator directs his body "to be buryed in Saincte John-Church, on 

• In proof of this statement Bourne quotes a curious passage from " The Beehive of the Romish Church," which 
I take directly from the original : 

" Then a gaine vpon Whitsunday they begin to play a new Enterlude, for then they send downe a Doue 
out of an Owles nest, deuised in the roof of the church : but first they cast out rosin and gunpouder, w* wilde 
fire, to make the children afraid, and that must needes be the holie ghost, which commeth with thunder and 
lightening." 
A similar practice is referred to in the following passage in Bamabe Googe's translation of Naorgeorgus : 
" On Whitsunday, whyte Pigeons tame, in strings from heauen flie, 
And one that framed is of wood, still hangeth in the skie." 

t Andrew Bates, M.A., whose name occurs on one of the bells of St. John's, was a member of the family of Bates 
of Milburn in Northumberland. Bourne describes him as " a Man of good sound Principles, and an excellent Parish 
Priest." The biographer of Ambrose Barnes records that " he (Bates) had in writing a scuffle with Dr. Gilpin touching 
conformity, wherein the Doctor was said to treat him with worse manners than were due to his birth, which was far 
superior to his own. But the Doctor had the better of him, the gentleman's zeal much exceeding his abilities." 



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164 

the Northe Syde of the same Church, nygh where the Organes doithe stande.'* 
In Brandos time, Wilkinson's grave stone, of which he prints the inscription, 

still existed, but like many other in- 
teresting monuments in this church, it 
cannot now be found. 

The pulpit, which is of oak, and is 
richly and effectively carved, is probably 
of early seventeenth century date. 

The tower contains a peal of eight 

bells. The first bell bears no inscription. 

The second, third, and fourth were cast 

in 1884 by Messrs. Warner, of London. 

The remaining four were all cast in 1706 

by the elder Samuel Smith, of York, 

whose stamp they bear. ** The 

lettering of the last four bells 

is so corroded from the sulphur 

Ij /^ ff*i. in the smoke that has reached 

them that one cannot say with certainty what 
the inscriptions are ;" but a local campanologist 
supplies the following readings: 

(5) INO NOMINE BENEVOLENTIA 1706 

(6) ROBERT PERCIVAL TE DEVM LAVDAMVS 1 7o6* 

(7) BEN/DICIMVS ET VENERAMVR TE WILLIAM RAMSAY ESQ l7o6t 

(8) GRATIAS AGIMVS PRO GLORIA TVA IMMENSA M« ANDREW BATES MINIS I706 

* The gallery on the north side of the nave " wasjbuilt in the Year 1710, for 33 Persons, by Mr. Robert Percival^ 
Pin-maker, of this Parish, who was a great Lover of the Church, and an industrious Promoter of every good Design 
towards Her. In the Year 1707, when the Parishioners took down the 3 old Bells belonging to this Church, and con- 
tributed to the 6 they have at present ; Mr. Percival contributed three Pounds. In the Year 1710 he beautified the 
Altar at his own Expence. He dyed on the 8th of February^ 1729, and left by his last Will and Testament to the 
Parish of St. John for ever, a House which stands in the Wool-market^ which is let at the yearly Rent of 20/." — Bourne. 

f This William Ramsey was the son of William Ramsey, a distinguished goldsmith, who carried on business in 
Newcastle from 1656 to 1698, in which year, on the 20th of October, he died. The younger William Ramsey was 
admitted a member of the Company of Goldsmiths, Plumbers, etc., in 1691, but after a short time ceased to follow his 
father's business. He was sheriff of Newcastle in 1696, and mayor in 1701. He died 14th April, 1716, and was buried 
in his father's vault in old All Saints' Church. Their grave stone still exists in the chiurchyard. 





The Pulpit. 



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1 65 

When the Castle was in the county of Northumberland, criminals who 
were confined there, and adjudged to suffer death, were either executed within 
the Castle precincts or in a field outside the West Gate, to which they were 
conducted through the Black Gate, and along Back Row, then called Gallow 
Gate. But in either case they were usually, if not always, buried in the 
churchyard of St. John's. The registers contain many records of the inter- 
ment of such sufferers. 

At one time St. John's contained a large and interesting series of monu- 
ments. Very few of them now remain. Some have been intentionally 
destroyed, others have been removed into the churchyard, and a number were 
covered with concrete and a wretched tiled flooring during the restoration in 
1876. 

The churchyard contains the earthly remains of two local poets, Edward 
Chicken and John Cunningham. 

Chicken was bom in the parish of St. John in 1698. His father is believed 
to have been a weaver, and he himself was admitted a member of the Weavers* 
Company of Newcastle in 17 18. He became a schoolmaster, and for 25 years 
was parish clerk of St. John's. He resided near the White Cross in Newgate 
Street, and, amongst his neighbours, was styled Mayor of the White Cross, a 
title accorded him in recognition of the tact he showed in settling the disputes 
of the district.* He died on the 2nd January, 1746, and was buried *^near 
the wall adjoining to Westgate Street;" but within the last few years his 
grave stone has been destroyed. His brother Robert, like himself, received 
his first education in St. John's Charity School, but afterwards entered holy 

* " A neighbour, in great poverty and anxiety of mind, went to the Mayor of the Whiti Cross for advice, who, 
in deploring his situation, felt at a loss how to relieve his necessities. He, however, advised the man to keep up his 
spirits, and he would endeavour to adopt some means for his relief. On the Saturday morning following he got a few 
acquaintances to sit round a table in the street, and in front of his house, smoking tobacco and drinking ale, for the 
purpose of exciting the attention of the country folks who were coming to market. Nor was he disappointed, for 
presently many enquiries were made to know the meaning of this novel proceeding ; when Chicken, availing himself of 
the interest he had excited, told the bystanders a lamentable tale of the distress of his destitute neighbour, and how 
easy it was by their united means to relieve him from his pecuniary difficulties. They could not resist this appeal to 
their humanity, and in a few minutes a larger sum was collected than was necessary to relieve the wants of his poor 
neighbour." 



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1 66 

orders, took the degree of M.A., and became curate of Bishop Wearmouth in 
1730, where he died in 1743. Edward Chicken's son, also named Edward, 
became a clergyman, and was chaplain on board the " Monmouth*' when she 
engaged and defeated the French ship ** Foudroyant " on the 28th February, 
1758, of which event he wrote a descriptive ode. He was afterwards curate 
for la time at Bridlington and Hornsea in the East Riding of Yorkshire, in 
which neighbourhood he married a Miss St. Ledger, but died, when still young, 
of grief, it is said, for the loss of his wife, who was drowned oflF Flamborough 
by the upsetting of a pleasure boat. 

Edward Chicken is principally remembered as the author of a well-known 
local poem, ** The Collier's Wedding," a composition of great merit as a faithful 
and unvarnished picture of a pitman's life in the early part of last century. It 
is characterized by a keen sense of humour, a vivid power of description, and 
considerable literary skill. He also wrote a poem entitled '* No ; — This is the 
Truth," in support of the candidature of Sir Walter Blackett in the Newcastle 
election of 1741 * 

Cunningham was not a native of Newcastle, though he resided here a con- 
siderable part of his life. He was bom in Dublin. He is usually described as 
** a pastoral poet." In his poems the versification is almost always easy, and in 
many passages the imagery is striking and natural. He was not without an 
element of humour in his nature, in evidence of which I may refer the reader 
to his "Newcastle Beer." His grave stone, near the east end of the church- 
yard, has recently been renewed, and in the south transept there is a stained 
glass window to his memory, erected at the cost of Mr. Joseph Cowen, of Stella. 

* " The Collier's Wedding " has been many times printed, several editions being mere chap books. The first 
edition, a foolscap folio of 36 pages, is excessively scarce. A castrated edition, edited by Mr. William Gail, was printed 
in Newcastle by Messrs. Hodgson in 1829. 

"No ; This is the Truth," is a foolscap folio of 11 pages, and though no printer's name occurs, a vignette and 
head and tail pieces betray the fact that it issued from the office of John White. It was a reply to " Is this the Truth ?" 
a similar poetic pamphlet of 8 pages, advocating the claims of Richard Ridley, the writer of which retorted upon 
Chicken in " No— That's a Mistake." In these effusions Blackett is described as Cato and Ridley as Felix. 



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167 

Chantries. 

St. John's had three chantries. As in previous chapters, I have only room 
for the briefest notice of these foundations and for the inventories of the 
** ornaments '' they possessed at the time of their dissolution. 

I. — The chantry of St. Thomas the Martyr, founded in or about 13 19 by 
Adam of Durham, a burgess of Newcastle. Yearly value at the dissolution of 
chantries, £4 6s. 4d. 

" One vestment of done fustyan, one vest of grene and blew crewell, one vest of 
white fustyan, one rede vestment of taffata, with the appurtenaunces, ij. alter cloths, a 
masse boke, ij. litle candlestycks of brasse, ij. crewetts of tyne, a pax and a litle bell." 

2. — The chantry of St. Mary the Virgin, founded in the reign of Edward 

III. by one Edward Scott. Yearly value at the dissolution, £4 7s. 8d. 

" One vest of white sylke, one of grene sylke, one vest of blewe clothe, and one olde 
vest with the appurtenaunces, one paxe, ij. candlestycks of latten, twoo crewetts, ij. altere- 
clothes, one lytle bell and a masse boke." 

3. — The chantry of the Holy Trinity, said to have been founded by John 

Dalton, William Atkinshawe, and Andrew AccliflFe, priests.* Yearly value, 

£5 13s. 4d. 

" ij. vests, one rede and thother blew cruell, one vest of fustyan, one vest of blew 
sylke, with the appurtenaunces, iiij. alterclothes, ij. paxes, ij. crewetts, ij. candlestyks of 
latten, one hanging for the alter and a litle bell." 

* The names of John Dalton and Andrew Accliffe, priests, occur in deeds of 1392. 



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THE QUAYSIDE. 

In the olden time, when Newcastle was girded round by a fortified wall, 
the Quayside presented a very diflFerent aspect from that which it wears at the 
present day. The space before the buildings, from the Sandhill to the Milk 
Market, was divided throughout its whole length by the redoubtable wall, 
outside which was a spacious wharf, whilst within was a narrow roadway. 

The old Quayside wall was broad and strong. In 1634, three Norwich 
soldiers visited Newcastle, and lodged at an inn in Pilgrim Street, of which the 
host was *'a good fellow, and his daughter an indifferent virginall player." 
The morning after their arrival they went out to see the town, and ** found the 
people and streets much alike, neither sweet nor cleane," but the Quay they 
describe as **fa3n-e and long," and on the battlements of its wall they **march*d 
all abreast." In the following year Sir William Brereton, of Handford, in 
Cheshire, was at Newcastle, and here, he says, ** is the fairest quay in England 
I have met withal/' 

Between the street and the quay were numerous gateways in the wall, 
intended to aflFord ready communication between warehouse and wharf. Four- 
teen of these gates may be counted in Buck's ** South-East Prospect of New- 
castle upon Tyne," published in 1745. In 1616, certain commissioners, 
appointed by the privy council for the conservation of the Tyne, ordered, 

" That all the gates on the town-keye, be locked up every night, except one or two, 
to stand open, for the masters and seamen to go to and fro, to their ships, which will 
.prevent servants casting ashes and other rubbish into the river ; and that those two gates 
be constantly watched, all night long.** 

But this legislation did not meet all cases ; so it was also ordered, 

** That all servants dwelling with any of the inhabitants residing or inhabiting in 
the town of Gates-head, and Sand-gate, and the Close, in Newcastle, be sworn every year, 
not to cast any rubbish into the river." 

The fortifications of **the eye of the north,*' as Newcastle was called in 

the sixteenth century, have gradually disappeared. When the Scot now comes 



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169 

across the border he comes peacefully, and invasion and civil war are no 
longer apprehended. The first portion of the town wall which was removed 
was that which stretched along the Quay, being, as the civilians who petitioned 
for its removal said, ** a very great obstacle to carriages, and a hindrance to 
the dispatch of business/' This was in 1763. The old town was ceasing to be 
a military stronghold, and its commercial importance was increasing. The 
destroyed Quayside wall yielded the stones with which the new church of St. 
Ann was built. 

Bourne gives us the following picturesque description of the Quayside as 
it appeared in his day : 

'* This Street is chiefly inhabited by such as have their Living by Shipping, such as 
Merchants, Hostmen^ Brewars^ &c. As it is the great Place of Resort for the Business 
of the Coal-trade (the grand Support of this Town and Country, and many other Places 
also) and likewise for many other Things ; it is not much to be wondred at, if in going 
along it, you see almost nothing but a whole Street of Sign -posts of Taverns, Ale-houses, 
Coffee-houses, Gj*^." 

A hundred years ago there were thirty-four taverns on the Quayside and in its 
chares. Now there are only twelve, but three of these, the ** Bridge,*' the 
** Golden Lion'* in Broad Chare, and the ** Ship*' in Spicer Lane, have held 
their licenses for over a hundred years, whilst the ** Three Indian Kings,*' 
formerly called simply the *' Three Kings,'* was in existence more than two 
hundred years ago, and probably was then an old established house. 

At the corner of the Quayside and the Sandhill, but behind the buildings 
which front the street, is the old Custom House, now a tavern. The Custom 
House was established here before 1604, at which time the building belonged 
to Robert Brandling, of Felling, and here it remained till 1765, when it was 
removed to its present site. As early, however, as the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, and probably long before then, part of the property was 
occupied as a tavern, known as the '^Fleece." In the Newcastle Courant 
of November 19, 1712, occurs the following advertisement: 

TiOrtugal Wines, neat, and natural as directly imported by Brooke and 
Hellier; are to be Sold, as formerly, at the Otd^FUece-Tzytrn^ in the Cu- 
ftom-Houfe-Entry, at I4d. per Quart without Doors, and i6d. within. 



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The house which fronts upon the Quay near the comer of the Sandhill — 
the only ancient edifice at the west end of the Quayside — is an interesting 
building. In the middle of the seventeenth century it was the residence of 

John Cosyn, who died 
' in 1 66 1, and was buried 

in the north aisle of the 
old church of All Saints'. 
Outside it retains its an- 
cient outlines, serving to 
show us how quaint and 
old-world like the Quay- 
side must once have 
been ; but within it has 
been greatly altered. 
' The principal room of 
I the second floor, how- 
"^ ever, still wears its old 
aspects. The panelled 
walls, relieved at inter- 
vals by ribbed pilasters, 
the stuccoed ceiling, and 
the square oriel, with its 
latticed casements, and 
its views up, dowm, and 
across the river, all serve 
to render it, indisputably, 
the most charming old 
room in Newcastle. But the fireplace deserves special mention. The carved 
work by which it is surmounted is boldly designed and excellently executed. 
The principal panels bear shields of arms. The one in the centre has the arms 
of Cosyn, the one on the left the arms of the Drapers' Company, of which 




The Old Citstom House. 



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PbotoIitkogn^lcIViirtMlby JaBMAlMniui.e.Quttii Squarc.WC 



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171 

Cosyn was a member, and the motto beneath, vnto god only be hon? glory, and 
the panel on the right bears the arms of the town with supporters, crest, 
and motto.* Cosyn was a man of some note in his own day. In the summer 
of 1647, a few months after the Scotch army had delivered up the person of 
Charles I. to the English commissioners at Newcastle, and had withdrawn their 
forces to beyond the Tweed, " an Information was given [to Parliament] of 
Aldennan Cousins of Newcastle upon Itne^ and others, their being now in 
Scotland^ in nature of Agents for Presbytery, endeavouring to bring the Scots 
into this Nation." How the matter ended I do not know. Cosyn was also a 
benefactor to the public. By will he left to the mayor and burgesses of 
Newcastle, one hundred volumes of books, sixty whereof were to be in folio, 
and the rest in quarto ; so many thereof to be taken out of his own books 
as the ministers of the town should think important ; the rest to be provided 
by the executors, such as the ministers should agree upon ; which said books 
were to be added to the library of St. Nicholas's church. Cosyn bequeathed 
to the poor of All Saints* a rent charge of £^ 4s. a year, to be distributed in 
bread after morning service every Sunday, and to be paid out of the " Fleece " 
tavern, which he owned. He also left a yearly rent of £s for the repair of the 
same church. t Bourne has the following notice of him : 

*' This ^ohn Cosyn^ as well as Mr. Rawlin, (whose Monument is over-against his in 
the South Corner) was an Alderman in the Time of the Rebellion, of whom Sir George 
Baker said, they were not truly Justices, tho' in the Place of Justices. This Cosyn 
was the first Exciseman that ever was in this Town, and a Captain against the King; yet 
upon his Stone Mr. PringleX (as they say) caused this to be written, 

A Conscience pufe, unstained with Sin, 

Is Brass without, and Gold within. 
But some took Offence and said thus, 

A Conscience Free he never had, 

His Brass was naught, his Gold was bad." 

* The arms of Cosyn, granted I2th May, 1647, are. Ermine^ a chevron engrailed^per paU or and sable. 

It is singular that whilst the motto of the Drapers' Company, over Cosyn *s fireplace, is carved in the oak, that of 
Newcastle is only painted. 

t Cosyn bequeathed his dwelling house ** on the Keyside " to his wife for her life, and after her death to his 
daughter, Rebecca Cosyn, and a messuage on the Keyside, with wine license (the old " Fleece," now the " Old Custom 
House "), to his daughter, Peace Morton. He also mentions George Horsley, the son of his wife's brother, Peter Horsley. 

X This was John Pringle, ejected from the living of Eglingham, in Northumberland, at the Restoration. " He 
afterwards went to Newcastle^ where he preach'd Occasionally for Dr. Gilpin [a distinguished nonconformist, ejected 



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172 

Cosyn's grave stone, with his armorial bearings, and Pringle's complimentary 
distich, lay in the church-yard of All Saints' when Thomas Sopwith wrote his 
** Historical and Descriptive Account" of that church, but it cannot now be 
found. 

The Quayside is the region of chares.* Between Sandhill and Milkmarket 
the old maps of Newcastle show twenty of these narrow alleys. The Gates- 
head explosion of 1854, and the conflagrations which it caused, so completely 
wrecked a great part of the west end of the Quayside, that, in the rebuilding 
which followed, six of the old chares were completely obliterated. In our 
survey of the Quay, however, all these shall be mentioned, and the names they 
bore shall be faithfully chronicled. 

After passing John Cosyn's house we shortly reach the first chare — ^the 
only one which remains at the west end of the Quay. This is the Dark Chare. 

from Greystock, in Cumberland, in 1662, then, till his death in 1700, preached and practised medicine in Newcastle): 
about him there is much of great interest in Calamy and in LongstafTe's Ambrose BarfU5\ and practised Physick with 
Reputation and Success. He was accounted a Man of Learning, was very communicative, and not unpleasing in Con- 
versation. He once suffer'd Imprisonment." Ambrose Barnes's biographer tells us he "married a choice good woman, 
with whome he got a very great fortune." In 1658 a messuage in Trinity Chare is described as being lately in his 
" occupation or possession." 

♦ Besides the chares on the Quayside we have, in other parts of the town, Denton Chare, Pudding Chare, and 
Manor Chare. The last-named was, in 1466, called Austin Chare, from its proximity to the friary of Austin Canons. 
High and Low Friar Streets were, in former days, knQwn as High and Low Friar Chares. Leazes Lane in Percy Street 
was called Blind Chare in 1593, and Blindman's Chare in 1637. A passage on the north side of Silver Street, now 
known as Meeting House Entry, was called Heworth Chare in 1484, and Manwell Chare in 1654. Gor Chare, alias 
Rod's Chare, mentioned in 1432, is identical with Govis Chare, alias Rhod's Chare, described in 1645 as situate "about 
the middle of All Hallow's Bank," afterwards called Butcher Bank, and now Akenside Hill. In Sandgate, Thorp's 
Chare, alias Dent's Chare, occurs circa 1640, Errington Chare, alias Maughan*s Chare, in 1666, Pearson's Chare in 
1702, Foxton's Chare in 1720, Joiner's Chare, Malcolm's Chare, and Common Chare in 1826, and Cock and Anchor 
Chare and Markham's Chare in 1838. Bower Chare in the Close occurs in 1482. Besides these we have Russell or 
Roskell Chare in 1336, Kirk Chare, which Bourne seeks to identify with Fcnwick's Entry, in 1395, Collier Chare, alias 
Narrow Chare in 1430, Philip Chare in the same year, Wctwang Chare in 1593, ^"^ Chapman Chare in 1596. In 
addition to all these, Bourne mentions Brown Chare, the Chare of Nicholas de Salicibus, Tod's Chare, Norham Chare, 
Oliver Chare, and Galway Chare. 

We meet with the names of two or three Quayside chares which it does not seem possible to identify. Thus in 
1489 we have Grype Chare. Gray mentions CoUman Chare and Hayward's Chare, and in 1583 and 1590 we have 
Shipman Chare, which was also called Deynes Chare. Shipman Chare, which was either that known in recent times as 
Palester's or Colvin's, had an appellation, which occurs in a deed of 1583 and in a will of 1590, which it is impossible to 
repeat here. The same name, however, was borne in the fourteenth century by a thoroughfare in the city of York, now 
known as Grape Lane. 

Gateshead had also its chares. Waldeschere, Pylotchare, and Holchare are mentioned in early times, whilst more 
recently we meet with High Church Chare and Low Church Chare, narrow alleys which occupied part of the site of 



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173 

It is ancient only in name and site. All the buildings which adjoin it are 
modern. But it is still dark. How gloomy it must have been when its old 
projecting buildings almost met overhead ! Mackenzie remarks that ** most of 
the chares may be easily reached across by the extended arms of a middle- 
sized man, and some with a single arm ; but a stout person would find it rather 
inconvenient to press through the upper part of this lane.'* It deserves perhaps 
to be recorded that this chare was not, like some others, built over after the 
great fire, because of the objection of the proprietor of the ** Old Custom 
House," which has a right of way through it — a fact even now not quite unknown 
to some gentlemen '*on the Quay,'* and others. 

Next came Grindon Chare, variously Granden, Grinding, and Grundon 
Chare. It is mentioned as early as 1394. It probably had its name from 
Thomas Grindon, one of the bailiffs of Newcastle from 1388 to 1396. The 
Blue Anchor Chare was next, named, I believe, from a tavern situated in it. 
Between this chare and the next was a famous old hostelry, the '* Grey Horse," 
one of the most picturesque buildings in the town, and of which there is an 
excessively scarce etching by T. M. Richardson. Then came Peppercorn 

Church Street, St. Mary's Chare, now Church walk, Tomlinson's or Bailiff Chare, now Half Moon Lane on the west 
side of High Street and Bailey Chare on the east, Jackson's or Collier Chare, now Jackson Street, Miller Chare, and 
Oakwellgate Chare, the last still retaining its old name. In Durham we have Castle Chare, in Bishop Auckland we 
have Wear Chare and Gaunless Chare, and in East Hartlepool we have Sandwell Chare. In Northumberland, Morpeth 
has Copper Chare, Whalton has Church Chare, and Hexham had St. Mary's Chare and Pudding Chare. " At Holy 
Island Tripping Chare is found, and at the same place we have the name * Chare Ends ' given to a spot where three 
lanes converge near the landing place of the over-sand road " (Heslop). 

The word chare has long been a problem amongst local etymologists. Brockett believed it to be the Saxon word 
*' cerra^ viae flexio, diverticulum ; from cyrran^ to turn." I am rather disposed to think it is from the Saxon scirauy to 
divide. " Hence the shire^ a division of the kingdom, the shore which divides land from sea, the ipXoughshare and the 
shearsy instruments for dividing, and a share^ a divided part " (Isaac Taylor). To which I would add, a chare^ a division 
between adjoining properties. In an early charter, printed by Surtees, under Gateshead, but more accurately by Green- 
well in the " Feodarium Prioratus Dunelmensis," William de Granville g^ves to the priory of St. Cuthbert, " Potteres- 
hihera, quae est juxta Novum Castellum." Where this Potter Chare may have been we do not know. Surtees suspected 
"that Potter eshiher a is scarcely Poiterschare in Gateshead," and adds, "the witnesses [to the charter] seem to point 
north of the Tyne." Greenwell suggests that it was " a part of the land at Cramlington held by the Prior and Convent " 
of Durham. Be this as it may, the orthography of the word is, I think, strongly confirmatory of the derivation to which 
I incline. Almost equally valuable is the orthography of the document in which Grype Chare is mentioned, where the 
word in question is spelt scher, 

I feel bound to say that, in the preparation of this note, I have been greatly helped by Mr. R. O. Heslop's able 
dissertation on chare^ in his "Northumbrian Words," contributed to the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, Mr. Heslop's 
glossary, the merits and value of which it would be hard to over-estimate, ought certainly to be printed in a more acces- 
sible and permanent form than that afforded by the columns of a newspaper. 



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Chare, which probably had its designation from a nominal rent for which some 
important property in it was held. Next was Palester's Chare, also called 
Black Boy Chare, from the sign of a sable youth. The next was Colevins, 
Colwins, or Colvin's Chare, at one period called Armourer's Chare. The 
armourers of Newcastle, most of whom, no doubt, at one time pursued their 
craft in this thoroughfare, were incorporated with the curriers and feltmakers in 
1546. Then came Hornsby^s Chare, mentioned by this name in 1622. It had 
also the name of Marvon House Chare. All the chares I have hitherto men- 
tioned were thoroughfares from the Quayside into Butcher Bank, now called 
Akenside Hill. Except the first none of them now exist. 

We now come to chares still in existence. The first of these is Plummer 
Chare. It is mentioned in 1559, when royal commissioners, appointed to 
assign places for the loading and discharging of vessels in three northern ports, 
determined for Newcastle, upon ** a certain quay called the New Quay, from 
the west end of the same unto the Plomer chare end, extending in length four- 
score paces." This chare, according to an annotation in Grays copy of his 
** Chorographia," was ** alias Beverley chaire." There were several persons, 
burgesses of Newcastle in the latter half of the fourteenth century, named 
Plummer, one of whom, John, was a leading coal merchant of that day, and 
another, Robert, was several times bailiff. 

The next of these alleys is Fenwick's Entry, in the upper part of which, 
Bourne says, ** is the Dwelling-house of Cuthbert Fenwick^ Esq ; Alderman of 
this Town, who is the Proprietor of the whole Entry." This thoroughfare 
Bourne believed to be the ancient Kirk Chare. After enumerating some for- 
gotten chares he proceeds : 

** There is one more ancient Name of a Chair in this Street, which is the Kirk- 
Chair^ or the Way or Lane they generally went to Church by from the Key-side. This 
I take to be that Chair, which now goes by the Name of Fenwick\ Entry, because its 
Situation answers so exactly to the Church-yard^ the Top of this Chair being almost upon 
a Line with the Stairs that lead up to the Church. This Lane is much the neatest of the 
whole Street, having in it several good Houses^ which are kept in a different Order from 
the Generality of the Houses in those narrow Lanes.*- 

After this there was fonnerly a second Dark Chare, also called Blind 



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175 

Chare and Back Lane. It was not a thoroughfare, and its entrance is now 
covered by a modern building. A part of it, however, still exists, and may be 
found by the patient searcher behind No. 27, Quayside, between the shop of 
Messrs. Boazman and Co. and that of Messrs. Cail and Sons.* 

We now come to the Broad Garth. It bore this name in 1558. Like 
Plummer Chare and Fenwick's Entry it leads from the Quayside into Dog 
Bank. Near its higher end is an ancient building, which extends into Fen- 
wick's Entry, but about which neither history nor tradition tells us anything. 
It cannot be of later date than the fifteenth century. It is now the property 
of Mr. Robert Rogerson, by whom it is occupied as a cooperage. 

The entrance to what is now known as Custom House Yard was formerly 
called Peacock Chare. The old Peacock Inn, from which this chare had its 
name, occupied the site of the present Custom House. Near the end of 
December, 1646, when Charles I. was a prisoner at Newcastle, the captain of 
a Dutch ship, who lodged ** at the signe of the Peacock,'* and whose vessel 
was anchored at Shields, received a hundred pounds from Mr. William 
Murray, groom of the king's bed-chamber, for service which he agreed to 
render by conveying the king by sea to France. This and other projects for 
Charles's escape failed, because a confidential messenger named Tobias Peaker, 
employed by Murray, divulged, to the mayor of Newcastle, the secrets with 
which he was entrusted. After the Custom House was moved to its present 
site the Peacock Inn was established on the east side of Trinity Chare. 

The next of these alleys, now called Trinity Chare, leads to the premises 
of the Trinity House, an institution to which, hereafter, I devote an entire 
chapter, 

A little beyond Trinity Chare we reach the Three Indian Kings Court, at 
the north end of which is the Three Indian Kings Hotel. This is an old 

* Our not always too-careful historian, Brand, inadvertently originated a new name for this chare. In his list 
of the Quayside chares ("History of Newcastle," vol. i., p. 21), he professes to g^ve their names as they occur on 
Corbridge's Map of Newcastle. The chare in question, however, Brand calls " The Park," misreading Corbridge, who 
has clearly " The Dark," leaving here, as throughout his list, the word chare to be supplied by the reader. Corbridge's 
D in Dark does certainly resemble a P, but it is precisely like his D in Denton and Dean, Bourne's map has plainly 
" The Dark Chare." Mackenzie, however, copies Brand's blunder, and the other day I met a venerable Quajrsider who 
persisted in calling this chare ** The Park." In historical matters an error once committed has marvellous vitality. 



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176 

hostelry, although all its present buildings are quite modem. It existed 
as early as the year 1666, but was then only called the Three Kings. The 
word Indian was first introduced into the sign early in last century, but 
was soon dropped, and not again revived till about eighty years ago. One 
proprietor, about a hundred . years ago, styled the house *' The Three Kings 
and Hawk."* 

We next reach Rewcastle Chare, which, I believe, has its name from 
Thomas Rewcastle, who was master of the Trinity House in 1688 and 1709. 

Peacock Chare and Rewcastle Chare are not thoroughfares. Trinity 
Chare leads through the property of the Trinity House into Broad Chare. 

We now come to the widest and most important of the Quayside Chares 
— the Broad Chare. Narrow enough the stranger would consider it, for only 
in one or two places throughout its whole length is it possible for vehicles to 
pass each other. ** Le Brod Chere '' is mentioned as early as 1390. Roger 
Thornton had several properties in it. Here, too, he resided, and the inquisi- 
tion taken after his death mentions the messuage in the Broad Chare, " in 
which the said Roger lived at the time of his death,*' which messuage is 
declared to be of the yearly value of forty shillings. Thornton's properties 
were inherited by his son, the second Roger, who died in 1483, and whose 
daughter Elizabeth married Sir George Lumley.f By this marriage the 

* The " Three Kings " is not at all an uncommon sign. It alludes to the magi who came from the cast to do 
homage at our Saviour's birth, and whom early Christian traditions hold to have been three in number. In the miracle 
plays of the Middle Ages they were called " The Three Kings of Cologne." In one of the Chester mysteries their 
names are given as Sir Jasper of Tars, who brought the myrrh ; Sir Melchior, king of Araby, who brought the frank- 
incense ; and Sir Balthazer, king of Saba, who brought the gold. In the ordinary of the Goldsmiths', Plumbers', Glaziers', 
Pewterers' and Painters' Company of Newcastle, dated in 1536, the members are required "on the flfest and day of 
Corpus Christi louyngly [to] goo togedders in procession all in a leverey * * ♦ and mayntaygne thcr play of the 
Thre Kynges of Coleyn." 

The " Three Indian Kings " is the property of Dr. Embleton, who possesses a complete and deeply interesting 
series of title-deeds relating to it, which extend from 1560 to the present time. The first document, however, which 
indicates its use as a hostelry, is the will of Robert Harrigate, dated i6th March, 1666-7. Therein he describes it as 
his " Messuage, Burgage and Tennement with the Appurtenances called the Three Kings situate by the Kejrside in 
Newcastle upon Tine." 

t Roger Thornton the elder is the subject of a lengthy note in the chapter on All Saints' Church. His only son 
and heir, Roger, was an alderman of Newcastle and a member of the Skinners' Company. In 1435 he was a commis- 
sioner to raise archers in Northumberland, and was high-sheriff of the same county in 1457. He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Lord John Dacre. Her marriage settlement provided that her issue should inherit her husband's lands. 
By her he had two daughters. Johanna, the eldest, married Robert de Ogle, son of Sir Robert de Ogle, but she died 



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177 

Lumleys acquired all the Thornton estates in Newcastle and elsewhere, except 
the manor of Witton, in Northumberland. In the early part of the sixteenth 
century the Lumleys owned almost if not quite all the property on the east 
side of Broad Chare, and in 1520 '* the great messuage of the Lord of Lumley " 
is mentioned. Some of these properties were afterwards owned by Sir Robert 
Brandling, of Felling, and his brother, Henry Brandling, of Newcastle. 

Few of the buildings now standing in Broad Chare call for any remark. 
On the west side, however, there is an early seventeenth century building, the 
lowest storey of which has had modern shop fronts inserted, but of which the 
higher parts remain practically unaltered. Tradition affirms that this house 
was at one time the town-residence of the Liddells of Ravensworth. Almost 
opposite is the ''Golden Lion," one of the best existing specimens of the brick 
buildings of the first half of last century. 

Broad Chare, and its northern continuation, Cowgate, before the end of 
the thirteenth century, constituted the eastern boundary of Newcastle. The 
rest of Quayside lanes and chares are part of Pandon, and will therefore be 
described and have their history recorded in the next chapter, which treats of 
that ancient vill. 

without issue. His second daughter, Elizabeth, married Sir George Lumley. Roger Thornton's wife died in 1440, 
and he afterwards cohabited with one Johanna Law, by whom he had three sons, Giles, Roger, and John, upon whom 
he settled a portion of his estates. Sir George Lumley's son and heir, Thomas, whose wife was Elizabeth Plantagenet, 
illegitimate daughter of Edward IV., by Lady Elizabeth Lucy, raised a quarrel with Giles Thornton about the succes- 
sion to the Thornton estates, which culminated in a duel, when, according to Leland, " Thomas Lumeley, after Lorde 
Lumeley, slew in the diche of Windsor Castelle, Giles Thornton, bastard to riche Thornton,*' though another authority 
says this was done " in the great Gardinge at Wyndsore." The second of Roger Thornton's illegitimate sons, Roger 
succeeded to his brother Giles' estates. He had two sons, whom Edward IV., possibly acting upon Elizabeth Dacre's 
marriage settlement, is said to have disinherited. Both these boys died under age, and John, the second Roger's third 
son, inherited such of the Thornton estates as did not go to the Lumleys. His heirs, in an unbroken male line, held 
Witton, in Northumberland, till a few years after the middle of last century, when it passed by marriage to the 
Trevelyans. 




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SILVER STREET AND PANDON. 

Silver Street is the royal road from the oldest, and once most important 
part of Pilgrim Street to Pandon. Dog Bank and Manor Chare also lead 
thither, but by more circuitous routes. 

Silver Street was called All Hallow Gate in early times. I find this name 
as early as 1430 and as late as 1658, when it is described as ** Silver Street alias 
All Hallow Gate," whilst in 1700 it is ''Silver Street alias Jew Gate." The 
connection between the Hebrew race and the precious metals is well under- 
stood. There is a tradition that at one period the street was principally 
occupied by Jews who dealt in silver plate. 

In Silver Street lived, during the later years of his life, Newcastle's first 
historian, Henry Bourne, the sight of whose quaint folio, with its reminiscences 
of a life of toil, discouragement and suflFering, is always pathetic, but especially 
so when the eye falls on the dedication, signed " By the Author's Children, 
Henry Bourne^ Eleanor Bourne^'' orphaned by their father's death four years 
before his book left the printer's hands. Such memorials of Bourne as time 
has spared have been gathered and garnered by the Reverend Edward Hussey 
Adamson. Henry Bourne was bom at Newcastle in 1694. When about 
fifteen years old he was apprenticed to a glazier named Watson, who lived and 
wrought beneath the shadow of St. Nicholas's tower. Bourne's marked pro- 
pensity for study led to the considerate cancelling of his indentures. After 
spending a few years at the Grammar School of Newcastle, he was admitted, 
in his twenty-third year, a sizar of Christ's College, Cambridge. He graduated 
as B.A. in 1720, and, probably in the same year, was admitted to holy orders 
by the editor of Camden's " Britannia," Edmund Gibson, then bishop of 
Lincoln. In 1722 he was appointed to the curacy of All Saints', or, as it was 
then called. All Hallows' Church. Here for ten years he faithfully discharged 



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179 

the ill-requited duties of a large and laborious parish, yet found time for the 
Herculean research which resulted in his charming *' History/' and for other 
literary pursuits also, living in this Silver Street in the midst of his people, and 
dying here of consumption on the i6th February, 1733, aged only 38 years. 
His frail tenement of clay was laid in the church in which he had laboured the 
best years of his life, but neither therein, nor in the new church which suc- 
ceeded it, has there ever been any memorial of him, except a single line in the 
parish register. 

At the foot of Silver Street we are at the confines of Pandon, ** a place of 
such antiquitie,'* says Gray, '* that if a man would expresse any ancient thing, it 
is a common Proverb, As old as Pandon." The vill of Pandon formed no part 
of Newcastle till 1299. Before that time it was outside the walls, and con- 
stituted part of the lordship of Byker. But in that year Edward I. granted to 
the burgesses and true men of Newcastle " all the lands and tenements with 
the appurtenances in Pampeden in Byker," which, for this purpose, had been 
released into the king's hands by Robert de Byker, and Ladararie, his wife. 
This singularly-named lady had acquired Pandon by inheritance. The charter 
from which I have just quoted describes the annexation of Pandon to New- 
castle as being for the '* increase, improvement, and security " of the latter town. 

The walls of Newcastle were commenced in the reign of William Rufus, 
and were doubtless completed long before the union of Pandon and Newcastle. 
Prior to that event, the eastern wall, from the Comer Tower, which fortunately 
still stands near where the railway crosses City Road, would be continued in 
the line now represented by Cowgate and Broad Chare to the river side. 
This is more than indicated by the direction of the wall from Plummer Tower, 
which also fortunately still exists, to the Corner Tower. The abrupt turn of 
the wall eastward at Comer Tower is only explained by the annexation of 
Pandon. But when the new wall, enclosing Pandon, had been built, the 
old wall in Cowgate and Broad Chare would be taken down, leaving those 
thoroughfares the widest of all avenues from the Quayside. The new wall 
enclosing Pandon was built before 1307, for in that year Edward grants licence 



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to the Carmelites of Newcastle to remove from their house at Wall Knoll, in 
the northern suburb of Pandon, because of the abridgment their premises 
had suffered by reason ** that the newly-built wall of the same town [of New- 
castle] extended through the middle of their garth, and near to their church.'* 

A distinguished local archaeologist, the late John Hodgson Hinde, believed 
that Pandon is the site of the royal village of king Oswy, called Ad Murum by 
Bede, who tells us that it bore this name, because **it is close upon the wall 
by which the Romans formerly divided the island of Britain." Bede further 
locates Ad Murum ** at the distance of twelve miles from the eastern sea." 
Here then, if Mr. Hinde's conjecture be accepted, was the ** famous vill 
belonging to the king," at which, about the year 653, Peada, son of Penda, 
king of the Mid Angles, and Sigebert, king of the East Angles, were baptized 
by Bishop Finan.* Be this as it may, it is certain that a tradition of the 
residence in Pandon of the Saxon kings of Northumbria survived till com- 
paratively recent times. Gray says, 

'* After the departure of the Romans, the Kings of 
Northumberland kept their Recidence in it, and had their 
House, now called Pandon-HalL It was a safe Bulwarke, 
having the Picts Wall on the North side, and the River of 
Tine on the South." 

• The site of Ad Murum is fixed by Camden at Welton, near Harlow Hill ; by Dr. John Smith, the editor of 
Bede, at Walbottle ; and by Gray, our Chorographer, at Wallsend. According to Baxter's " Glossarium," Ad Murum 
is Benwell. The occurrence of the syllable wall (or well^ assumed to be a corruption thereoO, in these place names, is 
the sole ground for all these identifications. To Brand belongs the credit of first localizing Ad Murum within the 
mediaeval limiu of Newcastle. Mr. LongstafFe (" Arch. Ael." N.S., iv., p. 56) contends for Rutchester, the Roman 
Vindobala ; whilst Mr. Cadwallader J. Bates ("Arch. Ael." xi., p. 244) claims that Ad Murum is Heddon-on-the-Wall. 
Mr. Longstaffe's argument for Rutchester rests on the not very warrantable assumption that Bede's miles are extremely 
long ones. Mr. Bates, on the other hand, counts along the Roman Wall to the twelfth mile-castle, and, as this occurs 
at Heddon, concludes that " there appears to be no good reason for not identifying ' Heddon super Murum' with * Ad 
Murum "'(!)i; justifying his measurement from Wallsend, rather than from the coast, by the fact that elsewhere Bede 
speaks of the Roman Wall as being built "from sea to sea." But it is surely easy to see that this expression is pure 
hyperbole ; whereas when Bede gives us a measured distance he must necessarily use words in a strictly literal way^ 
If we knew the length of Bede's miles the question would be at once settled, but we do not. It seems to me, however, 
rather unreasonable to assume, as Mr. Longstaffe has done, that, because the mile of mediaeval writers was longer than 
our standard mile, Bede's mile was longer too. Bede would most likely adopt the Roman mile, and twelve Roman 
miles from Tynemouth Bar, measuring along the mid-stream of the river, land us at Newcastle Quay. 

But in fixing the site of Ad Murum, tradition is of more value than either etymology or measurement. Neither 
at Wallsend, Benwell, Walbottle, Heddon, Rutchester, nor Welton is there the shadow of tradition of Saxon occupation. 
At Pandon, in the seventeenth century, there was distinct tradition that Saxon kings of Northumbria had dwelt there. 



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Gray's annotations further state that **that magnificent and stately building '* — 
Pandon Hall — **was founded in the time of the Heptarchy." Bourne enables 
us to identify the exact site of the edifice referred to by Gray. After men- 
tioning **the House^ Cellars and Malting of Mr. George Hinkster^'' which 
occupied the centre of the open space now known as Stockbridge, he proceeds, 

'* Opposite to the South Front of this House was the ancient Building, viz. Pandon- 
hall^ above mentioned, but now rebuilt in some Measure. There are still remaining 
many ancient Walls and Parts of this Building ; it was of considerable Bigness, having 
been according to Tradition, on its North-front in Length from the Stockbridge to Cow- 
gate; and on its West-front in Length from its North-west Corner, beyond that Lane 
that leads into Blyth's Nook^ 

" It is of great Antiquity, being built in the Times of the Heptarchy; for it was the 
House of the Kings of Northumberland^ who liv'd in it, for which Reason it was call'd 
Pandon-haliy 

The north front of Pandon Hall, therefore, was what is now known as Red 
Row, and the ** ancient walls and parts,*' mentioned by Bourne, may be 
identified with the stone masonry, which still remains to the height of the 
first floor, but no part of this even is more than two or three centuries older 
than the superstructure of brick. 

Pandon was an inhabited vill before its annexation to Newcastle. The 
ancient arrangement of its streets and ways was doubtless that which still 
obtains except in its most northern lunits. Its topography diflFers in a striking 
way from that of the neighbouring portions of old Newcastle. This is evident 
from the most cursory examination of a good map of the town, say that 
published by Oliver in 1830. 

The open space now called Stockbridge was formerly occupied by build- 
ings. I have already quoted Bourne's reference to the premises of one George 
Hinkster, which stood here. It was known in Bourne's time as Alvey's Island, 
Alvey being the name of a then recent proprietor. Previously it was called 
simply The Island. ** In former Times," says Bourne, ''when the Tide flow'd 
up to the Stock-bridge y there was thereabout a Hill of Sanri, which at the 
Tide's leaving of it, appeared like an Island." 

And the testimony of Gray, who preserves this tradition, is all the more valuable since he has no thought of the identity 
of Pandon and Ad Murum* 

If, in addition to all this, etymological testimony be desired, it is only necessary to mention that Pandon includes 
Waff Knoll. 

Q 



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The building which still stands at the east end of Stockbridge, on its north 
side, was, till very recently, a tavern of the humbler type. It was styled ^* The 
Hole in the Wall," a name which it probably received from its proximity to an 
archway in the town wall, through which ran Pandon Burn. This archway 
was directly behind the tavern. I may here mention that the town wall still 
exists, though hidden, behind the properties of Messrs. Angus and Co., and 
Messrs. Monkhouse and Brown, both of which front upon Stockbridge. 

At the eastern end of the space now called Stockbridge, stood in former 
times the Stock Bridge proper, which here spanned Pandon Burn. The word 
stock means wood, and, there can be no doubt, describes the material of which 
the original bridge was constructed. Bourne admits that ** it was undoubtedly 
of Wood in ancient Times," but also asserts that ** we meet with an Account 
of its being Stone, when Thomas de Carliol was Mayor, which was in 
Edward I. Time at latest," but, unfortunately, he gives no authority for this 
statement. Here, however, according to a tradition preserved by Gray, '*is 
thought to be an ancient Market for Fish ; where Boats came up from the 
River." 

The road northward from Stockbridge led through Pandon Gate, which 
was taken down in 1795. Beyond the gate, the road, here called Pandon Bank, 
ascended sharply. ** This Way," writes Bourne, ** was within these four Years 
the pleasanlest Entrance into the Town of Newcastle^ having Gardens on each 
Side, beset with Trees of so large a Size and Shade, that they covered the 
Street itself in several Places. These were cut down for a little unpossest 
Money, and the greatest Beauty of the Street lost." An opening on the west 
side of Pandon Bank gave access, through New Pandon, to Pandon Dene, 
** a very Romantick Place^'' says Bourne, ^*full of Hills and Vales, through 
which runs Pandon- Burn'' The beauty of Pandon Dene is celebrated in 
a well-known local song, and in Mackenzie's ** History " there is an engraving, 
*^from a Painting by J. Lumsden," portrait painter, of St. John's Lane, ** taken 
in the year 1821," which depicts a charming rural retreat immediately north of 
New Bridge. 



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i83 

From this excursion into the sylvan suburbs of Pandon we must return to 
Stockbridge. The street which leads southward from its east end was formerly 
called Fishergate, at least to the point where it divides. It bore this name as 
early as 1290. In the reign of Henry V. or VI. an inquisition was held at 
Newcastle, during which evidence was given that, 

** All those who from ancient time went out from the port of the said town to the 
sea, for the purpose of fishing, were accustomed to dwell in the same town of Newcastle, 
namely, in a certain street then assigned to them, commonly called Fisher-Gate, in order 
that these fishermen [might practice] no regrateria* with the fish thus caught by them ; 
since they ought first of all to proceed to the same town with the whole of the same fish, 
that the ancient customs and prisages of the king might be preserved." 

Proceeding from Stockbridge along the ancient Fishergate, we soon reach 
a point where the road divides. On our left we have an extremely steep street 
called Wall Knoll, whilst on our right we have a continuation of the road 
along which we have come. From the foot of Wall Knoll southwards this 
road was formerly called Crosswellgate. 

The street called Wall Knoll skirts and leads up to the Wall Knoll proper ; 
that is, the knoll or hill surmounted by the wall. It was the Roman Wall 
which conferred the name, which occurs as early as 1290, whereas the neigh- 
bouring portion of the town's wall was not built till between 1299 and 1307. 
That the Roman Wall passed over this hill there can be no doubt, but, it must 
be acknowledged, no weight can be given to the statements of Gray and 
Bourne as to the existence of Roman work in Pandon Gate, Carpenters' 
Tower, or in a wall-tower in their vicinity. 

On Wall Knoll the order of Carmelites, or White Friars, established a 
house in the reign of Henry III., acquiring land for this purpose from John de 
Byker. Here they remained till 1307, when the encroachment of the new 

* To regrate was to buy provisions and sell them again in the same market, or within five miles thereof. To do 
this was by 5 Ed. VI., cap. 14, made unlawful. This and similar Acts were repealed by 12 Geo. III., cap. 7. The 
charter of Elizabeth, granted to Newcastle in 1589, gfives the mayor and aldermen authority in their courts to punish 
" regrators, forestallers, and engrossers." Gardner, in his " England's Grievance," accuses the mayor and burgesses of 
ingrossing " all provisions into their hands, as corn, &c.," and mentions one season when a Newcastle merchant had 
bought up all the available rye, then a principal article of food amongst the poor, and sold it " at sixteen shillings the 
boul." Sir Arthur Haslerig, then governor of Newcastle, had, however the humanity to invest £iyOOO in rye, which 
he caused to be sold at eleven shillings per boll, and earned by so doing the wrath of the merchants. But see Gardner's 
48th and 50th chapters. 



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1 84 

part of the town wall upon their property rendered a removal expedient, and 
Edward I. gave them licence to take possession of the premises previously 
.occupied by Friars of the Penance of Jesus Christ, or Friars of the Sac, but 
stipulating that friar Walter de Carleton, the only surviving brother of that 
order, should be permitted to remain in the house the whole of the rest of his 
life, and be provided by the incomers with reasonable sustenance, suited to his 
rank. The new home of the Carmelites was within the west walls of the town, 
and near the tower known till its demolition in 1840 as the White Friar 
Tower. 

The abandoned site of the Carmelites' house at Wall Knoll was again 
devoted to monastic uses in 1360. In that year William Acton founded a 
house here of Trinitarians or Maturines, called also the Order of the Holy 
Trinity for the Redemption of Captives. The first master was one William 
Wakefield, who had held the same office in a house of the same order at 
Berwick, which bishop Beck had suppressed. Their house on Wall Knoll was 
dedicated to St. Michael, and, from its elevated position, came to be called 
St. Michael's Mount, a designation by which its site was known as late as 1733. 
Bourne tells us that in his day the east end of the church was still standing, 
and Brand mentions ** some vestiges of the old buildings, doorways, &c.," as 
remaining in his time. *' When City Road was formed in 1882-3, a few stones, 
and a scattered heap or two of bones, were all that remained of the [brethren] 
of St. Michael of the Wall Knoll, their house, their chapel, and their burying 
place." 

Returning to the foot of Wall Knoll Street, and proceeding along 
Crosswellgate, we soon reach on our right a short irregular thoroughfare, 
which leads into Cowgate, and now called Blythe Nook, suggesting that the 
sprightliest scenes in Pandon may be witnessed here. Blyth's Nook, how- 
ever, is the more correct form of the name. "Blyth was probably a surname 
of the owner," says Brand, and, it may be added, one William Blida or 
Blitha, held property in this neighbourhood in the early part of the fourteenth 
century. According to Bourne this lane formed the southern boundary of 
Pandon Hall. He also informs us that it was built over Pandon Burn. 



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From Crosswellgate four lanes or alleys lead to the river side. Before 
describing these, however, we must return to the foot of Broad Chare, where, 
at the close of the last chapter, we terminated the first part of our survey of. 
the Quayside. 

The foot of Broad Chare, as we have already seen, is the ancient eastern 
limit of Newcastle on the river side. So soon as we pass this point we are in 
Pandon. A few yards brings us to Spicer Lane, a short thoroughfare leading 
from the Quayside to an open space formerly known as Stony Hill and Duck 




^ j:f^;^-j*^'; V.-.-' 



Blyth's Nook. 



Hill, by crossing which we may again enter Broad Chare. Spicer Lane is 
mentioned in 1547, and Stony Hill in 1562. There was at one time a Company 
of Spicers in Newcastle, who are mentioned in the books of the Merchants' 
Company in 15 17, and the lane had probably its name from being occupied by 
persons following that trade. Of all the Quayside alleys, Spicer Lane, as Mr. 
Charlton has said, ** gives perhaps the best idea of what an old chare was like.*' 
Next we come to Burn Bank, ** a Place,'* says Bourne, '* by which Pandon 
Burne runs into the Tyne'' The irregular direction of the thoroughfare is 



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1 86 



suggestive of a water-course. A catastrophe occurred here in the year 1339, 

of which, perhaps, the most authentic ac- 
count is that given in the Chronicle of 
Lanercost : 

'* On the third day before the feast of 
the Assumption of the glorious Virgin [15th 
August], there occurred in the night an extra- 
ordinary inundation, which broke down the 
wall of the town near Walkenowe for a space 
of six perches, when a hundred and sixty men, 
with seven priests and many [women] were 
drowned." 

Brand, on the authority of ** a curious 
fragment on parchment, supposed to have 
been taken out of the archives of the Cor- 
poration of Newcastle " during the riot of 
1740, asserts that ** part of Tyne Bridge was 
carried away " by the same flood. Gray 
says '* an hundred and forty houses was 
drowned ;" but adds, ** since [then] the 
houses towards the Key side are height- 
ened with ballist, and a high stone Wall, 
without which Wall is a long and broad 
Wharf or Key, which hindreth the like in- 
undation." Pandon Burn is now a covered 
stream, but in Speed's plan of Newcastle 
it is shown as an open rivulet quite as far 
down as the head of Burn Bank. 

Then comes Byker Chare. Pandon, 
before its annexation to Newcastle, as we 
have seen, was the property of the De 

Bykers, whose ** Town's House," Bourne supposes, was *' in or near that Part 

of Pandon^ called Byker Chare." 




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i87 

Now we reach Cock's Chare, called in Gray's time Ratten Row. Its later 
name perpetuates the memory of Ralph Cock, *' alderman and sometime mayor 
of this town," as his gravestone in the Cathedral describes him. He lived in 
the house which, though entered from the chare, fronts the Quay, and is now 
partly occupied by a ** long bar," dignified by the title of '* The Scotch Arms." 
The rest of the house is let oflF in tenements. It has at one time been a 
splendid mansion, and still contains many evidences of its former grandeur. 
The staircase is of oak, with massive rail and elegant spiral balusters. The 
principal room of the first floor is panelled in a very superior way, with well- 
moulded cornice, elaborate frieze, and ribbed pilasters. The carving is boldly 
designed and excellently executed. The fire-place seems never to have been 
at all equal to the rest of the room ; but its principal panel has been removed. 
This was done, it is said, by a former mayor of the town, who carried oflF the 
panel to the Mansion House, but afterwards took it to his private residence. 
A large room on the second floor is also panelled in a much more simple, but 
still very effective manner. 

Ralph Cock was one of the wealthy merchants of Newcastle of his day. 
He died in 1653, leaving four daughters, whose personal beauty and material 
wealth gained them the sobriquet of ** Cock's canny hinnies." We need 
not wonder that they married most eligible husbands, albeit these were all 
merchants of Newcastle.* 

* Dorothy, the eldest, married Mark Milbank, who was sheriff in 1638 and mayor in 1658 and 1672. He 

supplied Charles II., whilst in exile, with considerable sums of money, in return for which, at the Restoration, he was 

offered a baronetcy, but this he declined in favour of his eldest son, Mark Milbank of Halnaby. He is said to have 

been the great grandson of one Ralph Milbank, who had been cup-bearer to Mary Queen of Scots, but, having incurred 

her displeasure by fighting a duel, he fled into England and purchased an estate at Chirton, near North Shields. The 

diary of Thomas Kirk, of Cookndge, Yorkshire, supplies us with a ciu-ious link in the history of Dorothy Cock and her 

husband : 

" Friday i8th [May, 1677], we saw St. Nicholas Church ; there are several pretty monuments therein. 

We saw a grave made for a poor alderman of the town (old Milbank) ; his poor widow was in great distress 

how to defray the funeral expenses, having but 7/. in the house; her jointure was iioo/. per annum, and 

15,000/. in money." 

Ralph Cock's second daughter, Jane, married William Carr, of Coxlodge, who was most probably a descendant of the 

George Carr, of Newcastle, whose remarkable monument in the Cathedral I have already described (see page 116). 

Ann, the third daughter, married Thomas Davison, who was mayor in 1669 and 1673, and governor of and benefactor 

to the Merchants' Company. The fire-place in his house on the Sandhill I have mentioned in a previous chapter (see 

page 10). Cock's fourth daughter, Barbara, married Henry Marley, who is believed to have been a son of the famed 

Sir John Marley. 



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The last of the Quayside chares is Love Lane, styled Gowlar Row in 1557 
and Gowerley Chare in 1593. Gray calls it Gouddy Raw, and in a deed of 
1666 it is described as Gowerley Rawe, alias Love Lane. Near the lower 
part of its east side are two old half-timbered buildings, now in a sad state of 

dilapidation, and hastening towards their 
downfall. The one best-known fact of Quay- 
side history is that John Scott, afterwards 
Lord Eldon, was bom in this lane, and that, 
save for the alarm into which the Young 
Pretender put even the coal-fitters of loyal 
Newcastle, his elder brother, William Scott, Lord Stowell, 
would have been bom here also. As it was, the village 
of He worth, where for safety his mother had been taken, 
had the honour of his nativity. The most devoted ad- 
mirer of lord chancellors will seek vainly in this unlovely 
Love Lane for the home of the Scotts. It has long 
been destroyed, and its site is now occupied by one of 
the warehouses on the west side of the lane. 

It IS, perhaps, worth while to mention that the open 
space at the head of Cock's Chare and Love Lane was 
formerly known as Gulleraw Green, though I can offer no 
In Cocks House. suggestion as to the meaning of the name. 

We have now almost, though not quite, reached the end of the old Quay- 
side. We have one last alley to penetrate, though this is not and never has 
been called a chare. It is now, it would almost seem profanely, styled Bethel 
Lane. The seeker after vestiges of our ancient town must not pass it by. He 
will find in it, if he seek carefully, a portion of the old town wall. On the east 
side of the lane, the houses are built against and partly upon the only remaining 
fragment of that portion of the wall which stretched from the Sand Gate to the 
Wall Knoll Tower. 




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THE BLACK FRIARS. 

In mediaeval times Newcastle was an important Border stronghold, and, for 
this reason, was an abode equally attractive to merchants and monks, to the 
worldly and the unworldly. Its walls sheltered quite a number of monastic 
establishments. The nuns of St. Bartholomew had a house the site of which 
is not exactly known, but the south side of Grainger Street, opposite the end 
of Nun Street, may safely be regarded as its immediate vicinity. The Fran- 
ciscans, or Grey Friars, had their home where Anderson Place stood in later 
times. The Carmelites, or White Friars, were first established on Wall Knoll 
— where they were succeeded by the Maturine or Trinitarian Friars — but after- 
wards removed to the west side of Clavering Place, a site which had been 
previously occupied by the Friars of the Sac. The Austin Friars had their 
house behind where the Jesus Hospital now stands, and the Dominicans, or 
Black Friars, were established in what is still known as the Friary. 

It is with the Black Friars, often called the Preaching Friars, that we are 
now concerned ; for of all the monastic establishments within our walls, theirs 
is the only one of which any considerable remains now exist. Their order was 
introduced into England in 1221, and at least as early as 1240 they had 
acquired a home in Newcastle. On the 2nd November, in that year, Henry III. 
gave to each of the Friars Preachers dwelling in this town, and to each of the 
Friars Minors at Hartlepool, a tunic made of four ells of cloth, and of the value 
of twelve pence. Sir Peter Scot, and his son Sir Nicholas Scot, are said to 
have been the founders of the house, and this is probably correct, for in an 
inquisition taken at Newcastle in 1442, as to who was the next heir of 
John de Hawkeswell, the lineal descendant of the Scots, Sir Peter is described 
as ** the founder of the house of the Friars Preachers in the town of Newcastle 
upon Tyne."* The site of the house, however, is said to have been given by 

* Sir Peter Scot was the first mayor of Newcastle. He held that office in 1 251 and two succeeding years. 
Sir Nicholas was one of the four bailifTs in 1254, 1257, 1258, 1262, and 1263, and mayor in 1268 and 1269. 



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190 

three sisters, *^ whose names/' as Bourne says, *^ have long since been ingrate- 
fuUy buried in oblivion." 

Henry III., on the 6th November, 1263, in consequence of an inquisition 
held before Adam de Gesemuth, sheriff of Northumberland, and the mayor of 
Newcastle, granted to the brethren of this house that an aqueduct, which they 
had constructed from a certain well beyond their court to their house, and from 
thence into the town itself, should remain in the state in which it then was, 
and that, for the use and advantage of the town, the friars should have and hold 
the said aqueduct for ever. 

Every monastic house had its library. That possessed by the Black Friars 
of Newcastle contained treasures which even the bishop of a distant see cared 
to consult. William de Merton, bishop of Rochester, in 1275, bequeathed by 
will ten marks to the brethren of this house, and directed that a book which 
he had borrowed from their library, entitled " Epistolae Paulae Glossatae," 
should be returned. 

The west part of the Town Wall of Newcastle was erected in the early 
years of the reign of Edward I. When this was done, that portion of the wall 
which still stands behind the south end of Stowell Street was carried through 
the garden of the friars. In consequence of this, Edward I., on the 8th 
September, 1280, granted them permission to make a narrow gate, which in a 
later grant is called ** a postern," through the wall, in order that they might 
enjoy ready access to their garden, reserving to his constable and to the sheriflf 
of Northumberland the right to close it up at the royal pleasure. 

After a time a deep foss was dug round the wall. This presented a new 
obstacle to the friars. A licence, however, was procured from Edward II., on 
the 4th June, 13 12, giving them liberty to construct a wooden draw-bridge, five 
feet in width, across the new foss, by which they might pass ** from their house 
within the wall of that town, by their postern of the said wall, into their garden 
beyond the foss aforesaid." They were also pennitted to make a paUsade on 
each side of the foss and the garden, where the garden-wall had previously 
stood, on the condition that, in time of danger, both bridge and palisade should 
be removed with all haste. 



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191 

During the troubled relations with Scotland, which extended through the 
reigns of the first three Edwards, the English kings were often at Newcastle, 
and, with their retinue, seem usually to have been lodged in the house of the 
Black Friars. Edward III. was at Durham on the i8th April, 1333, and next 
day came forward to Newcastle. On his arrival, as was customary, he was 
met by an imposing procession, in which, on this occasion, 26 Friars Preachers 
took part. 

For the story of the protracted struggle by which Edward III. sought to 
restore the kingdom of Scotland to Edward Baliol I have no space. It must 
suflSce to mention that on the 19th June, 1334, Baliol did homage to the 
English king, in the church of this house, for the crown of Scotland. On this 
occasion, as a recompense for the cost and labour which Edward had incurred, 
Baliol alienated to him and his successors a large part of the southern counties 
of Scotland. 

In the following autumn the king was here again, and was present on 
All Saints' day in the church of this house when Philip de Weston, a royal 
chaplain, celebrated his first mass. The king presented to him a silver gilt 
goblet, with foot and cover, weighing 37s. id. in silver pennies, and valued at 

55S- 7d. 

In return for the hospitality which the king and the royal family had 
received from the friars during a great part of October and November in the 
same year, he gave them ten quarters of corn worth 50s., a tub of flour worth 
40s., and a cask of wine worth £^. 

On his return from Roxburgh in the following February he gave to the 
thirty-two friars who dwelt here an alms of los. 8d. for a day's food, whilst 
a present of 20 quarters of corn, worth loos., recompensed them for again 
sheltering royalty for a brief period. On the 7th March, and again on the 
3rd July, 1335, an alms, in each case of loos., was given to the friars by the 
king's order, in consideration of the injuries their buildings had sustained 
during his visits. 



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In the same year the king spent Christmas here, and on Christmas Day 
heard three masses in the church, when he made an offering of 9s. 4d. in 
honour of the great festival. 

In October of the following year, when on his way to Bothal, the king 
gave the friars a cask of wine worth lOOs. for celebrating mass in their church. 

In or shortly before the year 1341 a riot took place at Newcastle between 
the townsmen and the men of the earl of Northumberland. The earl of Warren, 
then warden of the Scottish marches, was here. He had taken up his abode, 
perhaps I ought to say his refuge, in the house of the Black Friars. The 
inhabitants, who seem to have been greatly incensed against the earl, made an 
attack upon the friary, when its gates were thrown down and broken. The 
prior and brethren wished to make and set up new gates, but the people would 
not permit them to do this. So the friars applied to the king, and he, on the 
6th December, 1341, in consideration of masses to be celebrated for his good 
estate and for the souls of his ancestors, gave the brethren his royal license to 
construct and erect new gates, that they and their successors might *' have and 
hold the same for ever." 

Bishop Hatfield, in 1380, granted license to the prior and brethren of this 
house that such of its brethren as were in the order of the priesthood might 
celebrate mass in the church of St. Nicholas, and in any of the chapels belonging 
to that church^ either for the souls of the living or of the dead, whenever 
called upon to do so by the written or noncupative will of a parishioner. The 
friars were, however, required to ask the permission of the vicar for the time 
being before celebrating such masses, and he, on his part, was enjoined to place 
no impediment in the friars' way, so long as no injury resulted to the church 
itself. The harm which the bishop seems to have feared might possibly result 
from the privilege accorded to the friars, and which he appears to have been 

• The Latin of the italicized words is, " singularisque capellis eidem ecclesiae pertinentibus." These chapels I 
take to be what are now the churches of St. John, St. Andrew, and All Saints. I see, however, that Mr. Welford translates 
" and the chantries thereto belonging." It is, nevertheless, difficult to understand why the privilege should be restricted 
to the mother-church, and it must be remembered that the other churches, which were really parochial chapels held by 
curates appointed by tht vicar of NiwcastU^ are often styled capellae in ancient documents. 



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especially anxious to guard against, was " a bad example to the secular priests 
of disobedience, and of absenting themselves, in an illicit way, from the 
matins and other canonical hours." 

We learn from the will of lord Scrope, which is dated 23rd June, 141 5, 
that this house included the abode of a recluse, to whom he bequeathed the 
sum of 13s. 4d. 

About the year 1536 one Richard Marshall was prior of this house. He 

was a man of some note in his own day. When Henry VIII. threw off his 

allegiance to the pope, and declared himself, under God, the supreme head of 

the church in England, Marshall preached openly against the new doctrine. 

By so doing he incurred the king^s displeasure, and found it prudent to 

speedily quit the kingdom. After his departure he addressed a letter to his 

brethren in Newcastle, which, whatever we may think of his theology, gives us 

a high opinion of his intellectual attainments. I regret that I can only afford 

space for a few extracts from this letter. It is addressed ** to y^ fathers and 

brethryn of the convent of Blake frers in nowcastel.'* The prior says, 

" The caus of my writyng to yow ys, thys time, to show yow that for feyr of my lyve 
I ame flede. For becaus of my prechyng in advent, and also in lent y® fyrst sonday, I am 
notyde to be non of y® kyngs frends, thof awl be yt y^ I love y® kyng as a trw chrystyn 
man owght to do : but [f>., only] by caus y' I have not, accordyng to y® kyng's comand- 
ment, in my sermons both prayd for hym as y® supreme hede of y« church, nether 
declaryde hym in my sermons to be y* supreme hede of [the] church. • • • • i was 
also admonyshyde shortly to prech in Nowcastell, and both to pray for hym as y* supreme 
Hede, and also so to declare hym unto y® peple. W*^** thyng I can not do lawfully, • • 
by caus • * seconde, yt ys agans y^ doctryne of y^ church * * , w'che doctryne of 
holy church I was swoen openly in y^ universite of oxfurde to declayre yt to my powr, 
and ever to styke unto yt. * * * Sevently, yt ys agans my profession w*'**® I made to 
be obedient to y® master of y« holl order and successers accordyng to y® institutions of frers 
prechurs, whoe in yt evydently declaryde y^ ordo nost^ est surn'o Pontifici Romano 
immediate subjectus. For thes sevyn cawsys I can nat lawfully do as I was comaundyd of y« 
kyng by hys letters, nether as I was admonyshyde of his servant and cheplayn. Wherfor 
I cowde not abyde in englonde w^out fawlyng in y« Kyng*s indignation, w*^*»® as y® scriptur 
says ys deth : Indignatio^ Vquit^ principis mors est. Thus I have thowght yt better for me 
to fley and gyve plays to yre [ire]. • • • • I ame in hartt wel wyllyng to dy in y* my 
opynyons, not w^tandyng I feyll my fleche grwg w^ deth. Wherfor, fathers and dere 
brethryn, awl for y* premyssys by y** present writyng I gyve up myn offyce and requyeys 
you to chwys yow another prior. Secondary, I besyke yow awl to pray for me as your 

R 



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powr brother in Chryst, and now in Chryst^s caws departyde from you. So comyttyng 

my self to y® who ever save yow awl, as I wolde be savyde 

my self Amen. 

Vester, Richard Marshall."* 

Marshall's successor was Rowland Hardynge. On the 9th October, 1537, 
a covenant was entered into between the new prior and Robert Davell, arch- 
deacon of Northumberland and master of the Virgin Mary Hospital at New- 
castle, that, for the sum of £(i i8s., received from Davell, by the prior and 
convent ^*in their great ned and necessitie," they, 

** Every day frome the date hereof for evermore betwixt the owr of six of the clock in 
the morning and the owr of niene of the same morning before the Pyctur of our lorde 
named the Crucifix, that is, betwixt the closyers and the utter quire doore, within the 
Church of the same Convent shall upon their knes kneling devoutely singe an Antem of 
the holy cros begynnyng O Crux d^'c, with the versikle Adoramus te Christe Jesu^ &c.^ 
with a collect of the same Domine Jesu Christe fill Dei viviy &c.; the which soe doon 
thei shall devoutly say, for the Sowles of Willm Davell, John Brygham, late of the Towne 
of Newcastell, merchant, their wyfes and children, with their benefactors and all Cristyn 
soulls, De profundiss ^c.^ with the preres thereto belongyng concludyng or endyng w* 
the oracion of Absolve quesum' Domine and Sede ad dextram^ ^c. • • • And 
furthermore the seid prior and convent covenants grants and promyses * * that if 
the Antem and prayers be not songe and seid [at the] ower and place as y% afore rehersyd 
be the space of two days that then for every suche defalt that they shall sing a solempn 
dirige w^ Masse of Requiem w* note, sendyng the belman about the saide Towne to 
notifie the same, that some may come to the seid friers to make oblacion for their friend 
sowles and all Cristyn sowles." 

But the time was rapidly approaching v^^hen within the walls of this house 

* This is not quite the last we hear of Marshall. In John Foxe's "Acts and Monuments," we have an account 
of his preaching at St. Andrew's, Scotland, about the year I5SI» and contending that the Pater Noster should be said to 
God only and not to the saints. "The doctors of the university, together with the Grey Friars," Foxe tells us, "who 
had long ago taught the people to pray the Pater Noster to saints, had great indignation that their old doctrine should 
be repugned," and employed one friar Tottis to refute Marshall. The martyrologist proceeds to give an account of 
Tottis's sermon. " If we meet an old man in the street," said the preacher, " we will say to him, • Good day, father ! ' 
and therefore much more may we call the saints our fathers ! " The controversy caused a schism in the Scotch church, 
both the clergy and people being divided into two parties on the question of saying the Pater Noster to saints or to 
God only; "in such sort," says Foxe, "that there rose a proverb, *To whom say you your Pater Noster?* " "The 
craftsmen and their servants in their booths, when the friar came, exploded him with shame enough, crying, * Friar 
Pater Noster ! Friar Pater Noster ! ' who at the last being convicted in his own conscience, and ashamed of his former 
sermon, was compelled to leave the town of St. Andrew's." Two pasquils, one in Latin and the other in English, were 
fixed to the abbey door. The latter read thus : 

" Doctors of Theology, of fourscore of years, 

And old jolly Lupoys, and bald grey-friars, 

They would be called Rabbi and Magister noster ! 

And wot not to whom they say their Pater noster ! " 



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the solemn dirge and anthem of the friars should be for ever silenced. In 1539 
came the dissolution of all the smaller religious houses in England. Hardjoige 
was still prior here, and on the loth June in that year he surrendered the 
house and its possessions into the king*s hands. At that time it contained 
besides the prior twelve brethren, and its annual value was estimated at 
59s. 4d. On the loth March, 1544, the king granted the priory to the mayor 
and burgesses of Newcastle for the sum of ;^S3 7S- 6d. and an annual rent of 
5s. I i^d. In this grant, besides the house itself, its church, bell-turret, and 
grave-yard, its messuages, houses, buildings, gardens, orchards, lands, and 
soil, together with a hall, two chambers, another chamber called *' the Crosse 
Chamber,*' and other possessions, are enumerated. The king reserved to his 
own use all bells and lead of the church and other buildings, as well as the lead 
in the gutters and windows, and all stones, iron, and timber " of, in, and upon 
the church of the said house,'* 

In 1552 the house itself and its orchards and gardens were granted to nine 
of the ancient incorporated companies of Newcastle, the Bakers and Brewers, 
the Fullers and Dyers, the Smiths, the Tanners, the Butchers, the Cordwainers, 
the Sadlers, the Tailors, and the Skinners and Glovers. All these companies 
still retain their several properties, and most of them still have their halls or 
meeting places within the ancient precincts of the friary. 

It is impossible, perhaps, to determine the uses to which the greater part 
of the existing remains of the friary were originally appropriated. These 
remains extend round the west, south, and east sides of a quadrangular space, 
which was certainly the cloister garth. So many portions of the structures, 
however, which surrounded the quadrangle, have been partly or entirely rebuilt, 
sometimes with old materials, that the difficulty of assigning the parts still 
remaining to their original purposes is greatly increased. Some of the corbels 
which supported the timber roof of the cloister may still be seen on the west 
side, in the walls of the Saddlers* Hall. The church appears to have extended 
along the whole of the south side of the cloisters. Outside the Tanners* Hall 
the heads of four arches of an arcade which opened into a south aisle, are. 



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as shown in the opposite plate, still visible. Unfortunately, the adjoining hall 
on the west, which belongs to the Butchers, was rebuilt in last century, and 
no drawing or engraving of its former aspect has been preserved. But 
drawings of the south side of the old Cordwainers' Hall, which was taken down 
in 1843, show a continuation, still further to the west, of the same arcade. 
" The churches of the friars were oblong, and of unbroken length, destitute 
of a triforium, and generally provided with only a single aisle or ^ 

a single transept," The single aisle here was on the south, and 
extended the whole length of the nave. The nave was entered 



\ r 




The Cloisters of the Black Friaky (Saddlers' Hall). 

from the cloisters by a pointed doorway, which still exists, near its east end, 
and on its south side was entered by a second pointed doorway a little east of 
the termination of the aisle. These doorways are utilized for a passage which 
leads from the street called the Friars into the quadrangle. The old masonry, 
including, apparently, parts of two arches, on the east side of this passage, is, 
I am convinced, a re-erection. Here, too, it should be mentioned that 



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drawings of the north side of the old Cordwainers' Hall show the ancient 
clerestory windows over the corbels of the cloister roof. The Smiths' Hall 
occupies the site of the transept or choir, or both. The outer wall of this 
portion, immediately east of the buttress which now projects into the street, to 
the height of the first floor, is of Early English date, and, with its three lancet 
windows, may be considered to be contemporate in date with the foundation 
of the house. Till the early years of the present century a decorated window 
"of the most elegant design and beautiful execution,'' existed over the windows 
just mentioned, in the south wall of the Smiths' Hall. It was removed to make 
way for two large and ugly square windows. It is shown in an old view 
of the Black Friars preserved amongst the drawings in the Castle. The 
Skinners' and Glovers' Hall, which was partially rebuilt in 171 2, retains several 
curious original features. On its east side is a pointed doorway, and on its 
west side are two arches resting on a central pillar. Over these, too, there 
is an ancient doorway. On the east side of the Saddlers' Hall is a singular 
trefoiled arch, with a relieving arch above it, which, I feel strongly convinced, 
covered the " curious Old Well^'' mentioned by Bourne, and which, he assures 
us, ** served the Monastery with Water," and was "called our Lady's Well.''* 
There is an ancient pointed doorway, and a walled up pointed window, on the 
west side of the Bakers' and Brewers' Hall. A slight examination of the 
remains is suflScient to show that they have been built at various times ; but 
they are far too incomplete to permit any attempt at a chronology of their 
architecture. 

Amongst the relics of the monastic establishments of Newcastle, pre- 
served in the Castle, are a sculptured rood in stone, a figure of the Virgin 
sculptured in low relief on a stone slab, and a rude stone basin, erroneously 
designated a font, all from the ruins of the Black Friary. 

• This theory, I am aware, is incompatible with an engraving of the well in Richardson's " Table Book," said to 
be taken from a drawing in the possession of the duke of Northumberland. But the drawing or engraving is itself 
incompatible with the absolute authority of the view of the cloister garth in Brand, which leaves no possible place for 
such a round-headed recess as Richardson represents. 



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THE TRINITY HOUSE. 

*^ The fraternity or guild of the holy and indivisible Trinity in the town of 
Newcastle upon Tyne " is an institution whereof the origin is lost in the mists 
of antiquity. It was already in existence in the very early years of the six- 
teenth century, though how long it had then been founded it is impossible to 
say. On the fourth day of January, 1505, it acquired, from Ralph Hebbum of 
Hebburn, a portion of its present site, described as " all that messuage, sellers 
and garden auncyently called Dalton place lyeing in the Brodchare."* The 
society entered into a bond to pay to Hebbum and his successors, as a quit- 
rent, a red-rose yearly at the feast of St. John the Baptist, ** if it be demanded.'' 
Forty years before this, the property belonged to John Dalton and Joan his 
wife. Hence the name it had acquired. John Dalton, as well as his father, 
Richard, had represented the town of Newcastle in Parliament. 

On the same day on which the property was conveyed by Hebbum to 

certain members of the society, a trust-deed was executed, setting forth the 

purposes to which it was to be devoted. This document declares that, 

'* The said Messuage, with the appurtenence befor reherced, and other the premisses, 
shall be susteyned and reparelled for ever by the said felliship, with their comen purs, by 
the oversight and appointment of the Aldermen and Wardens of the said felliship, yerely 
for the tyme being. And within the said Messuage, in such parte thereof as shall be 
thought most convenient, shall be an Hall for the said felliship, to serve for ther metinges 
at all tymes, convenient for observinge of the good ordinensez and resolves, ordered and 
used amonges the said felliship. And in the resideu of the same shall be certeyn logyngs, 
ordered for such of the said felliship as herafter shall fall or be in poverte, nott able to 
susteyne them selff, ne [nor] to leffe [live] of ther awn goodes, for such nowmbre of them 
as shall be thought by the said Aldermen and Wardens for the tym being ; to be therto 

• The conveyance from Ralph Hebburn to the brethren of the Trinity House is unfortunately lost. It is, how- 
ever, mentioned, and a brief abstract of its contents given, in " A Breviat of the Evidences belonginge to the Trinitie 
House," which still exists. In this breviat it is stated to have been dated "quarto die Januarii anno Regni Regis 
Henrici septimi post conquestum Anglie septimo," [f>. 1492]. On the authority of the same breviat Brand ascribes 
the purchase from Hebburn to the year 1492, and in this respect he has been followed by all later writers on the subject. 
The date, however, is certainly wrong, for, in the trust-deed quoted in the text, which still exists, though in an almost 
totally illegible state, and is dated "the fourth day of January the 20th yere of the reigne of Kyng Harry the 7th," 
Hebburn *s deed of sale to the brethren of the Trinity House is described as "bering date the day and yere of the date 
of this our present wyll and ordenens." The compiler of the breviat has written septimo instead of vicessimo. 



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adm)rtted and appointed by the said Aldermen and Wardens, and the consent of the holl 
felliship, and ther, and in the same logyng, to have ther abydyng for terme of ther lives, 
after the ordenens of the said felliship, for ther good rewles used among them, as therin 
is expressed and declared ; and after ther dethes, or deth of any of them, others of the 
said felliship, that be in lyk condition, to be admytted and appointed to have the same 
logyng or logyngs, so won in manner and forme as is afor reherced. And over that to 
have within the said messuage a Chapell and a Prest, to syng and say messe and other 
divyn syrvice therin as shall be appointed by the said Aldermen and Wardens for the 
tym being ; as well the said Prest as the said pore persons so admytted to pray for the 
good estate of the said RaufF Hebburn, maister John Hebburn, George Hebburn, and ther 
ancesters sowlys, and for the good estate of the said felliship, and for the sowlis of such of 
the said felliship as be departed or herafter shall depart to the mercy of God, and also for 
the sowlys of John Dalton, sumtyme owner of the said messuage, his ancesters sowlys and 
all Cristen sowlys."* 

On the 9th September, 1524, Thomas Hebburn granted to the ** mariners 

and aldermen of the fraternitye and guylde of the blessed Trinitye, fowndede 

and establishede in the Church of Alhalowes, within the towne of Newcastle 

upon Tyne," certain lofts and cellars on the north side of their previously 

acquired property. The deed of gift declares that the aldermen and stewards 

of the society 

" shalle stande and bee feofede of and in the saide loofts and sellers to thuse of the 
saide fellowshippe and fraternytie for evermoore; Yeldinge and pa3dnge to the said 
Thomas Hebborne his heires or assignes within the saide Towne of Newcastle in the 
vigell of thappostles Peter and Pa wile in the monethe of June a pottelle of wyne yf it be 
demandede yerelye for evermoore ;t ffor the whiche benevolence and gyfte in manere and 

* The document from which the above is an extract is preserved in a small leather case, and is exhibited as one 
amongst the many curiosities which the Trinity House possesses. 

f The old account books contain many records of the payment of this quit-rent. 
1 54 1. It'm p'd for a pottel of wyne for howse farme, 4d. 

1630. Item paide for two pottels of wyne to M'. Andersonne pro rent pro the howse, 3s. 6d. 
1633. Paid for wine att Raphe Fosters and M^ Carrs for our land lordes rent at St. Peters eve, 5s. 
1637. Spent at Ralph Fosters when M^ Andersons wine money was paid, is. iid. 

1640. Paid for wine which was sent to M'. Henry Anderson upon St. Peter's eve, viz. a pottle white and 
a pottle clarett, 2s. 4d. 
In 1657, an entertainment, which cost i6s. 8d., was given by the brethren to Bertram Anderson in lieu of the pottle of 
wine due on St. Peter's eve. In 1677, the rent was due to Sir Ralph Jennison, in lieu of which he was entertained at a 
cost of nearly ;^8. In 1685, the cost of this feast, still given to Sir Ralph, was over ;^ii, and in 1687 it had advanced 
to ;^I5 los. The account book in 1690 has the following items : 

To Sir Raiph Jennison, for his rent at Alderman Morton's, ;^20. 12s. lod. 
[" Alderman Morton's " was the Old Custom House Tavern.] 

To M'. Browne for Aile at Sir Raiph Jennison's treat, lis. 6d. 
In the accounts for March, 1703, occurs the following singular item : 

To the Maister's disbursments at the Reed Rose feast, £^, I2s. 
This is the only instance, I believe, in the society's records in which the original quit-rent of a red rose is mentioned. 



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forme above rehersede the saide Aldermen and Stewardes, bye the consente and assente 
of the hoole felloweshipe and bretherne of the saide fraternytie, of thaire owne mere 
mocion, doo grante to the saide Thomas Hebborne, as moche as in thame lyethe, too be a 
brodere of the said fraternytie, and too be parte takere of all messes good prayers and 
suffrage whiche shall heraftere be celebrate saide and doone bye the chaplayne and preste 
of the saide fraternytie, within the Trinitie howse, and at the trinitie altare within the 
saide Churche of Alhalowes for evermoore, with suche obsequies and funeral seremonyes as 
accustumablye be doone at the buriall of anye brodere of the same fraternytie." 

In 1534 the society procured its first charter. Therein it is described as 

*' a fraternity or guild of brothers and sisters." That the society about that 

time actually included women amongst its members, is rendered certain by the 

following item in the account of receipts in 1543 : 

It'm r*d of Daym Hardyng for her systerhed, 8d. 
But a more singular entry occurs in the following year : 

It*m r*d of Daym Person for her brotherhed, 6d. 
The same charter gave the society license '* to found, build, make and con- 
struct two towers, with stones, lime and sand, suitable and convenient for 
signs, one in the northern part of Shelys [ue. at North Shields] at the entrance 
of the port of the said town, and the other on the hill there.''* They were 

* I have not space for the history of the lighthouses at Shields, although that history is intimately connected with 
my present subject. The following notes, however, will, I hope, not prove uninteresting. 

A few years after the society procured its first charter it was occupied in the erection of lighthouses at North 
Shields. In 1539 the account books record a payment of 6s. 8d. "for castyng of grownd to be the fowndacyon of the 
towre." In the same year the purchase of a house at Shields and the erection of the tower, f./. the low lighthouse, cost 
£S 58. 9d. The accounts also mention payments for work done in preparing ashlars from the quarry for the light- 
houses at Shields, and for " 2 bloks and 2 iron pyns " for raising stones at the lighthouses. The high lighthouse, 
a wooden erection, seems to have been built at Newcastle, and then conveyed by river to Shields. In 1540, in which 
year the lights were first exhibited, we read, 

P'd to Will. Taylyor and 6 men that went wyth hym to helpe for to set up the howse at Shells, 2s. id. 
Other payments occur " for makyng downe of the stons to Shells," '* for caryeng theis stons " and " for ryddyng the 
grownd." The plasterer was paid 13s. "for dawbyng the 2 howses at Shells." In 1542, Robert Stamp was occupied two 
days "at parcllyng the howsses " for which he received is. In the same year the society spent 20s. "for stons att the 
Freers," which sum John Wilkinson advanced. In the following year, amongst the " uncosts of the stons at the Freeres," 
is a payment of 6s. 8d. for "caryeng oflf a keyll and a lyghtner to Shells w*. stons." At this time "the prest" paid 
occasional official visits to the lighthouses, for each of which he received the sum of 4d., and in 1546 his stipend was 
augmented by a payment to him of los. for " getheryng of beyknayg thalfe yere." 

The charter of James I. granted to the Trinity House the right to charge every English ship 4d. and every 
foreign ship I2d. for the maintenance of these lighthouses. An order of the Privy Council, dated 9th October, 161 3, 
provides for the increase of these charges to 8d. and i6d. respectively, in consequence of the society having "set up two 
turrets upon the top of the lighthouses," and having undertaken "contynually to maintayne two candles in every 
turret." 

In 1634 the society purchased from George Ward, of Upton, in the county of York, and Francis, his son, for 
jCs IIS. 2d., a plot of land, 30 ells in length and 60 ells in breadth, called Powe Panns, near the east end of North 



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also empowered to embattle and turret the same towers ; for the maintenance 
of which, and to support the expense of " a perpetual light" therein by night, 
the society was authorized to charge every foreign vessel entering the port of 
Tyne fourpence, and every English vessel twopence. How the brethren 
observed the last permission the old account books enable us to understand. 
Under date 1 539 we read, 

It'm R'd for 5 hund^ ande 3 Ynglysh Shyps 2d. every Shyppe, £s* os. 6d. 

It*m R'd of 3 hund^ 44 Alyons, ;^20. 4s.* 

The charge allowed by the charter was levied on EngUsh ships ; but foreign 
vessels were charged three times the lawful amount. In 1580 the same 
charge on foreign ships was maintained, and that on English vessels had been 
advanced to 4d. Between 14th May in that year and 21st January, 1581, 
1,021 English ships and 212 foreign ones entered the river, yielding altogether 
to the Trinity House, for lightage, the sum oi £2j 12s. 4d. 

The society procured charters of confirmation from Edward VI. and 
queen Mary. A new charter was granted to them by Elizabeth in 1584. 
This document established the distinction between elder and younger brethren, 

Shields, on which the low lighthouse was shortly afterwards rebuilt. In September, 1635, the account books contain 
the following entry : 

Item paid for wheryhire and charges when levery and seisin was made of the sandy ground on which the 
low light house stands, 9s. 6d. 
In 1647, the low lighthouse was either rebuilt or extensively repaired. The cost of whatever was done amounted 
to about ;^i 10. ' 

About the same time, and for many years afterwards, it was the custom for the brethren to go together once a 
year to Shields to inspect their lighthouses, when they were usually accompanied by the mayor and aldermen of New- 
castle. A dinner was provided for their refection at the low lighthouse. In 165 1 the whole cost of this expedition was 
a little over 27s., including a sum of 8s. 8d. for a side of mutton and a quarter of lamb. In the following year we find 
the following entry in the account books : 

Paid for a quarter of mutton, a quarter of lambe, and fower chickins that dale M^ Thomas Bonner Maior was 
at the Low Light, Js. 6d. 
A few years later the feast had become more costly. 

1659. Paid which was spent in entertaineing M' Milbancke Maior, y« Aldermen, y« Ministers and Comon 
Counsell att the North Sheeles Light house, £z, 14. 8. 
In 1659 a new high lighthouse, principally constructed of timber, was erected at a cost of about £(iO. 
In 1736 coppei reflectors were first used in the lighthouses. In 1773 oil lamps were substituted for candles in 
both lights. [An open coal fire constituted the light at Tynemouth till 17940 

In 177s ^^^ low lighthouse was considerably raised at a cost of about ;^IS0. 
The present lighthouses were built in 1807-8, at a total cost of jf 10,74$ IQS- 4<i- 

* The hundred here is reckoned as 120. 



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and probably conferred other additional privileges ; but the charter itself is 
lost, and a copy of the first part of it is all that now exists. 

In January, 1606, a new charter was granted by James I. After detailing 
the way in which the society's officers should be elected, it proceeds to confer 
on the fraternity certain powers of jurisdiction over the seamen and mariners, 
who ** shall happen from tyme to tyme to resorte to the river of Tyne, the 
creeks and members of the same, that is to say, Blithe, Sunderland, Hartle- 
poole, Whitby and Staithes, and all other creeks and members belonging to 
the said porte of Newcastle upon Tyne." Within the same limits the right to 
appoint pilots is also conferred on the society, and the charges which were 
to be paid to such pilots are specified. The brethren appear from their first 
establishment to have collected primage from all vessels entering the river, but 
this is the first existing charter in which their right to do this is mentioned. 
The further right of *' appointing, setting, limiting, boying, canning, marking, 
and beaconing of the said river of Tyne,*' in the extended sense which includes 
Blyth and Whitby, and of ** renewing, repairing, and removing of the same as 
occasion shall require'' was given to the society, with the further privilege of 
laying a charge for these things on all vessels entering this port or its members. 

The trust deed of 1505 mentions *' a gardyng with its appurteinence " as 
forming part of the Trinity House property. For more than a hundred years 
after this time the garden was maintained. In 1623 Isabell Motion received 
2s. 6d. "for y* garden and keepinge it." In the following year ** the gardner, 
for trymynge the garden, settinge and sowinge," received 12s. *' Seydes and 
hearbes to the garden " cost 7s. 8d., whilst 2s. 6d. was paid ** to another 
gardner to make an allye with camamylle and to fumysh with pinkes whair 
neade ys." 

A frequently recurring event in the past history of all maritime towns was 
the visit of the press-gang. The leaders of the gang, or " press-masters," seem 
usually to have been well treated at the Trinity House. Items similar to the 
following frequently occur in the account books : 

1625. Bestowed upon the presse Ml and hys assocyates dureing the tyme of hys beinge 
heare, £1. 2s. 



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i635' P«iid ^o'" 21 dinner for entertain'-' of M' Cowdale the pressmaster and his partner, 

£2, 15s. I id. 
1636. Paid Eliz. Wynn for a dinner when the pressmaster M"" Ray and M' Bickley were 

entertained by the Trin. Hos., £1, 13s. lod. 

In 1627, the society secured, from the Trinity House of London, a lease 
of the lightage and buoyage of the river Tees at a yearly rent of ;^35. The 
brethren maintained the lighthouses and buoys and received certain dues from 
all vessels entering that river. The lease was renewed from time to time, the 
rent being frequently advanced, till 1680, when the last lease terminated. 
During this period the brethren of Newcastle seem to have considered it 
desirable to preserve kindly relationships with those of London. Evidence of 
their own good feeling was often shipped from the Tyne to the Thames. In 
the old account books there are many such entries as the following : 

1629. To William Cooke for a cagg of sturgeon which was bestowed upon the M' of the 

Trinity house of London, 25s. 
1633. Fo^ 2 salmons baked in paste and one boiled with a kitt sent by George Clarckson 

to the Trinity ho* of London, 32s. 

1635. To Rob. Elger cook for 7 salmons, 6 boiled and one baked, £2, 4s. 3d. 

Paid what I [the secretary] paid for boat hire and charges to and at Shields when 
I shipt them to be delivered to masters of -the Trinitye house of Deptford 
Strand, 3s. 4d. 

1636. Paid Robert Elger cooke for seven salmons, 6 boyled and one baked and for 6 black 

cockes baked in two pyes and for butter, meal, kitts, spice and labor, ;^3. 14s. od. 

In 1632 the Trinity House underwent extensive repairs, and the sum of 
£^ was paid **for newe paintinge and gildinge the greate gatte into the Erode 
Chare." In 1634 and 1635 the repairs were continued, and certain new 
apartments were built for the use of the poor. 

In June, 1633, Charles I., on his way to Scotland, spent two or three days 
at Newcastle. On the 5th June he sailed down the river to Tynemouth, when 
he was escorted by the brethren of the Trinity House. They took the oppor- 
tunity of presenting a petition, or rather a complaint, to the king, pointing out, 
in a way which reminds one of Gardner's ** England's Grievance," the injury 
being done to the river by the ** quantitie of ballast and rubbish " which 
** daylie doth falle " from certain ballast quays and staithes, the owners of 
which are enumerated, and amongst whom are mentioned Sir Peter Riddell, 



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Thomas Liddell, and Ralph Cole. The last-named was at that time mayor, 
and had entertained his majesty at dinner on the preceding day, when he 
received the order of knighthood. The account books contain at this period 
the following item : 

Spent at Rob. Younges for victuals and drink when the king went down to Sheelles^ los. 
The old account books of the Trinity House throw considerable light on 
the history of Newcastle during the civil wars. After the battle of Newbum, 
part of the English army was quartered in the house : 

1640. September. Paid for five dozen of bread and half a barrell of beare which was 

given the English soldiers which lay in the house, 8s. 
October. Paid for cariinge wood out of the roomes the soldiers came to, is. 2d. 
Paid a wright two daies naylinge up doores and makinge up pe'tidons 
• when the soldiers came, 2s. 8d. 
November. Given to the presoners, 8s. od. 

More given to the presoners that were shott in the scremedge at 

Newborne, 2s. od. 
Paid which was given towards the preferringe the petition at Rippon 
to the English and Scottish Committee by Ml Strangeways and 
Ml Holmes, aboute the greate Sess the Scottish Army inflicted 
upon us, 15s. od. 

1641. January. Givin the poor in the house towards their maintainance in this scarce 

tyme, the Scottish Army beinge nowe here, los. od. 

1642. March. Paid which was spent by the Ml and brethren at severall tymes, the 

tyme they were pressinge seamen for his Ma^^*^ service, 7s. 6d. 

At the close of 1642 queen Henrietta Maria was at Rotterdam, preparing 
an army and securing money and ammunition for her husband's service. Her 
intention was to sail into the Tyne. On the 19th January, 1643, she embarked 
at Schiveling, near the Hague. The brethren of the Trinity House, whose 
political sympathies appear to have been with the king, had been informed of 
the queen's expected arrival, and prepared to meet her. Under date of 23rd 
January the account books contain the following items : 

Paid for wherry hire and charges to Sheeles about the Queen ^s majesties arrivall at 

Tynmouth, 4s. 
Paid for wherry hire when M"" Dixon and M' Stobbs went to Sheels to attend her 

magesties arrivall there, 3s. 

The vessel in which the queen sailed, however, was driven back by stormy 



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weather to the shores of Holland. On the i6th February she again embarked, 
and once more the brethren went down the river. 

Paid for wherry hire to Sheeles with M' Robert Blythman and other of the brethren to 
wate upon the Queen's ma"** arrivall at Sheeles, 2s. 6d. 

On the 20th the queen's vessel was near Scarborough, but contrary winds 

prevented her sailing to the Tyne, and on the 22nd she landed at Bridlington 

Quay. 

After the withdrawal of the Scotch army from Newcastle, in August, 1641, 

the government of the town was soon once more in the hands of the royalists. 

William Cavendish, marquis of Newcastle, was governor, and Sir John Marley 

was mayor. The cost of garrisoning the town for the king's service was great, 

to meet which all available resources were taxed to the utmost. In January, 

1643, the Trinity House contributed ;^ioo towards the maintenance of the 

garrison, and in the society's records, under date 22nd September, in the same 

year, occurs the following singular entry : 

A note of the plate and money lent M' Maior for maintaining his Ma"«* garrison at 

Newcastle. 
Imprimis one Cann, one beare boole, two Spoones, one broken Spoone, one large silver 

salt with a cover, twelve spoones, one chaist [chased] Cupp, one small wine Cup, 

cont[aining] eighty eight ounces and a halfe, value, £2^ 6s. 9d. 
It'm. five wine cupps, fower beakers, three silver booles, and two silver spoones, 

cont[aining] seaventy eight ounces, ;^2i 9s. 
It'm in readie money, ;^20 17s. yd. 
Soma tot. £t(> 13s. 4d. 

When Newcastle was besieged and taken by the Scotch army on the 19th 
October, 1644, the Trinity House was one of the places plundered by the 
besiegers. We have no account of the extent of the spoil taken, but a pair of 
globes which had been seized as booty by a Scotch soldier was recovered for 
the sum of los. 

In 1648 part of the house was used as a prison. The accounts record 
the following amongst other payments : 

August. Given to the presoners in the Trinity house towards their releife, 8s. 

Paid two laborers for takeinge downe and reraovinge the mast which the Soldiers had sett 

up in the Hall to clime upone, 6d. 
Paid for mendinge places in the house which the soldiers had spoiled and broken 

downe, is. 3d. g 



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After the battle of Dunbar, on the 3rd September, 1650, a number of the 
Scotch prisoners who were sent into England were lodged in the Trinity 
House. 

Paid to two men that watched the presoners and the garde that they did no harme the 

first night the Scotts presoners came to the Trinity house, 2s. 
Paid for makinge cleane the great Chamber which was lately made a preson, 5s. 

About the year 1647, the north seas were infested by pirates, many of 
whose victims were from time to time relieved by the brethren of the Trinity 
House. In the accounts for the year named we read : 

Given a Frenchman taken by Pyratts and his diett, ss. 

Given a Scotchman that was taken and his diett, 4s. 6d. 

Given 4 Frenchmen that was taken, 12s. 6d. 

Given a poore boy was taken by Pyratts, 2s. 

Given seven shipbroken Frenchmen was taken by Pyratts, £\ is. 9d. 

In January, 1656, a letter was addressed, by a committee of the Privy 
Council, to the Trinity House of Newcastle, asking for a copy of the society's 
charter, and an account of its organization. The reply is valuable for the full 
information it gives as to the state and resources of the fraternity at that time. 
The brethren declare that they are ** possessed of a convenient house or hall for 
the publique meeting of their societie,*' and have ** likewise divorse hospitable 
roomes for entertainment of such poore seamen as need their care and charitie." 
They further state that they ** have always under their charge twelve poore 
persons att least, either seamen or their widdowes, who have their monthley 
pensions, chamber and fireing, with other necessary accomodacions for their 
comfortable being/' The letter proceeds to say, 

" They keep constantly two roomes with beds and fireing for shippbroken men and 
other maimed seamen comeing to them for releife, as well strangers as others, who dureing 
their stay have their diett and other necessaries, till they be fitt and desireous to returne 
to their dwellinge, who goe not from them without some money for their expences 
homeward."* 

* The "roomes, for shippbroken men" and others, here mentioned, are called in the account books "guest 
chambers." One such room is mentioned under this name as early as 1544. In the accounts for that year we read ; 

It'm p'd ffor weshen the gcst cham*^ clothe, 6d. 
It'm p'd ffor candyll to the gest chawm% 3d. 
It'm p'd ffor sope to wesh the gest close [clothes], 8d. 
It'm p'd ffor strowe for gest beds, sd. 



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207 

The brethren further say that ** there are alsoe, thorough the late increase of 
shipping in this porte, very many other aged, maimed and necessitous seamen, 
poore orphans and widdows who are now and then, according to their abiUtie, 
remembered by them." 

On the 2 1st October, 1663, Charles II. granted a new charter to the 
society, which, beyond increasing the rates of primage, lightage, and buoyage, 
and exempting the brethren from military service on land and from being 
summoned to serve on juries, conferred no new privilege. 

The last charter granted to the society is that of James II., which is dated 
I St July, 1687. The charges for lightage are again increased, and the exclusive 
right of placing pilots on board all foreign vessels sailing to the port of New- 
castle " or any of the creeks and members of the same," is conferred on the 
fraternity. 

The present hall was built in 1721 at a cost of ;^669 7s. 6d. The gateway 
leading into Broad Chare was rebuilt in 1 794. 

In 1 80 1 the society obtained an act of parliament, which further increased 
the dues for pilotage, lightage, and buoyage, and created the haven of Holy 
Island a member of the port of Newcastle. 

The Chapel. 

From the time of its establishment the Trinity House has been a religious 
institution. The trust deed of 1505 provides for the maintenance of a " Chapell 
and a Prest" within the precincts of the house ; and Thomas Hebbum's deed 
of gift in 1524 further mentions *' the trinitie altare within the churche of 
Alhalowes " as being supported by the brethren and served by their chaplain. 

In 1637 a sum of 5s. was paid to Elsabeth Waneless for "keping the gestes chamber." In 1629 the windows of **the 
gest chamber " were glazed. In 1652 we find the following items : 

Paid for beddinge for the house use, viz* 3 paire of blankets, 4 coverletts, 18 yeards and halfe of tickinge, 

is, )CS IS. 6d. 
For a chist to laye them in and halfe a pounde of hopes to keepe them from mothes, 7s. ^d. 
Paid for two stone and eleaven poundes of feathers for fillinge two bolsters and two pillows for the gest 

beds, 19s. 6d. 



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208 

In the society's oldest account book we read, under date 1539, 

It'm p'd to the prest for his yere*s waygis, 53s. 4d. 
In the following year his stipend was raised, 

It*m p'd to the Prest of his waygis for 3 quarters, ^^3. 
Other expenses of an ecclesiastical nature were incurred from time to time. 

1539. P*d for a deryge and pawx and for bereyng of a poor woman, 8s. 6d. 

1540. It*m pM to Wyllm Hette for helpyng the morne messe, 2s. 
It*m p'd for Sallmis and deryge, 7s. 6d. 

It*m p'd for weshyn th altar close [cloths] and for candyll, is. 3d. 

1 541. It'm pM for Sallmys and deryge and for holdyng the lyghts, 7s. 6d. 

The poor people maintained in the house were required, as we have already 
seen, to pray for the souls of the Hebburns, the Daltons, and all the members 
of the fraternity who ** be departed to the mercy of God." For this reason 
they were styled ** bead-folk,"* or, as the account book spells it, ** bedfolk." 
They are thus mentioned in the following amongst many other entries: 

1540. Item paid to the bedfolk at serten times this yere, 55. lod. 
Il'm p*d for 20 chalder of colls to the bedfolk, 17s. 4d. 

1 54 1. It'm p*d to Richard Clark for wax to the bedefolks, 4d. 
It'm p*d to the bedfolk agaynst fasterns hewyn,t is. od. 
It*m p'd to the bedfolk agaynst ester [Easter], 2s. 4d. 
It'm p'd to the bedfolk at halhallowmes, 2s. 4d. 

It'm p'd to the bedfolk for candyll to pray, 2d. 
It'm p'd to the bedfolk agaynst Cristinmas, 2s. 4d. 
It'm p'd to the bedfolk for candyll at Candyllmes, 4d. 

The chantry or altar maintained by the brethren in All Saints' Church 
prior to the Reformation is not mentioned in any of the lists and accounts of 
the dissolved chantries. The reason doubtless is that it never had an endow- 
ment, but was maintained from year to year by grants from the funds of the 
house. About the time of the dissolution of chantries the society's income 
was not equal to its expenditure, and the brethren were under the necessity of 
borrowing money from one of their members, John Wilkinson, who occurs as 

* The Saxon word 6aaJ means a prayer. When little round balls, strung upon a cord, were adopted as a means 
of numbering the prayers repeated, they also came to be called dtads^ and now the word is used of all such balls. A 
headsman means the occupant of an alms-house, because in pre-Reformation times such houses were instituted that the 
inmates might pray for the soul of the founder. 

f Fasterns, fasten or fasting even, means Shrove Tuesday. It was formerly a season of great rejoicing and 
excess. Sec Brand's " Popular Antiquities." 



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** head of the house " from 1542 to 1550, and was the first master, the govern- 
ment of the fraternity, previous to the first-named date, having been entrusted 
to four ** aldermen." As part security for the sums advanced, the silver plate 
of the dissolved chantry was placed in Wilkinson^s hands. In 1547 the house 
owed him ;^I4 14s. 4d., towards the payment of which sum the plate was sold. 
The following entry in the account book records this transaction : 

Rec** for the pledges that was in John Wilkinson's hand amounting to 37 ownces 
after 4s. 8d. the ownce, £^ 12s. 8d. 

A few years later the altar itself was removed from the church to the 
Trinity House : 

1550. It'm p'd ffor takyn downe the Trenite Alter and ffor bryngyn yt home, is. 

The dissolution of chantries did not sever the connection between the 

Trinity House and All Saints' Church. In 16 18 the brethren built a gallery in 

the north aisle of that church. This gallery was their freehold, and they had 

the right to let any seats in it not required by themselves, and receive the rents 

as part of the income of the house. It was called the Trinity Gallery, and, 

sometimes, the Sailors' Gallery. Its front was panelled. The centre panel 

bore the arms of the company, whilst on four other panels had been painted 

the scenes from Scripture history which always appeal to the heart of a mariner. 

These were (i) the Shipwreck of St. Paul, (2) the Saviour asleep on the Lake 

of Galilee, (3) the Saviour walking on the sea, and (4) Jonah vomited by the 

Whale on dry land. The beam on which the gallery rested bore the following 

inscriptions : — 

*' This Trinity Gallery was built and finished at the charge of the Trinffy 

House in this Town of Newcastle upon Tyne Anno Dom: 1618, John Holborn 

then Master of the said Trinity House." 

*' This Gallery was beautified Anno Dom: 1720, Robert Baillif then JVIaster." 

"This Gallery was beautified Anno Dom: 1756, Thomas Proctor then Master.** 

" They that go down to the sea in Ships^ and occupy their business in great 

waters, these men see the works of the Lord and his wonders in the deep." 

When the old church of All Saints' was taken down, these paintings and 
inscriptions were destroyed. In 1789 the brethren purchased 52 seats in the 
gallery of the new church for the sum of j^S'^S- 



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The interior fittings of the present chapel of the Trinity House were 

erected, in part at least, in 1634. This work, and other repairs and erections 

eflFected about the same time, cost between ;^300 and ;^400. Amongst the 

items of expenditure recorded in the account book of that period are the 

following : 

1634 ^^^ sawinge and wannescotts for the chapell, 9s. 

Dressing laths and lathing overhead in the chappell, los. 

For foure hewen stone windows and a hewen stone door for the chapel, hewing 
and setting, ;^2. 18s. 
4635. Fo^ carving 16 heads for the chappell, 14s. 

Paid Richard Newlove for carveing eleven cherubb heads, lod. a peece, 9s. 2d. 
For 5 cherubb heads, 4s. 2d. 

Paid the carver for 21 cherubb heads for the chapell being the full of 53 to be used 
in the worke, 17s. 6d. 

But an addition to the ** full " number was afterwards ordered : 

1636. To the carver for 4 heads for the chappell, 3s. 4d. 
In due time the chapel was ready for use. ** About the procuring of my lord 
bishop of Durham his warrant for sermons to be preached in the Trinity Chapel 
for ever,*' the sum of 30s. was expended. On the 28th March, 1636, Yeldred 
Alvey, the royalist vicar of Newcastle, preached the first sermon in the chapel. 
His services delighted the brethren, and they expressed their gratitude in a 
tangible way : 

Given to Mt Yelderd Alvey vicker of Newcastle for a present from the house in wine 
and wheate in regard he made the first sermon in the chappell, £2, 5s. lod. 

But others rejoiced with him : 

Paid for a diner for the vicker, the doctor [Jennison] and rest of the clargie with the 
brethren that daie the vicker preached in the chappell being the first sermon upon 
28 March, 1636, £2>' is. 6d. 

Two years later another Newcastle preacher was entertained in an equally 

liberal way : 

Paid for a dinner that day the Doctor Jenison [then lecturer at All Saints'] preached in 

the chappell being 29 Jan^ i637[8], ;^3. 10s. 
For 4 gallons of sacke and two loves of sugar conteininge 7 lb. 7 oz. wgt. sent to M^ 

Doctor Jenison after he preached in the chappell, £1. 14s. 
For lemons which was sent to Mr Doctor Jenison, is. 3d. 



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The walls of the chapel were partly rebuilt in 1651. The account books 
record payments for ** takeing downe the east gavell of the chappell which was 
like to fall," for ** taking downe the steeple and bell/' for a **hewn stone gate, 
buttress and three light window for the chappell," for ** takeing downe the 
ruinate part of the chappell waules and buildinge up the side waules," and for 
**makeinge a hewn stone window for the east end placeinge it and buildinge up 
both gavell ends." The total cost of these items was j^is i6s. gd. At the 
same time, however, the present roof was erected. 

Paid Humphrey Gamblin for tenn oake trees for beams for the chappell roof, £S los. 
The account books inform us that these trees were felled in a wood at Walker. 
The ** slateinge " of the roof cost £is 5s. 

The east end of the chapel was again partly rebuilt in 1794, and to this 
date belongs the window in that wall as well as that on the south side. The 
west front, which is also the entrance to the whole house, was rebuilt in 1800.* 



The Festive Life of the Fraternity. 

No account of the Trinity House could make any pretension to complete- 
ness which failed to notice the brethren's festive gatherings and times of 
rejoicing. But these occasions are only recorded in the brief entries of the 

* The old account books of the house contain many entries relating to the chapel. ' Some of these are extremely 
interesting, but I can only afford space for a very brief selection from them : 

1633. Paid for wine when y" Lord Bushopp of Durham came to see the chappell, 3s. 6d. 
1644. Paid for franckinsence for the chappell, os. 3d. 
The three following entries relate to the taking of the solemn league and covenant : 

1646. Paid for a gallon of mulled sacke, two pounds of Naples bisket, and five manchotts breade that dale 
t^e sermon was made in the chappell. 
-Given to Doctor Jeneson for a gratuitie when he preached in the Trinity house Chappell Jan : 5*** 

1645-6, when he administered the Covenant, £l, i6s. od. 
Paid for beare which was bestowed on M*" Thwing scole Master while he was writeinge the covenant 
in parchment, is. 6d. 
1648. Paid for brunt sacke and Naples biskett 9th March beinge sarmon daie in the chappell, 8s. 4d. 

1659. Paid for a quart of sacke, ale and bread for the ministers the 33rd March, being a daie of hewmilia- 

tion, 2s. 8d. 

1660. Paid for a pound of Naples biskett, a quart of sacke, ale and bread when M! Prudiax preached in 

the Chappell, 4s. ex]. 



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old account books, which I will leave to tell their own story almost without 
comment. 

1540. It'm pM for Expenss of the trinite ewyn [even], mydsumer ewyn and Saynt Peters 
ewyn, 14s. 9d. 

It'm pd for one chald' of colls to make fyer agayns mydsomer, lod** 
1552. Paid half a barrell of tare on Midsomers eaven, 2s. od. 

To the minstrells on Sant John and St. Peter's eaven, is. 2d. 
1580. Paid for a quarte of aill, id. 

Paid for good cheare when bretheren ware togeather in Rychard Harrigands, 2s. 

Paid for chargs upon Seynt Johns even beinge the 23^* of June, 27s. yd. 

Paid in Mr Bridges for good cheare, 7s. 9d. 

Paid at the Sheles for oure deners and drynke, i8d. 

1623. Item spent of mychaellmess monday after our meiting at the Trennyte howse to 

appointe 2 to goe to the spyttell to the Mayore choosinge, wyne and breakfas, 
1 6s. 6d. 

1624. To the musytians for musycke upon the election day, los. 

Spente at Robte. Harygates with M' Lyddell and M' Coall upon the Election 

daye, 12s. 6d. 
fiFor all charges conserninge the feaste as vyttaylls wyne and beare and whatsoever 

els except musycke, £\2. 15s. 8d. 
Paid for our feaste of Saint Peter eaven at Jane Mawes — as vyttaylls, wyne, and 
musycke, £2. 3s. id. 
1634. Paide to the mewsicke att the election diner, los. 

Paide for a diner for all the brether and all other gests invited one the election 

daye at Mr Leo: Carrs, ;^io. los. 
For wine and victualls when the bretheren had their dinner at Raphe Lomax his 
house upon the great reckoninge daye, and to Musicke that day their, £6, 3s. 
1638. Paid for the election dinner and audit dinner, ;^22. 8s. iid. 
1652. Paid the musitions on the eleccion daie, 3s. 4d. 

Paid to M» Lomax for the feast for the brethren uppon the eleccion daie, and for a 
dinner for the Mr and Officers upon the reckoninge daie, £1$. 14s. 6d. 
1 660. Paid to John Thomas for the eleccion daie dinner and thursdaie dinner with wine 
and tobacco, ;^2 1 . 15s. 8d. 

At this period the brethren dined together on the day when their officers were 
elected, and again, a few days later, when their accounts were audited. At a 

* The " fyer aganys mydsomer " was a bonfire lit on Midsummer or St, John the Baptist's day : 
" Then doth the ioyfull feast of John the Baptist take his turne, 
When bonfiers great with loftie flame, in cuerie towne doe burne : 
And yong men round about with maides, doe daunce in euerie streete, 
With garlands wrought of Motherwort, or else with Veruain sweete." 

— Bamabe Googe's Translation of Naogeorgus. 



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213 

later period only one dinner was given, and, within the present century, even 
this has been reduced to less pretentious limits.* 

A Circuit of the Precincts. 

Few places described in this volume better deserve a visit than the Trinity 
House, and nowhere does the visitor meet with more cordial reception. Though 
but a lew yards from the noise and bustle of the Quayside and the Broad 
Chare, it is itself a precinct of quietude and seclusion. 

Turning into Trinity Chare, and passing the modern buildings which hem 
in this narrow alley, we soon reach the strong iron gate which marks our 
entrance into the liberties of the society of mariners. Immediately beyond, on 
our right, we have the Low Yard, with an almshouse on its east side, built in 

* 1 am fortunately able to afford the reader an account of the character of this annual feast, as it was observed 
about a hundred years ago. This account was written, early in the present century, by one of the masters of the House : 

" It is in the recollection of several of the brethren, as well as my own, that this dinner was invariably given on 
the Thursday immediately following the day of election. The elder brothers then exercised a privilege of each inviting 
a friend. But the abuse of this privilege was the cause of its being annulled. For, some not being content with intro- 
ducing less than two or three, the guests were shamefully numerous, and unreasonably expensive to the master ; who, 
at his private expense, paid the whole charge, exceeding the moderate sum [of ;^3o] allowed from the funds of the 
house. At that time a band of musicians was engaged, and played in the passage during the time of dinner. And 
afterwards, being seated in the hall, their noise, however enlivening and agreeable it might be to some, could not fail 
to stun the ears and annoy others of the company, especially when combined with the vociferous notes of a hoarse and 
unskilful vocal performer. The singers [at length] being fatigued, or having exhausted their harmonic store, and the 
circulation of wine and punch having sufficiently elevated the spirits, the younger part of the company began the merry 
dance with each other ; which, from the absence of partners of the fair sex, was not a long time relished. This want, 
however, was soon supplied, by dragging into the room servant girls and other females of a lower rank, who, as may be 
supposed, were little susceptible of the delicacy natural to the sex, and were well pleased with the coarse rompings of 
their partners and perfectly indifferent to the rude jests and loud laughs of the spectators. The dancing became more 
animated and delightful. This joyous revelling lasted some hours, till, all being fully satiated with the pleasures of the 
entertainment, another scene, not more commendable, was acted. The whole party, commonly about twelve or one 
o'clock [in the morning], or perhaps later, sallied forth in procession, though, as may easily be imagined, not in very 
regular order, preceded by the intoxicated musicians playing as loudly and as tunefully as they were able. [They 
proceeded] along the Quay to the Sandhill, where the whole endeavoured to form a circle around the Bull Ring, hands 
joined in hands, and to dance a Bacchanalian measure. But the midnight ceremony did not finish on the Sandhill. 
From thence the company, with the band as before, paraded through the streets, along with the master, as a safe conduct 
to his home. There the finale was accomplished after a fresh supply of wine and a dance with the female servants of 
the house, or with their mistress, if she happened to be disposed, or sufficiently young and merry, to join in the hilarity 
of her visitors. 

" The description here given may probably, after the lapse of a few years, appear ludicrous and exaggerated. 
The facts stated, however, are strictly true, and acre yet remembered by many. I must confess myself to have been 
sometimes an actor amongst the caperers about the Bull Ring, half-leg deep in snow." 



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1782, and another on the south, built in 1820. On the north side is a large 
building, now used as merchants' offices, but formerly the Trinity House 
School, originally erected in 17 12, and rebuilt in 1753. This institution, which 
ceased to exist many years ago, was presided over by a series of masters, all of 
whom were distinguished for their mathematical attainments, and some of them 
for their oriental and rabbinical learning. 

Pursuing our way, we presently reach, on our left, a flight of steps, which 

ascends to the High, or Widows', Yard, 
the almshouses on the west side of which 
were erected in 1795. Then turning to 
the right, we pass beneath a part of the old 
school, and, after glancing at the inscription 
which records the erection of the Board 
Room in 1791, turn on our left through 
another archway into the Broad Yard. 
Here we are completely surrounded by 
Trinity House structures. On one side are 
almshouses built in 1787, on another are 
buildings, now let as warehouses, into the 
wall of which a sun-dial, dated 172 1, is in- 
serted ; on the third side is the society's 
hall, the date of which is given in the in- 
iNscRiPTioN Outside the Hall. scription here engraved ; and the fourth 

side is occupied by the entrance to the principal buildings. 

Ascending the flight of broad steps before us, we enter the vestibule, 
occupied by the museum of the society. Singular stuffed fishes and other 
curiosities hang from the ceiling, whilst in a large glass case, amongst many 
other interesting objects, is a splendidly-built model of the " Villa de Paris,"— 

•^originally a flush-decked ship of 90 guns, built in France in 1756 ; 187 feet 7^ inches 
long, S3 feet 8 inches broad, and 2,347 tons burden. First deck, 36 pounders ; second 
deck, 24 pounders; third deck, 12 pounders. Broadside weight of metal, 1,170 lbs.. 



hV HEN5HA0^C^RTMM^^0'^l'l£VVBAWf^:£ 



/^ 



1>i^^*r^fa..-^ 



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215 

English. She was captured from the French, and afterwards raised upon to mount 12 to 
14 additional guns, in 1795, and became the English AdmiraPs flag-ship. She was lost 
with several other war ships on her passage from Jamaica." 

On one of the walls hangs an old oil painting, representing the entrance of the 
Tyne as it appeared in the early part of last century. 

From the vestibule a short passage, adorned with a curious old painting of 
the "Landing of William III. at Torbay," leads to the Hall and the Board 




Entrance to Trinity House. 

Room. The former, a large and lofty panelled apartment, in the style of the 
early part of last century, was the scene, in the prosperous days of the com- 
pany, of frequent festivity and revelry. Over the fireplace is a large oak panel, 
on which the royal arms, as borne by the Stuarts, are carved in very bold 
relief, with the usual mottoes and supporters, and surmounted by the letters 
C. R. (Carolus Rex). The character of the work points to the time of 
Charles I., and there can be no doubt that the panel, as well as the almost 



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grotesque cherubs at its sides, originally formed part of one of the splendid 
fireplaces which were fashionable in the first half of the seventeenth century. 
The ceiling is stuccoed in representation of a mariner's compass, in the centre 
of which is painted a fully rigged ship, the sails of which seem to be filled from 
the stern, from the larboard, or from the starboard, according 
to the part of the room in which the spectator 
stands. Painted portraits of Charles 1., 
Charles II., James II., and queen Anne 
hang on the walls, besides large paint- 
ings by Carmichael of the battle of 
Trafalgar and the battle of Algiers. 
Over the latter picture a monstrous 
turtle's shell is suspended, on which 
the arms of the Trinity House, dated 
1755, ^re brilliantly emblazoned. 

The Board Room contains a con- 
siderable number of fine old engrav- 
ings, all, except a few portraits, of 
naval subjects. Over the fireplace is a 
very large painting, ** said to be by 
Rubens," and also said to be a myth- 
ological representation of the ** Four 
Quarters of the Globe.'* But by far the most noticeable picture in the room 
is a painting by Backhuysen of the ** Undracht," — ** a Dutch man-of-war, com- 
manded by Admiral Van Tromp, in which he boasted he had scoured the seas.''* 

• " The Wooden Walls of Old England," and of other nations too, were indescribably picturesque. No one can 
look at this painting of the " Undracht " without feeling that, despite its somewhat cumbrous proportions and grotesque 
contour, there is no stint of genuine artistic feeling in its design. When such ships as this made way for our later 
sailing vessels, quaint outline and sharp contrasts of light and colour gave place to breadth and grace and beauty. 
But now we have arrived at the age of a straight line and a smoking funnel — an age of greedy commerce and callous 
utilitarianism — an age incapable of a figure head, incapable even of a poetic name for its ships — an age which cannot 
wait for the wind to blow nor for the fog to clear. Were it only for its picture of the " Undracht " and its model of the 
" Villa de Paris," and the atmosphere of a quieter age and a less selfish spirit which lingers about its walls, the Trinity 
House deserves to be often visited. 




^^^H0^*i 



In THE Hall. 



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217 

But the Chapel is in many respects the most interesting part of the house. 
The fine and massive oak screen by which it is separated from the vestibule, 
the pulpit, the master^s seat, and the pews, all erected in the years 1634 to 
1636, form together the complete fittings of a domestic chapel of the early part 
of the seventeenth century, such as it would not be easy to find elsewhere. Of 
the 57 " cherubb heads '* then carved, all, save one, still remain, and the roof, 
quaintly and significantly constructed in imitation of that of a ship's cabin, is 
still supported by the **oake trees,'* brought in 165 1 from Walker. 

The visitor who enters the Trinity House precincts from the Quayside 
may pass out, by the Great Gate, into Broad Chare. Turning to take a parting 
look at the place, he sees, fastened to the east wall of the chapel, an old and 
much rusted anchor. Though an object of much curious speculation, and 
of several conflicting traditions, nothing is authentically known about it. 
Dr. Bruce says it was ** fished out of the Tyne in 1770." But in one of the 
marginal views on Corbridge's Plan of Newcastle, printed in 1723, it is shown 
in its present position. The usually accepted story is that it belonged to one 
of the ships of the Spanish Armada, but Mackenzie had seen ** a very old 
memorandum, in which it was affirmed that the anchor belonged to the ship of 
the pirate Blackbeard." 




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OLD GATESHEAD. 

The northern extremity of the ancient parish of Gateshead was the ** blue 
stone," embedded in the roadway over the old bridge of Tyne. There the 
authority of the bishops of Durham and their bailiffs ended. Two-thirds of the 
bridge lay north of the stone, and that portion was under the jurisdiction of 
the mayor and burgesses of Newcastle. The remaining third was part of the 
patrimony of St. Cuthbert, vested in the bishop or convent of Durham. 
The bishop's rights on the bridge arose from his rights in the river beneath. 
It was an ancient claim of the burgesses of Newcastle, though repeatedly 
contested, that the whole river, from bank to bank and from Hedwin Streams 
to the sea, was theirs. But as early as the reign of Henry I. this claim was 
disproved. The elders (antiquiores) of all the Haliwarfolk* and of North- 
umberland at that time declared on oath that **from Stanlibum even to 
Tynemeuth, that is, even to the sea, half of the water of Tjme pertains to 
St. Cuthbert and to the bishop of Durham, and the other half to the county of 
Northumberland ; the third part, in the midst of the stream, shall be common 
and free.'' We have also a record, dating from the time of Henry H., of the 
fisheries in the Tyne which belonged to the monks and to the bishop of Durham. 
The fisheries, or yares^ as they are called, of Gateshead, belonged to the bishop, 
and bore the following singular names : Gouret, Omper, Humiler yare, Besi 
Hungri yare. Dykes yare, Helfletes yare. Church yare and another Church 
yare, Letherhose, Grene yare, Dyaph yare, Essulnes yare. Maid yare, Suttel 
yare, Doimde yare, and two Comitith yares. The fisheries of Gateshead are 
mentioned in " Boldon Buke," and in Hatfield's "Survey" we are told that 
John de Sadberg held the Gateshead fishery of the Tyne, for which he paid a 

* Haliwarfolk — more correctly, Haliwarkfolk — the tenants of the lands of the prior and convent of Durham, 
whose tenure was held by hofy work^ the work of defending the body of St. Cuthbert. See an interesting dissertation on 
Haliwarkfolk in Sir T. D. Hardy's preface to the third volume of " Kellaw*s Register " (pp. liv.-lx.) 



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219 

yearly rental of ;^2o. In an inquisition held at Durham on the Monday next 
after the feast of St. Margaret (20th July), in 1336, the jurors, in evidence of 
the bishop's rights on the bridge and in the river, declared that the borough 
of Gateshead had been accustomed to hold a market on two days in each 
week, that is, on the Tuesday and Friday, " even as far as the middle of the 
bridge,*' and a fair on the feast of St. Peter ad Vincula (ist August). They 
also stated, as one of the grievances endured by the people of the bishopric at 
the hands of the inhabitants of Newcastle, that, whereas the bishop and prior 
of Durham had their free fisheries on the coast of the Tyne, and had been 
accustomed to freely sell their fish wherever they pleased, their fishermen, both 
in Pipewelgat, in Scheles, and elsewhere, were now entirely hindered from so 
selling the fish which they caught in the T3me or in the sea, and, with force and 
arms, were carried off and driven to the market at Newcastle, and, if they sold 
the fish elsewhere, were compelled to re-purchase it or were grievously fined. 
A further complaint was that the town of Newcastle had built on the end of 
Tyne Bridge, on the bishop's ground, thus appropriating his soil and free tene- 
ment. What it was that had been built we are not told, but, in 1414, we find 
bishop Langley directing Ralph de Eure, his seneschall, William Chauncellar, 
his chancellor, and William Claxton, his sheriff, to take full and peacefuU 
possession of two-thirds of one-half of a certain bridge, called Tynesbrygg, 
** in our vill of Gatesheved," ** which two-thirds of one half contain and make 
the third part of the same bridge towards the south," whereupon the mayor and 
commonalty of Newcastle had recently caused " a certain tower " to be built 
anew, " and which same two parts," the bishop proceeds, ** with the franchises, 
jurisdictions and regal rights pertaining thereto, we have recently recovered in 
the court of our lord the king, against the mayor and commonalty of the said 
town of Newcastle." Of the same tower Langley's successor, bishop Neville, 
appointed a keeper (custos turris) in 1448, whose emoluments for this office 
were one halfpenny per day, and a gown once a year, or, in lieu thereof, 
a payment of eight shillings at Christmas. This tower was doubtless the 
" stronge wardyd Gate at Geteshed'' mentioned by Leland. 



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220 

Although, as time passed by, the claim of Newcastle upon the river 
became more pronounced, the bishop's rights upon the bridge were not again 
disputed; but in the year 1552 an Act of Pariiament was passed which 
separated Gateshead from the county of Durham and united it to Newcastle. 
It is curious to read in the preamble to the Act the reasons for the annexation. 

'* The quiet ordre, regiment, and gouvernance of the Corporacon and body politike 
of the Towne of Newcastle uppon Tyne hath bene not a lyttel disturbed and hindered 
• • • by reasone aswel that in the Towne of Gatesyde • • • doo inhabyte and 
bene from tyme to tyme a greate nombre of carpenters, collyers, fishers, maryners, and 
other handycraftes menne, which by their handy workes gayne and have their cheif and 
in manner hole lyving in the said towne of Newcastle, wher they daly comit manyfolde 
enormetyes and disorders which escape unponished, to a very evil example in the 
hinderance of justice, by reasone that soch offendors, by repairing untto the saide towne 
of Gatesyde, being withowte the jurisdicon of the said haven towne of Newcastle, fynde 
evasone and meanes to escape the condign correcon and punishment of their saide 
mysbehavors. • • • No smal nombre of the inhabitants of Gatesyde * * * do 
cast into the saide havon rubishe, w*^ all the refuse of their building, besydes the other 
clensing of their bowses and streetes. * * * A parte of the bridge over the saide 
ryver of Tyne, perteyning to the saide towne of Gatesyde is so farre in ruyne and decay 
for lacke of reparacon that no cartes or carryages maye be suffered to passe over the 
same." 

This Act was repealed by queen Mary, when, in 1554, she restored Cuthbert 
Tunstall to his see. He, however, as Surtees suggests, "to take off the 
opposition of the wealthy and powerful Corporation of Newcastle, who 
reluctantly quitted their grasp of the south side of the river," leased the Salt 
Meadows to the mayor and burgesses of Newcastle for a term of 450 years, 
a lease which, says bishop Cosin, "will out-weare 20 bishopps.'' It has already 
"out-worn'' four-and-twenty, and has yet 116 years to run. 

A second attempt to unite Gateshead to Newcastle was made in 1575, 
when the see of Durham was vacant after the death of bishop Pilkington. 
Several pleas and petitions of the people of Gateshead, praying that the 
proposed bill might be rejected, have been preserved, and from these we gain 
considerable information as to the state of the town at that period. We learn 
that there were "to the nomber of fower hundred housholders and dyvers 
artificers usinge freelye their artes and misteries and other lawdable customes 



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221 

of theyr said towne;" that "the brough of Gateshed, having Bailife, Bur- 
gesies, and a greate nombre of Comynaltie, to the nombre at the least of iij.*"' 
[3,000] parsons or their aboutes, have heretofore, for the space of iiij.*' [400] 
yeres and above, occupied freely their artes and mysteryes, which was the only 
stay of their lyving ;*' that "certen popre men of Gateshed have by the consent 
of the Bushopp, nowe decessed, and the Justices of the Shire, buylded certen 
shoppes and howses upon that part of the bridge which doth apperteyne unto 
countie of Busshoprick, the which shoppes and houses were seassed [sessed] 
and rented by the said Busshopp and Justices for the repayring of the said 
bridge ;" that the mayor and burgesses of Newcastle " have had a great dis- 
dayne at the said towne of Gateshed, in so moche that they have, by thier 
aucthoritie, heretofore prohibited the said townsmen of Gateshed, as tanners 
and others, to buy and selle in the Quenes high markett, so that those which 
have come to buy wares or sell any in the said markett, they have troubled 
them by way of arrest and ymprisonment;*' that " there are such holsome cod- 
stytucions, ordennances, and lawes, made in the courtes of Gateside, by the 
Baylifes and Burgesses, and the same so well kepte, that the ryver is deper on 
that side that belongeth to Gatesyde then the other syde is;" and that "nowe 
in Gateshed their are a great nomber of substancal honest men faythful and 
trewe subjects, as did appere in the late rebellyon, some merchaunts, some 
drapers, and other honest artificers, whom the towne of Newcastell doth envie 
because they dwell so nie unto them.*' Finally, Sir William Fleetwood, the 
recorder of London, and escheator of Durham under bishop Pilkington, 
declares to the lord treasurer of England, that "the towne of Gatessyde is a 
corporate towne, an auncient borowgh, the keye of the countie pallantyne, the 
people religeus, godly, and good Protestannes, and, besides, men of good 
welthe, and very civill of behaveier."* The inhabitants of Gateshead feared 
that, should the annexation be effected, "the Maiour of Newcastell and his 
brethren shall shutt upp their shoppes of the said artifycers, and stopp thyer 

• It is, perhaps, worth while to quote Fleetwood's account of the people of Newcastle. " The towne of New- 
castell are all Papistes, save Anderson, and yet he is so knitt in suche sort with the Papistes that Aiunt^ aiit; negant^ 
negatr 



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222 

trades and occupieing, which heretofore they have frely used, the which, if it 
so shall fall out, wilbe an utter undoing and a beggeryng of the whole towne," 
and so *^ of an auncyent boroughe shalbe made a desolate place,'* to the "over- 
throwe of nere m^ m^ m^ [3)OOo] people/' ** Yf,*' said they, ** theis townes shal 
be annexed they [of Newcastle] may put all their cattle to eat w**" Gateshed, or 
may enclose, and they may have the cole of Gateshed moore, w^.wil be worth, 
yf they may wyn the same, x thousand pownd, w** weare to the disheritaunce of 
the Sea of Durham,'* and Gateshead *' would be replenyshed w*^ evell disposed 
persons and theues, because it is w***out their walls, as is the north parte of 
Newcastell." 

The attempt at annexation failed, and the authorities of Newcastle 
resorted, two years later, to the Court of the Lord President and Council of 
the North, held at York, for the purpose of depriving the inhabitants of Gates- 
head of some of their ancient privileges. The defendant in the suit was one 
Richard Nattres, of Gateshead, who had ** kepte open shoppe for these tenn 
yeres nere unto the Bridge ende, and uppon all dayes in the .weke hath kept 
open shop and solde all such kinde of wares as he had, by means whereof" his 
shop was ** greatlye frequented." The object of the monopolists of Newcastle 
was to have the inhabitants of Gateshead ** restrayned or forbidden " to keep 
** any fayers or markets in Gatesyde, or openlye to sett to sayle any wares in 
Gatesyde, or to open or kepe any marchants shopp therein, or to sett forthe 
any stalls or boothes with anye kind of wares to be solde there." Although 
we have no record of the decree in the suit, it is clear that the evidence of the 
witnesses was decidedly favourable to the Gatesiders. From the depositions 
we Jeam that ** there hath bene heretofore two market dayes in the weke kept 
in the towne ♦ ♦ ♦ uppon the Tewsdaye and Frydaye or Saterdaye," 
for *^ althoughe one of the said market dayes was kept uppon the Saterdaye, 
yet Frydaye was accounted the market daye by right." The markets were 
held "enenst the Towle Boothe, and about a crosse which stood there ♦ ♦ ♦ 
which was used to be called the Market Crosse," as well as **betwene the Toll 
Bothe and the Pante or condyte there, and at the south ende of Tyne Brige, 



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223 

at a place there called Brige Yeate/' and *' on the south side of a stone called 
the Blewe Stone." The commodities offered for sale included wheat, bigg, 
oatmeal, rye, groats, bread, beans, pease, salt, eggs, butter, cheese, ** and other 
marchandyces." It was also deposed that **a fayer'* was **kept yerelye 
* * * uppon the feast daye of St. Peter ad vincula, comonly called Lamas 
daye ♦ ♦ ♦ throughout the said towne." As to the keeping of shops 
the people of Gateshead did ** account theme selfes in Gatesyde as fre as th* 
enhabytantes of Newcastell in Newcastle." The opposition of Newcastle to 
the commerce of Gateshead was revived from time to time, and as late as 1702 
a suit was instituted in Chancery by the mayor and burgesses of Newcastle 
against William Lakey "for keeping a comon Brewery in Gateshead." 

The markets and fairs of Gateshead have passed away, but at a later 
period the town had an annual shoe fair of widespread fame. " Gradually, 
however," writes the late James Clephan, " as shops increased in number and 
improved in quality, stalls declined. In 1 845 there were but seven, straggling 
from the top of Church Street to the railway bridge over the High Street — a 
mere patchwork of tradesmen's window shutters and sugar hogsheads. Time, 
which spareth nothing, had laid a heavy hand upon the shoe fair, and almost 
crushed it out of existence. The fair continued to dwindle, hogshead by 
hogshead, till it was reduced to a final shutter. The climax came in 1853, 
when one of the most courteous of the sons of St. Crispin — the last man of an 
ancient institution — presented himself in the High Street, a corporation sole." 

Bottle Bank and High Street. 

So far, in our survey of Gateshead, we have stood by the old bridge of 
T3nie. We must now move southwards. The steep ascent of Bottle Bank is 
before us. This name formerly included the whole distance from near the 
end of the bridge to about the railway arch over High Street. Its present 
cognomen must have been conferred at a very early period. The word bottle 
is Saxon, meaning a house or habitation^ and thus carries us back to the earliest 
settlement at Gateshead, of which it also defines the locality. The same word 



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occurs in such Northumbrian place-names as Harbottle, Newbottle, Shilbottle, 
and Wallbottle. In old documents the west side of Bottle Bank is called 
West Raw, whilst the opposite side is styled East Raw, and the road itself is 
the Via Regia. It was not only the royal road, but till the year 1790, when 
Church Street was formed, the only road to and from the bridge of Tyne. 
Every stage-coach and waggon which traversed the great north road was com- 
pelled to ascend and descend its steep gradient. 

As Bottle Bank was the part of Gateshead first inhabited, so it maintained 
pre-eminence through many centuries. In the old parish accounts the cost of 
its repair is an ever-recurring item. The Bank was indeed at one time the 
great burden of the burgesses. When Charles I. was on his way to Scotland 
to be crowned he passed through Gateshead. . The magnates of the town, the 
" four and twenty,'* forewarned of his coming, met and resolved " that the 
street, from Helgate end to Pipewellgate end shall be forwith laid with 
he wen stone.** A ** ten weakes sesse for the repaire of the Botle Banke ** 
produced £\o los. 3d., from which amount £^ 8s. 6d. was " paid to William 
Bankes for laying 48 yeardes of newe stone and 6 yeardes of old in the Botle 
Bank.*** To divers other workmen i8s. 4d. was paid "for makeing the streats 
even at the king*s coming.** The toil of the labourers was cheered by the 
strains of music, and 3s. 4d. was given to the piper, " for playing to the 
menders of the high waies five severall daies.**t 

* It is interesting to find that, as early as 1423, bishop Langley assigned certain customs to be applied to the 
paving of the town of Gateshead. 

t The piper, sometimes styled the waite, was an important parish officer. So, too, were the beadle and the 
bellman. Once a year each of these dignitaries received a new coat at the expense of the parish. The piper's coat was 
blue, the bellman's black, and the beadle's red. The following items are from the churchwardens* accounts : 
1627. Paid the wayte for goeing a day w**» the scaylers in the Townc ffeilds, 8d. 

Paid the bellman for giveing wameing about the Towne to scale the Towne ffeilds, ad. 
1650. Paid to the belUnan for going about to keepe in doggt and swine, ad. 

1632. Payd [the beadle] for whipping black Barborie, 6d. 

1633. Paid to the beagle for whipping two men, 8d. 

1634. Paid to the belman for burieing the old beagell, 4d. 
Paid [the beadle] for whipping of a woman, 4d. 

1639. Paid for amending the Goates head being the waites Cognisance, 3s. 

1642. Paid the bellman for giveing notice to make cleane the streets, 3d. 

1654. Paid the waites for pla]ring musick to the Townes peopell when they dressed the Townes ffeelds, as. 6d. 

Paid them more when they went w*** them to mend the High waies, is. 4d. 
1658. Paid the wates for playing when they went w^ the young people to mowe the towne fields, 3s. 



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The importance of Bottle Bank at a later date is indicated by the fact 
that in Whitehead's Newcastle Directory for 1782-3-4, the first directory in 
which Gateshead is included, of the whole number of 145 tradesmen and 
others whose names and addresses are given, not fewer than 65 were located 
in Bottle Bank, Pipewellgate ranking next with 25 names, whilst Hillgate 
has but ten and Oakwellgate only six. It is curious to find, amongst the 
inhabitants of the Bank at that time, three merchants, three peruke-makers, 
two attorneys at law, and two schoolmasters. The most notable names that 
occur are, John Greene, merchant (now represented by Messrs. John Greene 
and Sons), William Hawks and Company, ironmongers, anchor-smiths, and 
founders ;* and Isaac Jopling, marble and freestone cutter, about whom I 
have something to say in a note two pages further. There were no fewer than 
fourteen publicans, only one of whom, the host of the ** George," is dignified 
as " innkeeper.' ' The only signs of that day which still remain are the "Blue 
BelV^ the " Goat,"t the " Queen's Head,'' and the " Half Moon." 

In the steep part of Bottle Bank two or three houses which date back to 

the seventeenth century are still left, but there is no known history attached 

to them. Over the shop now occupied by Mr. George M. Watson, bookseller, 

there is an oval panel bearing initials and date, 

S 
W E 

1722 

In 1732 this house was the property of William and Diana Sanders. The 

* William Hawks, originally a blacksmith, was the founder of the firm so well known in after times as that of 
Messrs. Hawks, Crawshay and Sons. He established his business about the year 1764. His son, Robert Shafto Hawks, 
was knighted at Carlton House, by the prince regent, on the 21st April, 1817, on the occasion of presenting an address 
from the inhabitants of Gateshead. " R. S. Hawks and Co., woollen drapers. Battle-bank," occur in the Directory 
for 1787. 

t The goat is first connected with Gateshead by Bede, who styles the place Ad Caprae Caput, He is followed by 
Symcon of Durham. The goat's head reappears on the token of John Bedford, a draper, it is said, of Bottle Bank, who 
was one of the intruding " four and twenty " of Gateshead appointed by Cromwell's privy council in 1658. The vestry 
chair at St. Mary's presents the same cognizance in 1666. In 1616 the premises now known as the "Goat Inn" are 
described as " a burgage, sometimes called the Bell of the Hoop." In 1627 the sign of the house was " The Spread 
Eagle," and in 1672 it had acquired its present name. It was formerly a reputable hostelry, and I have before me a 
tavern bill, issued considerably more than a century ago, by " GEORGE TROTTER, The Goat, in GaUshead^' 
whereon a woodcut (? by Bewick) of a goat passant^ forms an embellishment between the host's name and that of 
his house. 



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The Glaziers' Arms. 



initials probably refer to the same William and a prior wife, or possibly to his 
parents. The adjoining house has been partly rebuilt within living memory, 
but fortunately, a carved panel from the 
former front has been replaced in the new 
one. Two chubby boys are represented 
supporting a shield, which bears two 
grossing irons saltirewise^ between four 
closing nails^ and in chief a lion passant 
gardant Only one paw of the lion is left. 
These are the arms of the fraternity of 
glaziers, and indicate that a former occu- 
pant and owner of this property was a 
member of a ** Community, Fellowship and Company of the arts, mysteries and 
occupations of Free-masons, Carvers, Stone-cutters, Sculptors, Brick-makers, 
Tilers, Bricklayers, Glaziers^ Painter-stain ers. Founders, Nailers, Pewterers- 
founders. Plumbers, Mill-wrights, Sadlers and Bridlers, Trunk-makers and 
Distillers of all sorts of strong waters and other liquors within our town and 
borough of Gateside,*' who were incorporated by bishop Cosin in 167 1.* 
Few towns, I imagine, could boast a more comprehensive trade guild. 

The house, now numbered 4, High Street, contains a fine oak staircase, 
with heavy hand-rail and spiral balustres, dating from about the middle of last 
century. 

Opposite the end of Half Moon Lane there is an extremely narrow 
thoroughfare, vieing with the old Quayside chares of Newcastle in its limited 
accommodation for traffic. It is now called Bailey Chare, but it would be more 
correctly styled Bailiff Chare. The name is a reminiscence of the ancient 

* This catalogue of " arts, mysteries, and occupations " has evidently been arranged with a view to a euphonious 
termination with '* distillers of all sorts of strong waters and other liquors." It is remarkable that in the first Gateshead 
directory (1782), mentioned above, the first name, Andrew Allen, and the last, Robert Woodward, both located "above 
Tolbooth," are described as "distillers of waters," and, so far as this town was concerned, had the whole business 
to themselves. 

Of the same miscellaneous company Robert Trollop, the builder of Capheaton Hall and the Newcastle Exchange, 
was a member. A singular letter, addressed by Trollop to the bishop's treasurer, formerly existed amongst the archives 



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government of the town. The bailiff was an officer appointed by the bishop. 
He held his courts, at frequent intervals, for the correction of abuses and the 
punishment of evil-doers. The earliest name in the list of Gateshead bailiifs 
occurs in 1287, ^^d the latest in 1681. That list includes the names of Gategang, 
Lumley, Tomlinson, and Riddle. Half Moon Lane — in the days of its ancient 
narrowness, when it was the covered passage through which pack-horses 
came and went to and from the bridge of Tyne — was also called Bailiff Chare, 
for it was regarded as one thoroughfare from the foot of West Street, crossing 
Bottle Bank, to Oakwellgate. But its name was changed more than once. 
Miller Chare was one of its designations, and Tomlinson's Chare another, the 
last conferred by one of the Tomlinsons, William or Anthony, father and son, 
the former bailiff of Gateshead in 1529, and the latter in 1575. But these names 
do not exhaust the list. Mirk Chare and Dark Chare, both appropriate designa- 
tions, must be added to the number.* 

of Gateshead vestry, in which he offers what has all the appearance of a bribe. ** I intreat you/' he says, ** to send me 
word whether you can grant the charter as when we wear w*** you ; that is, grocer and bridler and sadler. You know 
the grocers overed ten pound to yourselfe, and ten to Mr. Stapleton, and for putting in the trunk-maker you shall have 
each of you a very good new trunke." 

The following list of the incorporated companies of Gateshead, and of the charters granted to them, may help 
some future inquirer in this neglected branch of local history : 

I. Barkers and Tanners. Charter (i) granted by bishop Tunstall, 20th June, 1559. 
II. Weavers. Charter (2) granted by bishop Barnes, 13th January, 1584. 

III. Dyers, Fullers, Blacksmiths, Locksmiths, Cutlers, and Joiners or Carpenters. Charter (3) 
granted by bishop Matthew, 2 1st August, 1595. New charter (4) granted by bishop Cosin, 
20th July, 1 67 1. 
IV. Drapers, Tailors, Mercers, Hardwaremen, Coopers and Chandlers, Charter (5) granted by 
bishop Matthew in 1595. New charter (6) granted by Cromwell, 7th June, 1658. New charter 
(7) granted by bishop Cosin, i6th September, 1661. 
V. CORDWAINERS. Charter (8) granted by bishop Matthew, 1602. 
VI. Frbe-masons, etc. Charter (9) granted by bishop Cosin, 24th April, 1671. 
VII. Grocers, Apothecaries and Pipe-makers. Charter (10) granted by bishop Crewe in 1676. 
The charters numbered i, 2, 3, 4 and 6, in the above list, are preserved amongst the records of the borough- 
holders of Gateshead. 9 is in the possession of the Gateshead Corporation. Of 7 there is an office copy in the library 
of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle. 5, 8 and 10 I have never seen. 

The glazier of Bottle Bank, whose pride in the armorial bearings of his craft is still evident, may be fairly held 
responsible for my introduction of the following extract from " Jacob Bee, His Booke " : — 

" 1683. 
" Sep. 15. There was a man, a Glasier by traid, came from Gateshead, that stood in the Pillery In Durham 

about one hour and one half, his name was Simpson, for taking a brib from one a Quaker." 

• Mr. Clephan gives an amusing account of the way in which Half Moon Lane acquired its present designation. 
"At the head of Bottle Bank, between the premises of Isaac Jopling • • ♦ and one of the three Half Moons of 
Gateshead, ran westward a covered passageway [the Bailey Chare, to wit]. • • • Xhe day came when the 



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West Street, to which Bailiff Chare gave access, retains no evidences of 
antiquity. Yet it is the only part of Gateshead which can be definitely associated 
with Roman occupation. An early deed describes it as " the Angtport^ called ' ^ 
Mirke Lane.*' "Its category of names in modern times," writes Mr. Longstaffe, 
"is very amusing. We have it as *Angiport,' *the way which leads from CoUyer- 
chare (its northern portion) to Durham,' *the High Street/ 4he King's way 
behind the gardens,' *the Durham way,' * Mirk Chare,' *Mirk Lane,' * Dark 
Lane,' * Dark Chare,' 'Back Loaning,' 'Laing's Loaning,' * Holchare,' and now 
by the rather modern and unromantic name of *West Street.'" Surtees, 
writing about 1818, says, "the Back Lane, or Mirk Lane, has recently received 
considerable improvement, and from its airy situation and prospect over 
the vale of Tyne^ bids fair perhaps to become the residence of the principal 
inhabitants." 

We must now return to High Street, and proceed slowly southwards. But 
before we leave the end of Bailey Chare we must remember that here stood 

narrow pack-horse outlet from the town-street to the ' king's way ' must be widened, and become a lane for wheeled 
vehicles ; ♦ ♦ * and before the close of the [eighteenth] century the alley that divided the mason's yard from 
the Half Moon was broadened into an uncovered lane. Mr. Jopling then proposed to himself, in the spirit of the old 
adage, to have the amended thoroughfare at his door named Marble Street ; but, not keeping his own counsel, before 
he had reared his sculptured slab, Mr. Birch, the landlord, [an ex-comedian, by the way, who had succeeded to the Half 
Moon by marrying the previous innkeeper's daughter,] stole a march upon him. To the surprise of the master-mason, 
he saw in the early morning the apparition of ' Half Moon Lane ' on the wall of the inn. Much disconcerted, he stuck 
up his inscription nevertheless. But the public went with the innkeeper ; the ' Half Moon Lane ' passed into common 
speech ; and the controversy was forgotten — forgotten until 1847 ; in which year further buildings were removed, to 
make the widened way still wider. The long-hidden tablet, which had been covered by a tradesman's sign, then came 
unexpectedly to light, and the old standards had to interpret its meaning to a new generation." 

But Isaac Jopling deserves to be remembered for other reasons than his attempt to perpetuate the memory of his 
trade in a street name. In 1810 he was the recipient of the gold medal of the Society of Arts, "for searching out and 
working quarries of British marble." These quarries were in Sutherlandshire. Jopling's story of the difficulties he 
encountered and the hardships he endured, in the course of his enterprises, is almost romantic. " I spent," he says, 
"seven summers and two winters in Assynt, a parish situated in the north-west comer of Sutherlandshire, not less than 
fifty miles from a market town, where there had never been a road, a cart, or a smith who could shoe a horse ; during 
which time I opened many quarries of marble, and made, at least, fourteen miles of road, through heretofore impassible 
mosses, bogs and rocks, to the sea. The difficulties and disadvantages I have laboured under were innumerable ; meat, 
coals, iron, and every article were to fetch from such a great distance ; and the people, torpid with idleness, • ♦ * 
would do nothing for me without an exorbitant price, and never till it suited their own convenience ; and from* having 
no markeU, and not being in the habit of selling, they could never be persuaded to part with any article at less than 
nearly double its worth. ♦ • • From bad houses and a wet climate, I was seldom dry, day or night, except in 
fine weather, of which there is but little. ♦ * * To this account of expense, hardship and loss, I might add a 
little of vexation in having my tools broken, and frequently thrown into bogs, corn sown in my road ; my oxen hunted 
before my face, for miles, with their dogs, and my grass eaten by their cattle for whole summers together." 



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formerly one of the pants of Gateshead. "The pant at Bailyees chaire'* is 
mentioned in the parish accounts for 1642. Till about the year 1632 this was 
the only pant in the town, but after a second one had been constructed it was 
usually described as "the low pant'* or "the lower pant.** Mr. Clephan has 
recorded the reminiscences of his "seniors/* who, in "the days of their youth,** 
remembered " a flaming forge ** at Bailey Chare end ; " and in front of the 
smithy rose up a huge wooden pump, flinging its long arm over the public 
street, by the side of the foot-road.*** 

A few yards above Bailiff" Chare we have a modem building, now the 
drapery establishment of Messrs. Hedley and Co., which occupies the site of an 
interesting old mansion. This was the house of the Coles, a family who, as 
Surtees puts it, "became gentry in spite of Garter and Norroy, per saltum^ and 
rose in three generations from the smithy to the baronetage.** The grounds 
and gardens extended back to Oakwellgate. Part of the house, fronting the 
High Street, remained till 1865. There is a rude but picturesque engraving of 
it in Richardson*s "Table Book'* (iv., 300), and Mr. Longstaffe is the fortunate 
possessor of two beautiful iron hinges from the house, which, he says, "always 
remind him of old James Cole,** the founder of the fortunes of the family. 
Surtees tells us that, in his day, "the mansion had long been converted to 
purposes of trade ; but ♦ ♦ ♦ one principal room, an upper chamber, lately 
remained panelled with dark oak, with a mantel-piece ornamented with carvings 
of scripture history, and supported by terms, with a profusion of flowers and 
foliage.**t 

* The following items, all relating to the low pant, are from the parish accounts : 
* 1637. Paid Tho: Saikeld for dighting the pant, is. 6d. 

Paid for shouleing the rubbish togeather att the pannt, 4s. 
1 63 1. Paid for taking up the pant head and laying it downe, 5s. lod. 

Paid for sowdering the pant pipes and laying the flags, 6s. 
1633. Payd Michell Sharpar and his laborar for worke dune to y* cundith of y^ lower pant, as. 6d. 

1652. Paied for car3ring away the rubage w^ had lyen 4 yeares at the lowe pant and was verie much 

noysome to people and troublesome to all that passed by, £%. los. 
Paid the masons for mending the channell at the White Hart doore, before the lowe pant, 2s. 6d. 

1653. Paid Tho: Gaille for a hang lock for the low pant heade, is. 

f The pedigree of the Coles of Gateshead, begins with James Cole, a blacksmith, who died in the spring of 
I $83. By will he left los. " to the por mane*s boxe of this parishe," and 20s., ** to gev unto the pore in the towne, as my 

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230 

A little beyond Half Moon Lane, on the west side of the street, we find 
one of the very few picturesque old buildings of Gateshead which are still left. 
It dates back to about the middle of the seventeenth century, and is now 
occupied as a confectionary establishment by Mr. Edward Liddell. Its chief 
features are the square projecting bays of the first floor, windowed on all three 
sides, and the dormers above them. 

Beyond the railway arch — after passing on our left an old tavern, now, and 

wyf do se occasion." To one of his sons he bequeaths " my quarter of my quarell [quarry], with the worcking ger to 
yt." ** To Edwoord Howetson, my sister sone, my bellyes, and stedye hamers, tooynges, and nayll-toylves, and all my 
shoinge gear." 

James Cole had four sons, Ralph, Richard, Thomas, and Nicholas. The eldest, Ralph, died in 1586, 
bequeathing to his brother Richard his moiety of " the good shipp Robert Bonaventure, which is now departed, upon 
her voyage, into thfi realme of France." He leaves to his brother Nicholas his house in Pilgrim Street, Newcastle, then 
in the occupation of Marcus Antonio, an Italian, and to his brother Thomas his house in Gateshead. 

Thomas, the third son, in 161 7, surrendered Scotteshouse and Gilbertleeze in the parish of Boldon to the use of 
his nephew, Ralph Cole. From the Coles these properties passed to the Milbankes. The same Thomas died in 1620, 
seized of Pallice Place in Gateshead, the site of which I notice below in my account of Oakwellgate. He was worth, at 
the time of his death, according to Sir Cuthbert Sharpe, " an immense sum in bills, bonds and mortgages." 

Nicholas, the fourth son, with others, had a bill in chancery filed against him in 1617, for an alleged encroach- 
ment on the common, called "The Lay," at Durham. He and his brother Thomas were included amongst the 
disclaimers at St. George's visitation in 1615. 

We now come to the third generation. Nicholas Cole had a son Ralph, who became a merchant, and was sheriflT 
of Newcastle in 162$ and mayor in 1633. He is described by the three Norwich travellers who visited the north in 
1634, as " fat and rich, vested in a sack of sattin." " He was," says Sharpe, " a gallant and persecuted loyalist, who, 
when the town [of Newcastle] was taken by storm lost his plate to the value of ;^8cx), and was obliged to pay general 
Lesley, earl of Leven, jC^oo for compensation for his life, and freedom of his person from imprisonment." *' In 1642," 
says Mr. J. Edwin-Cole, " the parliament ordered that he should be sent for as a delinquent, and in 1644 he was seized 
by the parliamentary commissioners sitting at Newcastle, disabled from being alderman, and coounitted for safe custody 
to London House, his son, Mr. James Cole, being at the same time committed to the Compter in Southwark. In 1646, 
a fine of ;^4,ooo was accepted for his delinquency." But in 1648 he was ordered to pay ;^i,5oo more as part of his fine 
for his composition for the relief of Newcastle. In 1630 he bought the estate of Kepier Hospital from the Heaths, and 
in 1636 he purchased the castle and manor of Brancepeth, which he settled on his son Nicholas. A letter from the 
curate of Brancepeth to Cosin, the rector, dated 20 April, 1638, says "we like well our new lord, Mr. Cole, for his 
liberalitie to the poore. He sent at Christmas 20s. for them, and other 20s. at Easter : and yesterday (the Court being 
at Branspeth) he gave me los. to be distributed among them." He died in November, 1655, and was buried at 
Gateshead. By will he bequeathed a rent charge of 40s, a year to the poor of Gateshead, and in 1657 the parish paid 
£1 I2S. 6d. for "an eschuchinon for Ralph Cole, Esq', deseased, haning upon a pillor of the church." 

Ralph Cole had three sons, Nicholas, James, and Thomas. Nicholas was sherifiP of Newcastle in 1640 and 1641. 
He was created a baronet on 4th March, 1640. He compounded for his estate for /314 los. He married, at Gateshead, 
on 28th September, 1626, Mary the second daughter of Sir Thomas Liddell, of Ravensworth. In 1656 he joined with 
his father in conveying Palace Place to John Willobie. In 1665 Sir John Marley writes that Sir Nicholas Cole " never 
comes to the town [Newcastle] except to make disturbance." In the household books of bishop Cosin, under date 6th 
May, 1666, we read, " Given to Sir Nich. Cole's mayd that brought cruds and creame to my lord, is.'* He died in 
December, 1669, and was buried at St. Giles's, Durham. The bishop speaks of him as "a very honest gentleman and 
a very good neighbour." 



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231 

for the last eighty years, known as the *' Dun Cow/' but, prior to that, styled the 
" Red Cow" — we reach the well-known Powell's Alms House, an institution of 
which Gateshead has every reason to be proud. Thomas Powell, of Newcastle, 
"gentleman," by will dated i6th July, 1728, made the following benevolent 

bequest : 

" I give all and singular my messuages, bonds, mortgages, notes, debts, &c., after my 
debts and funeral charges are paid, towards erecting and building an almshouse for poor 

James Cole, Ralph's son, was sheriff of Newcastle in 
1644. He was for many years one of the " four and twenty " of 
Gateshead, and an influential burgess. In 1657 he was one of 
the churchwardens, and signed the documents which complain of 
the intruding parson. Weld. His youngest daughter, Elizabeth, 
was married to Sir John Jefferson, solicitor general to the bishop 
of Durham, and recorder of Durham. By will, dated 29th August, 
1660, he gave 4O8. a year to the poor of the parish of Gateshead in 
augmentation *of the like sum bequeathed by his father. The two 
bequests were charged on the same properties, one of which is 
described as " the little house in the Murke Chare." The whole 
income, however, was often not sufficient to pay the rent charge, 
and in 1667 the churchwardens record the receipt of 7s. "for 
three-quarters* rent of Mrs. Cole's old Rotten Cottages." By will 
James Cole also bequeathed a silver communion cup and cover to 
St. Mary's, Gateshead, both of which are engraved with the arms of 
Cole. The cup also bears the following inscription : 

9hefree gift of ^ames "^ Goh to S* Marijds Shurch 
in the parish ^ of Sotshead. 

We now return to the descendants of Sir Nicholas Cole. Ralph, the eldest son, succeeded to the baronetcy on 
his father's death. He represented the city of Durham in Parliament in 1675-6 and 1678. In 1685 he commanded the 
Durham regiment of militia. ** He was taught to paint by Vandyke," szys Sharpe, " and is said to have retained 
Italian painters in his service to the injury of his fortune." In the diary of Thomas Kirk, of Cookridge, under date i6th 
May, 1677, he is described as " a very fine gentleman," who " has furnished his house with excellent good pictures and 
paintings, of his own hands' working, and has made his orchards and gardens answerable to it." He painted a half- 
length portrait of Thomas Windham, whose daughter Margaret was his first wife. His second wife was Catherine, the 
daughter of Sir Henry Foulis of Ingleby in Cleveland. By his patronage of the fine arts and by his lavish hospitality 
Cole so impoverished himself that he was obliged to sell Brancepeth. This he did to Sir Henry Bellassys in 1701 for 
the sum of ;^i6,8oo, reserving to himself a rent charge of £$00 a year, the privilege of remaining in the castle during 
his life, and after his death an annuity of ;^200 to his widow. He had disposed of the manor and part of the estate of 
Kepier in 1674. He died in August, 1704, and was buried in the "lady porch " at Brancepeth. His portrait, painted 
by Lely, has been engraved. 

Sir Ralph had at least three sons. Nicholas, the eldest, was mayor of Newcastle in 1686. He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Mark Milbanke of Dalden and Halnaby. He never succeeded to the baronetcy, but died in July, 1701, 
before his father, and was buried at Brancepeth. 

His eldest son, also named Nicholas, succeeded his grandfather as third baronet. He was twice married, but 
died, early in 171 1, without issue, and was succeeded by his brother. Sir Mark, the last baronet, a bachelor, who died in 
1720, "in landless poverty," and was buried in St. Margaret's churchyard, Durham, at the expense of his cousin. Sir 
Mark Milbanke. 




Communion Cup and Cover, St. Mary's. 



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men and women in the parish of Gateshead, in the county of Durham, and to be built 
in the street that leads from Newcastle to Durham, between the Goat at the top of the., 
steep hill, and the Tolbooth or Papist Chapel, and to purchase a piece of ground there, of 
free land, and to be for the use of the poor of Gateshead for ever, the parish keeping it 
in repair after first built ; and I do appoint Mr. John Maddison, hoastman, Mr. Charles 
Jordan, mercer, Mr. George Surtees, grocer, of Gateshead, and Mr. William Stephenson, 
to be trustees of this my will and testament." 

The testator's wishes were carried out. In 1730 the premises were purchased 
by three of the trustees named (see page 34 above), and the Alms House was 
immediately built. A large stone slab on its front is adorned with what are 
evidently intended as Powell's armorial bearings, a lion rampant^ crest, a demi- 
lion rampant, and beneath these the inscription which I print in the margin. 

In a few years the trustees had all de- 
parted to their rest ; Stephenson, the 
last survivor, dying in 1745. Then 
came the defeat of the testator's inten- 
tions. In 1750 Stephenson's devisees — 
his wife and granddaughter — conveyed 
the premises to the churchwardens and 
overseers of Gateshead, to be used 
thenceforth as the parish poor-house, 
" for the lodging, keeping, maintaining, 
and employing the poor of the said 
parish, who shall and may hereafter 
desire to receive relief or collection 
from the said parish." The misappro- 



This Alms Houfe was 

Built at the Charge of 

Mr. Thomas Powell late 

of Newcaftle who by his 
laft Will and Teftament did 

leave and beqeath all his 
Eftate Real and Perfonal 

towards the Purchafing 

and Building the faid 
Houfe and appointed 
Charles Jurdon 
George Surtees 
Wm. Stephenson 



Trufiees 



priation, thus initiated, continued till 
comparatively a recent date. But in 1829, the Charity Commissioners, recog- 
nizing that " the occupation of these premises as a parish workhouse diflfers 
materially from what Mr. Powell contemplated,'' suggested the payment to the 
churchwardens of ;^io a year out of the poor rate, as a rent for the Alms House, 
and the employment of that amount in augmentation of the charity funds of the 



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233 

parish. In 1840, the Gateshead guardians of the poor proposed to sell the 
building and apply the proceeds towards the cost of the Union Lane Work- 
house. This intention was fortunately defeated, but it was not till some years 
afterwards that the property " -^^ 

was restored in any measure 
to the purpose for which it 
was built 

Opposite the end of 
Swinburne Street, ** standing 
like an island in the middle 
of the High Street,*' says 
Mr. Clephan, was the Toll 
Booth. Its name indicates 
its original use ; but, from 
time to time, it served other 
purposes. It is mentioned, as 
early as 1577, as the southern 
limit of the Gateshead mar- 
ket. " Paid to 4 prisoners in 
the Tolbooth, 2s. 4d.,'' occurs 
in the parish accounts for 
1637. One, at least, of the 
incorporated companies for ^^^ "^"^"^' "'^» ^^^""^• 

Gateshead held its meetings in it during the latter half of the seventeenth 
century. It was rebuilt during the episcopacy of bishop Crewe (i 674-1 721), 
whose arms were placed over the entrance. In 1700 a school was taught in 
it, though it was used both before and after that time as the town gaol, and from 
its walls a prisoner eflfected his escape in 1 77 1 . It was taken down, and a new 
prison, known as "the Kitty,'' was erected at the head of the Church Stairs.* 

* Id 1649 Gateshead was infected by the mania against witches, a mania which, as the reader of Ralph Gardner's 
** England's Grievance" knows, had assumed ghastly and disgraceful proportions across the Tyne. The Toll Booth 




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234 

Proceeding qn our way, we soon find ourselves opposite a block of old 
houses, which are interesting as indicating the general appearance of the 
buildings which fronted High Street at the beginning of the present century. 
They retain, too, the flagged platforms, raised above the ordinary footpath, 
locally designated quays, and which, within living memory, stood out before 
most of the houses in this street. They have now been nearly all removed, 
or covered by projecting shops. 

Passing on, we find nothing further to detain us till we reach the chapel of 
St. Edmund, Bishop and Confessor, now known as Trinity Church, which I 
reserve as one of the subjects of a later chapter. But the stone gateway which 
stands, almost meaninglessly, close to its north wall, must be noticed here. 
This gateway, as is shown in a beautiful engraving in Surtees, formerly stood 
by the foot*path side. It was the entrance to the grounds of Gateshead House, 
a mansion built by William Riddell, in the later years of Elizabeth *s reigo; 
on part of the estate of the dissolved hospital of St. Edmund, Bishop and 
Confessor. He had acquired the estate by marrying Anne, the daughter and 
heir of William Lawson, of Newcastle, to whose family the hospital lands 
were granted at the dissolution. He was sheriff of Newcastle in 1575, and 
mayor in 1582, 1590, and 1595. He died in August, 1600, and was succeeded 
by his son, Thomas Riddell, who also attained civic dignities in Newcastle, 
being sheriff" in 1601 and mayor in 1604 and 16 16. In the latter year he was 
knighted. He represented Newcastle in the parliaments of 1620 and 1628. 
He occupied Gateshead House from the time of his father's death till his own 
death in 1652. He was the wealthiest and most influential of the burgesses of 
Gateshead, and from 1627 to 1649 his name heads the lists of the ^*four and 
twenty.*' The usual style of the parish resolutions is, **It is this day concluded 

became the receptacle of suspected persons. The following entries in the parish accounts for the year just named tell 

their own sad story : 

Paid out for goeing to the justices about the witches, 4s. 

Paid the constables for carying the witches to jaole, 4s. 

Given them in the Tolebooth and carying the witches to Durham, 4s. 

Paid for a grave for a witch, 6d. 

Paid for trying the witches, £i, 5s. 

Paid at M'** Watson's when the justices sate to examin the witches, 3s. 4d. 



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'^hd agreed upon, By the Right Wor^" S' Thomas Riddell, Knight, M^ Ralph 
Cole, the abovesaid Churchwardens, and others of the $aid Vestry and foure 
and Twenty," etc. RiddelFs wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Conyers 
.of Sockbum, and although Riddell himself conformed to the religion of the 
times, she remained true to the faith of her ancestors. He, however, was a 
royalist, and, on the outbreak of the civil wars, his son. Sir Thomas, of Fenham, 
jbecame the colonel of a regiment of foot in the king's service, and was after- 
wards made governor of Tynemouth Castle. After the battle of Newbum, and 
whilst the Scotch army was in and about Newcastle and Gateshead, Sir Thomas, 
the elder, appears to have fared badly at their hands ; all the worge, no doubt, 
on account of his royalist sympathies. The injuries his estate sustained were 
so grievous that we find him addressing a petition to the king, in which he setfe 

forth,. ,\ ...... :, 

^*That your Petitioner being an Inhabitant in Gateside near Newcastle upon Tine, 
tbe Scots Army now of late since their coming thither, have taken and disposed of all 
your Petitioner's Corn, as well that in his Garners, being a great quantity, as also his 
Corn on the ground ; and have spoiled and consumed all his Hay, both of last year and 
this year's growth, have taken and do keep possession of his two Milnes of great value, 
have spent his Grass, and spoiled many Acres of his ground by making their Trenches in 
it; have wasted and disposed of his Coals already wrought; have spoiled and broken his 
Engines, and utterly drowned and destroyed the best part of his Coal Mines; have 
banished his Servants and Overseer of his Lands and Coal- Works; have plundered divers 
houses of your Petitioner's Tenants and Servants, and taken and spoiled their Goods, so 
that they are not able to pay your Petitioner any Rents, nor do him any services. By all 
which, your Petitioner is already damnified 1500/. And for all which premises the said 
Scots have not given any satisfaction to your Petitioner nor his Tenants; whereby your 
Petitioner and his Posterity are like to be ruinated and undone (most of your Petitioner's 
Estate consisting in the said Coalyerie) unless some present course be taken for your 
Petitioner's relief."* 

The last of the Riddells who occupied Gateshead House was William 
Riddell, the great-grandson of Sir Thomas, and who died in 171 1. The estate 
then passed into the hands of the Claverings of Calaley. They, like the 

* Riddell's complaint is not our only source of information as to the doings of the Scots in Gateshead during the 
civil wars. In Lithgow's " Experimentall and Exact Relation upon that famous and renowned 3iege of Newcastle/' 
we have a circumstantial narrative. After mentioning lord Calendar's successful sieges of Hartlepool and Stockton, he 
proceeds, " Whence returning to the residue of his armye, lying at Lumleye, he set forward to Osworth. From which 
place my Lord Calendar, sending some horse and foote to clear the way for the Gatesyde, they were rancountred with 



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236 

Radcliflfes, the Widdringtons, and the Shaftoes, all families with whom the 
Riddells intermarried, espoused the cause of the old Pretender. Perhaps the 
most singular of the many remarkable events in his rebellion was the capture 
of Holy Island Castle, on his behalf, by the two Erringtons, Lancelot and Mark. 
They were able, however, to hold that fortress for only a very short time, and, 
on abandoning it, were captured and confined in Berwick gaol. Thence they 
effected their escape, and, after spending nine days concealed in a pea-stack at 
Bamborough, made their way to Gateshead House, where they were secreted 
for a time. At length they succeeded in getting out of the country in a vessel 
which sailed from Sunderland to France. 

the enemye, at the tope of the wynd mill hill, where being prevented by night, and the enemye stronger than they, they 
were constrained to turne back. Whereupon the next day the Lieutennant Generall himselfe, came up with the residue 
of his armye, and fiercelie facing the enemye, beat them from the hill, chased them downe the Gatesyde, and hushing 
them along the bridge, closed them within the towne. Hereupon he forthwith commanded the Gatesyde, and then the 
next day he begunne to dispute for the enjoying of the bridge, with the fierie service of, Cannon and Musket, which 
indeed was manfully invaded, and as couragiously defended. Yet at last, in despight of the enemy he gained the better 
halfe of the Bridge, and with much adoe fortified the same with earthen Rampiers, and Artilerie, which still so 
defensively continued, untill the Towne was taken in by Storme. This being regardfully done, he caused to erect five 
Batteries, along the Bankhead, and just opposite to the Town, from whence the Cannon did continually extreame good 
service, not onely against the walls and batteries, but also against particular places, and particular persons : Besides the 
frequent shooting of Pot-pieces, and other fireworkes of great importance, which daily annoyed the Inhabitants within 
Towne. * ♦ ♦ Xhe chief Cannoneirs, that were upon his five batteryes in the Gatesyde, were William Hunter 
Captain of the trayne of Artillerie, lames Scot, Robert Spense, and William Wallace, men of singular skill, and many 
more, which I purposely (to avoyd prolixitie) omit." 

The foregoing narrative may be fitly supplemented by the following extracts from the parish accounts : 

1640-41. Feb. 17. Paid for drawing the bill concerneing the Townes damages thrice over, sustained by 
the scotts, IS. 6d. 

1641. June 4. More paid to Tho: Potts of the moneys I [the accounting churchwarden] carryed from 

hence to Hull at the scotts comeing here, £^ 15s. 4|d. 

1643. April 7. Paid to Tho: Arrowsmith and John Scott and Richard Thompson for goeing to 

Durham about Souldiours comeing to have a fre quarter in the Towne, 14s. 
April 28. Rec. of Collonnell Clavering for wine that his solgers Received att the communyon, 148. 
1643-4. Feb. 29. Paid fTor 2 horse lod of Colls when the solgers was att the church, 8d. 

1644. June 8. Paid to George Browne for helping with the herdman to. keepe the kine on the Towne* 

more (two weekes night and day) because the tyme troblesom by reson of the army, 7s. 7s. 
Paide to Christopher Stout for his third quarters wages which should have beane at Martinmas 
last past nothing, because ther was nothing done to the water race by reason of the army, 
£0, OS. od. 

1645. Paid to the scotts to redeame the great new gate, which they had taken away and carried to their 

leagers w^ gate did hang at the entring into the Towne feilds, is. 2d. 

1646. Paid to men for assisting us to drive the fTell ; and watching the beastes when they were pinded ; 

(But James Towers of Newcastle procureing assistance of the Scotts came violently and 
tooke them away by force) his beastes being in nomber 79 ; Also ther was at that tyme 90 
of another mans, 9s. 3d. 



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The history of Gateshead House came to a final period during the rebel- 
lion of the young Pretender. The battle of Falkirk had carried alarm into the 
very court, and the duke of Cumberland was dispatched northwards at the 
head of an army. On his way he passed through Gateshead and Newcastle. 
On the evening of the 27th January, 1746, the news of his approach reached 
these towns, and thousands of the inhabitants crowded to the road along which 
it was known he would pass. He reached Gateshead about one o'clock on the 
morning of the 28th. When it was announced that the duke was coming, a 
number of people, standing before Gateshead House, attempted to climb on the 
garden wall in order to see him the better. The family was away, and the house 
and grounds had been left in the charge of the gardener, a man named Woodness. 
He, to defend his master's property, let the dogs loose, and a number of persons, 
amongst whom were several keelmen, were bitten. The mob at once became 
incensed, and sought the gardener in every direction. Had he been found, it 
is almost certain that his life would have been sacrificed. Fortunately he suc- 
ceeded in getting away. But the people were determined on revenge. They 
considered themselves good Protestants. The duke, whom they had come out 
to welcome, was going north in defence of the Hanoverian succession and the 
Protestant cause, and the Claverings of Gateshead House were well known to 
be staunch Roman Catholics. Besides, there was a popish chapel within the 
walls of the mansion. The deliberations of the crowd were brief, and their 
action decisive. So rapid, indeed, were their doings that when the duke actually 
passed down High Street, the old house was one gigantic blaze. It was never 
afterwards tenanted. Surtees describes it as exhibiting " the ruins of a building 
in the high style of Elizabeth or James, with large bay windows, divided by 
stone mullions and transoms,'* and adds, " a heavy stone gateway faces to the 
street." The gateway is now all that is left. The memory of the site and of its 
former occupants is preserved in the names of Riddell and Clavering Streets. 

In front of the chapel of St. Edmund, Bishop and Confessor^ stood formerly 
a stone cross. It is mentioned in an inquisition held in 1430 as **a certain cross 
standing in the King's highway at the head of the town of Gateshead" (ad caput 



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238 

villae de Gateshed). It is again mentioned in a survey of the boundaries ot 
Gateshead Fell, taken in 1647, as " a blew stone near S' Thomas Riddell, Knt. 
his house, which is fixed in the ground or earth near to the high street leading 
to the Southwards, close by the East side of the causway." Its base remained 
ih 1 783, and is shown in Grose's engraving of St. Edmund's Chapel. It marked 
the site known in former times as Gateshead-Head. In the year 1594, it was 
the scene of a mart)rrdom. The martyr was John Ingram, ** a seminary priest." 
Ingram was a member of an ancient Warwickshire family, though he is believed 
to have been bom, about 1565, at Stoke Edith in Herefordshire. His parents 
were Protestants, and he was sent to Oxford, and admitted into New College. 
He, however, became a convert to the Church of Rome, and was ejected from 
college for recusancy. He then, at the age of about seventeen, went to Douay, 
from thence to the English college at Rheims, next to the Jesuits' college at 
Pont-^-Mousson, and lastly to the English college at Rome. In 1591 he started 
on a mission to Scotland. He found great diflBculty, on account of the vigilance 
of the English government, in securing a passage to Britain, but ultimately 
sailed from Dunkirk in a ship of war and landed on the Scottish coast. On 
some urgent occasion he crossed the border, and though, as he afterwards 
declared, he spent only ten hours in England, on his return, as he " entered 
into a boat, to pass over the river Tweed into Scotland," he "was stayed by 
the keepers of Norham Castle, apprehended and carried to Berwick, there 
being kept under the safe custody of Mr. John Carew, governor of the town, 
and used very courteously until such time as the Lord President caused him to 
be brought from thence to York, where he was kept very close [for two months] 
in the Manor, and very hardly used, and in the end, a little before Easter, was 
sent also to London, there being also very straitly examined, hardly used, and 
put also to the torture, wherein (as appeareth by his own writing) he confessed 
nothing to the hurt of either man, woman, or child, or any place he had fre- 
quented ; insomuch that Topcliflfe said he was a monster of all other for his 
exceeding taciturnity." Another account mentions that, at London, **he was 
often put to the rack, and another torture as ill, termed by some * Younge's 



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Fiddle.' '' From London, on the 13th July, 1594, about seven months after his 
apprehension, he was sent back to York, where he was committed to the Ouse- 
bridge, and " kept there close prisoner in a low, stinking vault, locked in a 
jakes-house, the space of four days, without either bed to lie on or stool to sit on." 
From York he was carried to Newcastle, pinioned with a cord, and imprisoned 
in the Newgate gaol. Thence he was sent to Durham for trial at the assizes, 
held on the 22nd, 23rd, and 24th July. He was condemned to death. On the 
26th he was conveyed in a cart out of the city of Durham, and then placed on 
horseback. At Chester-le-Street his horse was changed. He rode between 
the under-sheriflf of the county and the aldermen of Durham. About three 
o'clock in the afternoon the cavalcade arrived at the Gateshead Toll Booth. 
Ingram was then laid in a cart, and drawn to the place of execution, which, 
Challoner states, was "at Gateshead-head." He was allowed to hang till he 
was dead, and was then disembowelled and quartered. His quarters were sent 
to Newcastle, and his head was set up on Tyne Bridge.* 

At Gateshead-Head was the famed " Chill- well." At an inquisition held at 
Tynemouth " on the morrow after Easter," in the year 1279, the jurors declared 
that ** the king of Scotland, the archbishop of York, the prior of Tynemouth, 
the bishop of Durham, and Gilbert de Umfraville, or their bailiflfs, at the 
coming of the justices to all pleadings at Newcastle, ought to meet the said 
justices at the head of the town of Gateshead (ad caput villae de Gatesheved), 
at a certain well which is called * Chill,' and to claim from them their liberties, 

* In the municipal accounts of Newcastle, under date August, 1594, are the following ghastly items which relate 
to Ingram : 

Paide for Jo. Engram, a semynarie, 4 nyghtes, 4d. His beddinge, 8d., lyinge in Newgate till he was tried 
uppon. II watchmen 2 nyghtes, the 21 and 32 of Julii,4d. a pees, 7s. 4d. For 7 days after 4 watch- 
men a nyght comes to los. 8d. [This last item would be for watching the quarters, after the execution.] 
For 4 menn more in the nyghte, 2s. 8d. For 8 bow strings, 8d. 
Paide for chairges att the execution of the semynarie prieste in Gatesyde, John Engram, 2s. 6d, 
Paide for bringinge his quarters of the gibettes, iSd., and for a panyer which broughte his quarters to the 
towne, 4d. 
I am sure I shall be blamed by no one for speaking of Ingram as a martyr. Whatever our faith may be we 
certainly unite in deploring the malevolent bigotry which consigned a human being to torture and death on account of 
his creed. And, on the other hand, we cannot but reverence the heroism of one who braved the rack and the scaffold 
rather than violate his conscience. Our reverence is the same whether the martj^r held to our faith or to the faith most 
diverse from ours. 



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if they come from the parts of Yorkshire/' If they came from Cumberland, 
they were to be met at Fourstones, ** or elsewhere, at their entrance into the 
county. 

A few yards further we come to the foot of Jackson Street, formerly 
known as Jackson Chare, and at a still earlier period as Collier Chare ; although 
we have Mr. Longstaflfe's authority for saying that the latter name was at one 
time ascribed to the north part of West Street. We have now reached the sites 
of the ** upper pant '* and the pinfold. Here we must bring our survey of the 
High Street to a close. The road beyond is an attractive one to an antiquary 
who knows its history and traditions. Almost every step suggests an interesting 
association. There is the now almost forgotten Busy Burn, where, in 1646, a 
" poore man,*' who had died of the plague, was buried by the parish at an ex- 
pense of IS. A little further is Potticar Lane, which I have seen described in a 
deed of 1650 as " Apothecary's Lonnin, alias Cut-throat Lonnin." Beyond this 
is Camer Dykes (not Cramer^ as now erroneously spelled), of which William 
Gategang died seized in 1430, and where, in 1441, GeoflEry Middleton, then 
sheriflf of Durham, had licence from the bishop to obtain ** sea-coal ** during a 
period of ten years. Next, a little on the left, is Deckham Hall, a deserted 
modem house, which occupies the site of an old mansion built by Thomas 
Dackham, who died in 161 5, and who, in a petition to the bishop of Durham, 
praying for the return of an overcharge of rent, says, ** I have sent you, in 
remembrance of my duetye, two hoUands cheeses by this bearrer.'* Close by 
are Carr's Hill, with its old stone-roofed houses, and Warburton Place, where 
a pottery was established far into last century. Beyond this point the road 
stretches across Gateshead Fell, once the central resort of all the muggers^ faws^ 
and itinerant tinkers of the counties of Durham and Northumberland. Surtees 
describes it as " formerly a wide, spongy, dark moor." An act was passed for 
its enclosure in 1809, and three years afterwards it was divided and allotted. 
About two miles from Tyne Bridge is the village of Sheriflf Hill, where for 
centuries the justices of assize, coming northwards, were met by the sheriflfs of 
Northumberland. Hence its name. The " Cannon" ale-house was " the place 



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niotolidMllnpiMdklViatfJby JaiMaAWxMn.6,Q«»*a Squarv.WC 



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241 

of meeting/' where the sheriflf and his retinue, numerous and splendidly 
mounted and attired, refreshed themselves till the judges arrived. Almost 
opposite is the Sheriflf Hill Pottery, where earthenware has been made for 
more than a century, though for how much longer I cannot say. About half a 
mile further, and a little to the east of the road, is the Beacon Hill, the highest 
point in the parish, 557 feet above sea level: Thereon, in times of danger and 
alarm, the beacon fires were lit. In 1645 the parish paid i8s. ** for a new pann 
and crouke to the Beacon." 



PlPEWELLGATE. 

The gate leading to \ht pipe-well was formerly regarded as a distinct town- 
ship, and, in a rental of the possessions of the convent of Durham in 1539, 
Gateshead itself is described as ** Gattyshede near Pypewelgat." The locality 
emerges from the dim mists of antiquity during the long episcopate of bishop 
Pudsey, who, for the sum of twenty marks and a yearly quit-rent of nineteen 
pence, granted to Thorald of London, **all that his land, lying near the Tyne, 
on the west, from the head of T)me Bridge even to Redhoghe." The bishop 
had previously acquired the same land from Lessinus, Thorald's father-in-law. 
Thorald's son, Nicholas, afterwards granted to Sparcus, son of Gamell Oter, a 
part of the Pipewellgate estate, which is described as lying ** between the land 
of Warnebald the moneyer (monetarius) and the land of Adam the glover." 
At a later period Pipewellgate was the property and abode of some of the 
ancient and wealthy families of Gateshead, notably the Gategangs,- the 
Dolphanbys, and the Sires. 

The Gategangs occur as holding lands in Pipewellgate as early as 1287. 
Surtees believed them to have been a family "perfectly indigenous*' to Gates- 
head, "and to have derived their name from their residence on the main street." 
The pedigree begins with one Gilbert Gategang, whose son, also named Gilbert, 
was bailiflf of Gateshead from 1287 to 1316, and, probably, both before and 
after those years. He was also, in 13 12, one of four envoys appointed by the 

V 



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bishop of Durham to negotiate with Robert Bruce for a treaty of peace between 
the kingdom of Scotland and the palatinate. Nicholas Gategang, a brother of 
the second Gilbert, was rector of Ryton from 1334 to 1341, and was chaplain, 
then receiver, and lastly chancellor to bishop Bury. A son of Gilbert, named 
Alan, is styled, in 1348, "Lord of Pipewellgate," and, about the same time, 
held a court ** before the bailiff and good men and true of Pipewellgate.*' 
Sibilla Gategang, who is believed to have been a daughter of the same Gilbert, 
occurs in 1331 as prioress of the nunnery of St. Bartholomew in Newcastle. 
John Gategang, another brother of Gilbert, seems to have been a favourite of 
bishop Bee, and that prelate granted him certain lands in the parish of Gates- 
head, to which he took the liberty of adding four adjoining acres of moor and 
pasture within the township of He worth. In this proceeding Gategang had, 
apparently, the countenance of Bee ; but, as the Heworth lands belonged to 
the prior and convent of Durham, he was obliged to restore them. At the 
time of Hatfield's Survey, the Gategangs were represented by one William 
Gategang ; but in the next generation the heiress of the family married John 
de Gildeford, and the Gategangs of Gateshead became extinct. 

The Dolphanbys were scarcely less important people than the Gategangs. 
John Dolphanby occurs as holding lands and tenements in Pipewellgate early 
in the fifteenth century. In 14 14- 15 he farmed the bishop's coal mines in 
Gateshead, for which he entered into recognizances to pay a fine of 100 marks. 
In 1420 he had license to found a chantry in St. Mary's, Gateshead (see 
page 141). He seems to have left no legitimate heir, but settled his estates on 
a grandson, Robert Dolphanby, who was the son of his daughter Alice. The 
grandson succeeded to his estates in 1429, but died nine years later, leaving 
an only daughter, Joan, then aged thirteen months. She afterwards married 
Conan Barton, of Whenby, a member of an old Yorkshire family, and with his 
descendants the Gateshead estates of the Dolphanbys remained for two or three 
generations. 

The Sires were also amongst the ancient aristocracy of Pipewellgate. 
William Sire, who made his will on Wednesday, the 29th May, 1353, held 



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property on both sides of the street.* A later William Sire, in 1408, contracts 
with Thomas Fourneys, a mason, for the construction of a staith in Pipe well- 
gate, which the builder promises shall be completed in nine months, unless he 
is hindered by tempest, flood, or the malice of the people of Newcastle.! This 
was certainly not the first structure of its kind in Gateshead, for, in 1349, Isolda, 
the widow of Robert Fader of Pipewellgate, conveyed to William Syre and 
Eve his wife a certain piece of land, with its appurtenances, lying upon "ley 
Stathes/' 

* I venture to append a translation of William Sire's will : 

In the name of God, Amen, I William Sire of Pipewellgate in Gatesheved, on Wednesday the 29th day of May, 
in the year of our Lord m.cccliij, make my will in this way. In primis I bequeath my soul to Almighty God, and my 
body to be buried in the cemetery of Durham Abbey, where the monks of the convent of that place are buried, if the 
prior and convent will grant the same. Item, to the high altar in the church of Saint Mary of Gatesheved for my tithes 
and oblations perchance forgotten, I give and bequeath 20s., with my best cloth in place of a mortuary. Item, to the altar 
of the Blessed Mary of the same church, in the north porch, 6s. 8d. Item, to the light of the altar of Saint Catherine of 
the same church, 6s. 8d. Item, to the chaplains and priests coming and being at my funeral, 3s. 4d. Item, to the fabric of 
the porch where my sons are buried, 20s. To the fabric of the same church, 68. 8d. Item, to the parish chaplain of the 
said church, 1 2d. Item to the priest of the same, 6d. Item, to every priest saying the Psalter, and to every widow 
praying for my soul and watching round my body, 2d. Item, for wax to be burnt around my body, 20s. Item, for 
expenses to be incurred in relation to my body on the day of my burial and for distribution to the poor, ;^20. Item, to 
the prior of Durham, x marks. Item, to the convent of Diu-ham, x marks. Item, to the prior and convent of Tync- 
mouth, 13s. 4d. Item, to the master and monks of Jarowe, 4O8. Item, to the friars minors of the town of New Castle 
upon Tyne, 20s. Item, to the friars preachers, Augustinians and Carmelites of the said town, in equal portions, 20s. 
Item, to the fabric of the bridge of Tyne of the said town, 20s. Item, to the fabric of the latrina of the said bridge, 20s. 
Item, to William Toller, my servant, 68. 8d. Item, to Sir William de Massam, the steward of Durham, one silver 
axe, with an ivory cup which was my own. Item, to Sir John de Newton, bursar of Durham, one silver cup called 
le HoVpiece. To William, son of William de Spiryden, my grandson, 3s. 4d. The residue of all my goods both on sea 
and land to the prior of Durham and Idonia my wife. « « « Given at Pipewellgate in Gateshead, the day and 
year abovesaid. 

\ The following is a translation of this contract : 

Indenture made between William Syre and Thomas Fournays, for the construction of a Stayth* of squared stone. 

This Indenture between William Syre of the one part and Thomas de Fournays, builder, of the other, testifies 
that the aforesaid Thomas has well and faithfully begun to make under a vow for the aforesaid William, a staith on his 
capital messuage in Pjrpewellgate in Gatesheved, on the water of Tyne on the north side, conUining in itself in length, 
eighteen feet in h ground ebbe of Tyne, equal in breadth with the breadth of the said messuage from the north side, and all 
at the cost of the aforesaid Thomas. So that the first hundred of taillstan [employed] in the said work, every taillstan 
will be two and a half feet, and the rest of all the taillstans will be three feet, and more rather than less, for the perfec- 
tion of the said work. And the east side of the aforesaid staith will be firmly joined with coglestan^ equally without defect. 
And that the said work will be done before the feast of St. Nicholas next after the date of the execution of these 
presents, unless it be hindered by tempest, flood, or, maliciously, by the people of the town of New Castle upon Tyne. 
And that the said Thomas will make for the said William a sufficient drain within the said staith, and for making 
and perfecting this work the aforesaid William will give to the aforesaid Thomas or his appointed attorney ten marks 
sterling of silver, that his work may be perfected without defect. In testimony whereof the aforesaid parties have 
alternately affixed their seals to the present indenture. Witnesses, Peter de Lewe, bailiff of Gatesheved, Alan Gategang, 
James Gategang, Peter the dyer, Roger Rede, Cuthbert the priest, and many others. Given at Pypewellgate, Sunday 
next after the feast of Saint Peter ad Vincula, Anno Domini, 1408. 



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Pipewellgate leads to Redheugh, a. manor which, as we have seen, is men- 
tioned in Pudsey's grant to Thorald of London. The estate afterwards gave 
name to a resident family, and, about 1280, Alexander del Redouch occurs as 
witness to a charter. The last Redheugh died without issue in 1420, and the 
manor passed to female heirs. It was afterwards the property successively of 
the families of White, Liddell, RadcliflFe, and Askew. Surtees speaks of the 
house as a "handsome modem seat,'* and there are persons still living who 
remember its delightful sylvan surroundings. 

I have already mentioned the pipe-well. Like the pant it was a constant 
expense to the parish, and the church and borough accounts of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries contain many entries of payments for its repair. A 
few of these I print below.* 

Very few are the traces of the former importance of Pipewellgate which 
can now be discovered. Many of the old houses have fallen into ruin ; others 
have been converted into workshops, whilst, on the sites of some, manufactories 
of one kind or other have been erected. Behind the buildings, at the eastern 
extremity of its south side, is an old half-timbered building of the sixteenth 
century, which can be seen to advantage from the stairs in Bankwell Lane. 
Another interesting old house, the ** Fountain Inn," has been noticed in a 
previous chapter. 

HiLLGATE. 

Hillgate, anciently styled Hellgate, is mentioned as early as 1354, when 
Eda Cragge, at one time the wife of William Sire, grants to Robert de Osworth 
and William de Barford, chaplains, and to John de Baumburgh, priest, a yearly 

• 1 63 1. Paide y" mason for hewing and laying stones at the pipe well, is. 

1634. Paid for mending the breach of watter at the pipewell, 58. 

1636. Paid for makeing the pipewell group cleane, 8d. 

1639. Paid for a great Brass Cocke to the pipewell, 9s. 6d. 

1645. Paid to John Marley for a new core of lead to the cok of the pipewell, 2s. 

1702. Work wrought by William Tweart att y« pipewell : to a stone for the Heesterin, 2s. 6d.; to flaggs, Ss.; 

to lime and sand, 4s.; to hare, 2d.; to drinks, Ss.; to women bearing of Rubbis, 6d. 

1737. Work done at the Pipe well : to a p» of pipe to the spoot, 8d. 

1752. Work done at the pipewell : to Tarrass and Lime, is. ; for the use of wail bone to scouring y* pipe, is. 



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rent of three shillings arising from a tenement, in which William Rote once 
lived, and situate in the town of Gatesheved, in a certain way called Hellgate. 
In 1375 Henry Gategang, rector of Belton in Lincolnshire, the heir of John 
Gategang and of John of Barnard Castle, grants to John Dolphanby certain 
land in the town of Gateshead, between the land of Sir Thomas Surteys on the 
south and Hellegate on the north. So the old Gateshead names of Gategang, 
Dolphanby, and Sire, with which we formed acquaintance in Pipewellgate, 
meet us again in Hillgate. 

But one of Hillgate's chief claims to distinction rests on the fact that it 
was for some years the home of Stephen Bulkley, one of the earliest of Tyne- 
side printers. Scarcely anything is known of his life. In 1642 he was in 
business in York, and there he remained till 1646, when he removed to 
Newcastle. In 1652 he transferred his printing press to Gateshead. One of 
his publications bears the imprint : "Gateside, printed by Ste. Bulkley, and are 
to be sold at his house in Hill Gate. 1653." The last of his Gateshead imprints 
that I have seen is dated 1658. In 1659 ^^ w^s once more established in 
Newcastle. How long he remained there I am unable to say, but in 1663 he 
had returned to York, where he died in February, 1680, leaving his business to 
a son and daughter. In 1689 the name of Bulkley disappears finally from the 
chronicles of the York press.* But the connection of Gateshead with the early 

* The following list of Bulkley 's Gateshead publications, which is as complete as I can make it, will be acceptable 
to collectors. 

1. The Doctrine and Practice of Renovation, Wherein is discovered, What the New Nature, and New Creature 
is ; Its Parts, Causes ; The Manner and Means aUo how' it may be attained. Necessary for every Christian to know 
and practice. By Thomas Wolfall, Mr. of Arts, and late Preacher of the Word of God in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Gateside ; printed by S.B. 1652. 

2. [The same book with a new title page, and the following imprint :] Gateside ; Printed by Ste : Bulkley, and 
are to be sold at his house in Hill Gate, 1653. 

3. The Quakers Shaken : or, A Firebrand snach'd out of the Fire. Being a briefe Relation of God's wondefull 
Mercy extended to John Gilpin of Kendale in Westmorland. Who (as will appeare by the sequel) was not onely deluded 
by the Quakers, but also possessed by the Devill. If any question the truth of this Story, the Relator himselfe is ready 
to avouch it, and much more. Gateside, Printed by S.B. and are to be sould by Will. London, Bookseller in Newcastle,. 

1653- 

4. The Perfect Pharisee, &c. [For full title see page 31.] 

5. The Converted Jew : or, the substance of the Declaration and Confession which was made in the Publique 
Meeting House at Hexham, the 4th Moneth, the 5th Day, 1653. By Joseph Ben Israel Printed at Gate side by S. B. 

6. A false Jew ; or, A wonderful Discovery of a Scot, Eiptized at London for a Christian, Circumcised at 
Rome to act a Jew, re-baptized at Hexham for a Believer, but found out at Newcastle to be a Cheat. Being a true 



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246 

printing of the north did not cease on the departure of Bulkley. In 17 10 one 
J. Saywell had established a press here, I believe, like Bulkley, in Hillgate. 
Saywell was the printer of the first Newcastle newspaper, of which only a single 
copy, preserved in the Advocates' Library at Edinburgh, is known to exist. 
The following is its title : *'The Newcastle Gazette, or the Northern Courant; 
being an Impartial Account of Remarkable Transactions, Foreign or Domes- 
tick. From Saturday, December 23, to Monday, December 25, 1710. No. 65. 
Gateside : Printed by J. Saywell, for J. Button, Bookseller on the Bridge." 
It was issued three times a week, and, if we may assume that it appeared quite 
regularly, its first number would be dated Wednesday, July 26, to Saturday, 
July 29, 1 7 10. Button, its publisher, was a friend of Daniel de Foe, who, too, 
is said to have resided for a time in Hillgate. It may have been in honour of 
that sojourn that Gateshead had once, as we learn from Hilton's Poems, 
a tavern with the sign of ** Robinson Crusoe." 

Before the Gateshead explosion in 1854, Hillgate retained many evidences 
of its bygone importance. One old house on the north side of the street was 
especially noticeable. Its front was adorned with large and imposing sculp- 
tures in stone. They were rescued from the debris of the explosion, and are 
now preserved in the Castle of Newcastle. One is an arched door-head, on 

Relation of the detecting of one Thomas Ramsey, born of Scotch Parents at London, sent lately from Rome by a 
special! Unction and Benediction of the Pope ; who landed at Newcastle, under the name of Thomas Horsley, but 
immediately gave himself out for a Jew, by the name of Rabbi Joseph Ben Israel, Mant. Hebr. soon after baptized at 
Hexham, by Mr. Tillam, and by a speciall providence of God, found out by the Magistrates and Ministers of 
Newcastle upon Tine, to be an Impostour and Emissary of Rome, and since sent up to the Generall and Councell of 
State to be further enquired into. Printed for William London, Book -seller in Newcastle, 1653. 

7. A Further Discovery, &c. [For full title, see page 31.] 

8. The Counterfeit Jew. [An 8 page tract, without title, printer's name, place, or date, but proved by the head-piece 
on page I to have come from the press of Bulkley, and by its contents to have been printed in 1654. ] 

9. The Quaker's House, &c. [For full title, see page 31.] 

Amongst early Gateshead printers the name of G. Read is entitled to be mentioned. The only work from his press 
which I have seen bears the following title : 

King George's Just and Legal Right to the Crown A Sermon Preached in Newcastle, Oct. 20. 1714. Being the 
Day of His Majesty's Coronation. Tate and Brady's Version, Psalms 21. 72. To which is Added, The Substance of some 
Discourses on Matth. V. xliv. But I say unto you, Love your Enemies, Bless them that Curse you, do Good to them that 
Hate you, and Pray for them which despitefuUy Use you and Persecute you. Wherein the Duty and Reasonableness of 
loving our Enemies is Demonstrated, Objections Answered, and the just Bounds thereof describ'd. By Joseph Baily. 
Gateshead : Printed by G. Read, and Sold by J. Button, Bookseller on the Bridge. Pr. 4d. 



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which festoons of leaves, flowers, and fruit are carved in bold relief. The 
other is a square slab, which bears the arms of the Trinity House of Newcastle, 
with crest, supporters, and motto. The house which presented to the passer 
by these marks of dignity belonged, in the time of Charles II., to one Matthew 
Bates, "master and mariner,'' and, in 1692, was purchased from his heir by 
Robert Proctor, another ** master and mariner." He was master of the Trinity 
House in 1702, and died in 1712 or 17 13. The sculptures must be ascribed 
either to Bates or to Proctor, but most probably to the latter. 

Oakwellgate. 

Aykewelgate and Aykewelbum are mentioned in the foundation charter 
of St. Mary's chantry in 1330. Brand has preserved "a traditionary account 
that there had been anciently a well, with an oak hanging over it, at the head 
of the street called Oakwell-Gate, in which three strata of pavement have 
been discovered." His informant, — *' Mr. Hervey, senior," — *'had often con- 
versed with an old gentleman, who remembered when there were several 
pants in Gateshead." Surtees declares that he ** will not very pertinaciously 
defend the alleged derivation " of Akewelgate from the oak shaded well; but 
no more reasonable origin of the name has been suggested, and in the same 
county we have Aycliffe, anciently Aclea, the lea or place of oaks. Palace 
Place, at the head of Oakwellgate, has been already mentioned. ** It may," 
says Mr. Longstaflfe, *' indicate the site of an old manor house of the bishops, 
as it adjoined the episcopal demesnes." In the seventeenth century it was the 
residence of one of the Gateshead families of Cole. William Hilton, the poet, 
describes it, in 1795, as **now in ruins." The present structure, to which the 
name of ** King John's Palace" is popularly attached, ** presents no features 
of antiquity." 

The most interesting old house in the street is the one on the east side, 
and opposite the entrance to the churchyard. It was formerly the rectory- 
house. It is a building of the early part of last century, and was occupied by 
the rectors of Gateshead till about fifty-five years ago. 



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On the same side of the street are one or two large houses of the 
eighteenth century which still bear traces of having been built for wealthy 
occupants. 

Park House. 

Gateshead Park is mentioned at an early period. It is no doubt ** the 
fourth part of the arable land'' of Gateshead, which, **with the new en- 
closures which the lord bishop caused to be made, and the meadows,*' in the 
time of Boldon Buke, remained ** in the hand of the lord bishop, with a stock 
of two ploughs." In 1312 bishop Kellaw granted to John Gategang, "thirty 
and three acres of land, with appurtenances, in Gateshead, of which twenty 
and six acres lie in a certain place which is called Aldepark, and the remaining 
seven acres adjacent to the said place." In the time of Hatfield's Survey, 
John de Sadberg held the manor of Gateshead, " with the borough, the lands 
of the demesne, the meadows and pastures." Of these lands 94 acres are said 
to be ** in the field of Gatesheved " and 55 acres on the Tyne. Sadberg paid 
"for all the profits of the said borough and its court" £22 per annum. We 
find, however, at an early period of Hatfield's episcopacy, an appointment of 
a keeper of the bishop's park at Gateshead. The office was held for life, at a 
salary of three-halfpence per day. Similar appointments follow, till in 1448 
bishop Neville appoints Robert Preston to be keeper both of the park and the 
tower of Gateshead. The offices continued to be jointly held, but the last 
appointment I have seen occurs in 1508. In 17 16 bishop Crewe leased the 
estate of Gateshead Park and the manor of Gateshead to William Coatsworth 
for a term of twenty-one years. The manor has since been held under a suc- 
cession of similar leases. The old buildings at the west end of the later hall are 
part of a mansion built by Coatsworth about 1723. The estate soon passed into 
the hands of the Ellisons, one of whom, Henry Ellison, of Hebbum, in 1729, 
married one of the daughters and co-heirs of William Coatsworth. The more 
modern house was built, in 1730, by Henry Ellison. It is a plain and spacious 



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249 

mansion, and when surrounded by green glades, and avenues of ancient elms 
and oaks, as it was at no distant date, it must have been an extremely pleasant 
abode. It has a fine staircase, with wrought iron balustres of elegant 
design. The house is mentioned in Charlotte Bronte's novel, " Jane Eyre," as 
the residence of the heroine's aunt. In recent years it has been abandoned to 
the purposes of commerce, and is now almost surrounded by manufactories. 
The lodge whereat the principal avenue was entered still stands on the Sunder- 
land Road, a desolate memorial of departed men and times ; pallisades, gates, 
and trees are gone, but the faithful ivy yet clings about the old cottage, as if 
striving to maintain the aspect of better days. 




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ST. ANDREWS CHURCH. 

St. Andrew's has often been called the oldest church in Newcastle ; 
and, of the old churches, it is probably the youngest.* Its foundation certainly 
dates later than that of the churches of St. Nicholas and St. John. So much 
of the original edifice is left that we can have no difficulty in fixing, within 
narrow limits, the period of its erection. The architecture of the oldest 
portions is of Transitional character, and may be safely ascribed to about the 
years 11 75 to 1185. The parts which belong to this period are — the lower 
stages of the tower, portions of the nave arcades, and the chancel arch. The 
pitch of the original nave roof is shown on the east side of the tower, and that 
of the original chancel roof on the east gable of the nave. From the first the 
nave had not only aisles, but transepts. Its roof, which was of high pitch, 
descended in an unbroken line from the ridge to the outer walls of the aisles. 
The aisles were, of course, very narrow, and their side walls extremely low. 

The chancel retains none of its original features, except its great arch. 
The chevron mouldings with which the arch is adorned, together with the 
banded shafts in its jambs, afford the clearest possible indications of its date. 
The existence of transepts in the original edifice is proved by the wider span 
of the arches at the east end of both arcades. Although the transept arch on 
the south side is quite modem, and that on the north dates only from about the 
end of the thirteenth century, it is clear that both must represent earlier arches 

• Bourne asserts that St. Andrew's " is questionless the oldest Church of this Town." He arrived at this conclusion, 
"not only from it's Situation, which is that Part where was principally the ancient Monkchester; but also from the Model 
and Fashion of it's building, it appearing in these Things older than the others." Bourne's mythical site of Monkchester 
need not be discussed. His favourite authority, the Milbank MS., fixes it elsewhere. But the " Model and Fashion " of 
St. Andrew's are what determine its later date. It has, doubtless, often borne more marked evidence of dilapidation than 
the other churches of Newcastle, and bad repair is usually accepted as a proof of antiquity. But Bourne further tells us 
that St. Andrew's "is supposed to have been built by one of the Kings of Scotland: David King of Scots is mention'd in 
particular as it's Founder." Mr. John Hodgson Hinde even affirms that its architecture "is certainly of this period," and 
adds that " its dedication to the patron saint of that nation adds consistency to the statement." But David of Scotland 
had been dead a quarter of a century before the erection of St. Andrew's was commenced. 



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251 

of almost the same span. Some of the corbels on which the original aisle roots 
rested still remain in both the north and south walls of the nave, and over 
these, in both cases, are later corbels, which had supported roofs that were 
intermediate in date between the first and the present ones. 

The original height of the tower is shown by the corbel table which runs 
round its south, west, and north sides. The pilaster-like buttresses which run 
up its exposed sides are original, and so is the turret stairway outside the north- 
west comer. But the enormous buttress at the south-west angle is a much later 
addition, as, very obviously, is also the one built against the turret. The first 
stage of the tower is vaulted, but the masonry is said to be in a ruinous state, 
and is covered by wainscotting. I have not seen the vault, and can give no 
opinion as to its date ; but there can be no doubt that it is an insertion, and 
that it is to a large extent responsible for the shattered state of the tower walls. 
On the east side of the tower, and above the vault, there is a round-headed 
doorway or opening, now walled up, and above this a square-headed opening, 
both of which formerly looked into the nave. The principal entrance to the 
church was originally by a slightly pointed doorway in the west wall of the 
tower. The upper stage of the tower was built in the fourteenth century. 

How long the church retained its original dimensions and aspects we have 
no means of knowing. The first important change about which we can speak 
confidently was the re-erection of the chancel, about the end of the thirteenth 
century, or a little later. The east gable, built at this period, remained till the 
year 1866, when it was wantonly destroyed. It contained a three-light window, 
of which the present east window is said to be a copy. But it also presented 
interesting evidences of the history of the church. It showed that the side 
walls of the chancel had at some period been raised, and that the high pitched 
roofs of Transitional and early Decorated times had been replaced by a later 
roof of very low pitch. The line of the original water-table was a striking and 
most interesting feature in the old gable. Fortunately, a window of the same 
period in the south wall, though partially blocked, has been allowed to remain. 
The floor of the chancel must have descended rapidly from the west to the 



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252 

east. A double piscina, with a stone shelf or credence, yet remains in the 
south wall. Its basins are an inch or two lower than the present floor of the 
*' sanctuary.*'* 

The north aisle has been twice rebuilt, and this may almost be said of the 
south aisle also. Probably the first re-erection of the two aisles was carried out 
almost contemporaneously, but as to the period of that work we have no data. 
The present north transept, of which the only unaltered feature is the arch 
opening into the nave, was built about the same time as the chancel. Its north 
wall contains two ambries. 

The south transept is entirely modern. It was built in 1844. It is almost 
as poor an attempt to imitate the architecture of the Transitional period as it 
would be possible to find The structure which it replaced was of early 
Decorated date, though a little later than the chancel and the north transept. 
Its south wall contained an extremely beautiful three-light window, of late 
Perpendicular character, for a representation of which the reader may consult 
Richardson's "Table Book" (iv., 188). A piscina, taken from the south wall 
of the destroyed transept, is now preserved in the Castle. It is of the utmost 
value, as presenting the only evidence we possess of the date of the structure 
of which it formed part. The head of this piscina, a trefoil of exquisite pro- 
portion and execution, has been formed of part of a grave cover. 

The aisle of the north transept was the chantry of the Holy Trinity. We 
know, from documentary evidence, to be noticed hereafter, that it was built 
about the year 1387. 

The present north aisle, save for the extensive work of the restorer, was 
built in the latter half of the fifteenth century. At the same time, the wall of 
the south aisle was considerably raised. The three windows in the north aisle, 
and the two windows in the south aisle, as well as the fine five-light window at the 
west end of the north aisle, were all, until recently, of this period. They have, 
however, been ** restored,'' and not a single fragment of the old mullions or 

* Double piscinas are by no means common. One of the drains was intended to receive the water in which the 
priest's hands had been washed before the celebration of mass, and the other that with which the chalice had been rinsed 
after the communion. 



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253 

tracery remains. But, I believe, the old windows were copied with tolerable 
fidelity. The side walls of the chancel were also raised during the latter half 
of the fifteenth century. 

The roofs of the nave and of the north aisle are of the same period. The 
wall plates of the nave roof near the east end are carved with foliage in a 
flowing pattern. 

Before proceeding to notice more recent alterations in the structure, it is 
necessary to refer to a few early features which have not yet been mentioned. 
The chancel possesses an interesting early south porch, with a vaulted stone 
roof. It is impossible to fix its date, but it is certainly later than the chancel 
itself, for there is clear evidence that a buttress against the chancel wall was 
removed to make way for it. The doorway by which it is entered is quite 
modem, and the architectural features of the ** priest's door** to which it leads 
are totally hidden. It was used for a long time as a vestry. 

About the chancel arch there are abundant traces of the rood loft. In the 
south wall of the chancel, at its west end, are two square-headed openings, one 
over the other. Both are now walled up. They have undoubtedly been 
windows. 

In the west wall of the tower there is an inserted two-light window of 
Decorated date, of which the tracery is original. 

The basin of the font is of Early English date, and the cover, which is 
certainly pre-Reformation work, must be ascribed to the early part of the 
sixteenth century. 

The church seems to have suffered to a serious extent during the siege of 
Newcastle in October, 1644.* An entry in the parish register states that 

"ther was no Child bap[tized] in this parish for i yeares tim after the town was 
taking nor sarmon in this Church for i yeares tim." 

There are actually no entries of baptisms from October 2nd, 1644, till Septem- 
ber 9th, 1645. 

* The first actual attack on the fortifications of the town seems to have been made nearly three weeks before the 
siege begun in earnest. Lithgow tells us that on September 29, " the Lord Lieutennant generall Baillie upon the Townes 
north syde, and near to St. Andrews Church, gave order (for their his batterie lay) to brash downe a part of the Towne 



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In 1685, a doorway was broken into the chancel, on the south side, and 
immediately east of the porch.* The lintel bears the inscription printed in the 
margin. 

It was probably at this period that the 
lohn Reafleiy porch was first used as a vestry. 

lohn Story Church The south porch of the nave was 

Tho: Muforave Wardens, taken down and rebuilt in 1725. Over the 

older structure there was a priest's room 
or parvise, which for some time had been the beadle's residence. When it was 
taken down a vestry on the north side of the chancel, described as a cellar, was 
assigned for his abode.f This north vestry was an ancient structure. Brand 

wall, which in three hours space was fortunately accomplished ; where the wall fell down, within half a yard of the roote, 
and so large that ten men might have marched through it in a front." The breach then made is still easily discoverable 
on the east of the site of Andrew Tower, and on the north side of the church. At that time the New Gate and the neigh- 
bouring portions of the wall were under the command of captain Cuthbert Can*. He seems to have been able temporarily 
to repair the breach. " This breach," says Lithgow, " was never pursued, in regard the enemie under the shaddow of a 
blynd of Canvesse, reenforced, or barrocaded it with trash and timber." But when the town was taken, one of the places 
at which it was entered was the same breach. " Lieutenant-General Bally," says Lord Hume, " had another Quarter at 
Newgate, with five Regiments, his own, Waughton's, Cowper's, Dunferling's, and Dudhop*s, who enter'd by a Breach, 
many of our Officers kill'd, Major Robert Hepburn much lamented." Over the losses of the Scots at New Gate, Lithgow 
becomes pathetic. " The second batterie was conjoyned with black Bessies Tower, where Major Hepbume, Captaine 
Corbet, Captaine lohn Home an Edinburgensen, and that renowned Officer Lieutenant Colonell Home were shiine. 
The memorie of whom last now mentioned, I here in this Epitaph involue : 

" Woe to that breach, beside blacke Bessies Towre, 
Woe to it selfe that bloudy butchering Bowre ! 
Where valiant Home, that steme Bellonaes blade, 
And brave Commander fell : for there he stayd 
Arraign'd by death." 
And so on, to the extent of twelve lines. So far as I have been able to discover, Lithgow is the only writer who gives 
the name of Black Bessy's Tower to the Andrew Tower. 

• The following items are from the churchwarden's account books : 

1685. Paid to George Bell for a new Chancell door and flagging y« Chancell, £z, los. 8d. 

Paid to Peter Thew for a Lintle for a new Chancell door, and for fitting an old door to y* backside 

of y* church, 8s. 3d. 
Paid for waching y« Church w» y* doores were down, 2s. 6d. 

t The following extract is from the vestry books : 

" At a Meeting of the Vicar and Four and Twenty of the Parochial Chapel of St. Andrews on Easter 
Monday, Mar. 29*** 1725. 

" It is Order'd 

" That w"» y« consent of y* ADeacon y* w<* was y^ Cellar adjoyning to y" Choir be given to David Finlay 
the Beadle for an habitation in lieu of y* w""* was formerly y« Beadle's room over y« Porch, and y* it be 
fitted up w**» necessary conveniences for him ; and till y* can be done it is agreed by y* Gentlemen of y« 
Four and Twenty here present that some consideration be made him when a Cess be laid on, if it be 
approv'd by y* rest of y* Four and Twenty." 



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states that it was **used not very many years ago as an ale-cellar to an adjoining 
ale-house/* It was taken down in 1788, when the present brick vestry was 
erected. The new building was first used in 1789, when certain pews in a 
then newly erected gallery were sold. On this occasion, Mackenzie tells us, 
chickens, ham, ale, wine, etcetera, were provided in the vestry for the refresh- 
ment of purchasers. 

In the same year in which the new vestry was built the parish authorities 
resolved " that the third Pillar in the North Aile from the West End of the 
Church be taken down, and the present two arches thrown into one." This 
was done at a cost of ;^26 los. The arch then built, which is said to have been 
a very good imitation of Perpendicular work, remained till 1866. 

On the south side of the tower two interesting grave covers are preserved. 
One of these bears an extremely plain incised cross, and a 
mason's or carpenter's square. The other bears three horse 
shoes and a hammer, and below these the following inscrip- 
tion: 

i^rate § pro 

afa § tfiome 

l?0!ltton § 

The symbols indicate the occupation of the 
persons whose graves these stones have cov- 
ered. The grave cover of the carpenter or 
mason must be ascribed to the thirteenth, and 
that of the shoeing smith to the fifteenth 

Ancient Grave Covers. Century. 

The present peal of bells, six in number, was cast by R. Phelps of London, 
in 1726. The inscriptions have no special interest. 

Twice within the present century the church has passed through a process 
of ** restoration," first in 1844, and again in 1866. On the first occasion the 
south transept was destroyed, and on the second the east gable of the chancel 
met the same fate. Other alterations and renovations were carried out, as to 




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256 

the necessity or desirableness of which I have no means of judging; but the 
demolitions to which I have referred, it is clear, from the evidence of photo- 
graphs and engravings, were most ill-advised, and will ever awake the regret of 
the lover and admirer of the work of bygone ages. 



Chantries. 

There were at one time three chantries in this church. Of the first of 
these, following the course I have adopted in previous chapters, I give a brief 
notice, with the inventory of its "ornaments '' at the time of its dissolution. 
The second, from its connection with the name of Sir Aymer de Athol, calls 
for much more lengthy notice. Of the third scarcely anything is known. 

1. St. Mary*s chantry, founded at least as early as the reign of Edward I. 
Bourne mentions a charter of that period, by which a certain booth was granted 
for the term of thirty years to one Stephen , in consideration of pay- 
ments to the fabric of Tyne bridge, "and to the Altar of St. Mary in the church 
of St. Andrew in Newcastle upon Tyne.'* Yearly value at the dissolution of 
chantries, £s ^7^- 4^. 

** One vest of velvet and one grene vest, a corporas, a masse boke, ij. candlestycks, 
one hanging before the alter, ij. alterclothes and a sacring bell." 

2. The chantry of the Holy Trinity is inseparably associated with the 
name of Sir Aymer de Athol. There is a tradition that he gave the Town 
Moor to the burgesses of Newcastle; Gray mentions the tradition. "The 
Towne Moore, as some say, the gift of Adam de Athell of Gesmond,*' are his 
words. John Stainsby, of Clement's Inn, "Gentleman,*' recording the observa- 
tions he made during a journey to the north in 1666, mentions the same legend. 
" He gave a piece of ground to the Towne called the Towne moore where the 
flfaire is now kept.'* Lastly, the biographer of Ambrose Barnes assures us that 
Sir Aymer " endowed the Burgesses with that large piece of ground called the 
Town Moor." A tradition so widely spread, and, apparently, so generally 
accepted, must have had some foundation. A great part of the Town Moor, 



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' 257 

we know, was the freehold of the burgesses of Newcastle long before the time 
of Athol; but **it cannot be doubted/' as Mr. LongstafFe has said, "that the 
traditions about him had some foundation in a gift near his own lordship." 

The foundation of this chantry was 
peculiar. Such evidence as we possess 
seems to indicate that it was founded 
for Sir Aymer rather than by him. He 
had been a generous benefactor to the 
town in some way, and his chantry was 
at least partially built and furnished by 
the gratitude of the people. Such, at 
all events, are the conclusions to which 
I am led by the two following docu- 
ments. The first of these is an indul- 
gence granted by bishop Fordham, and 
dated at Gateshead on the 19th July, 
1387. It grants an indulgence of forty 
days "to all our parishioners and others'* 
who, being truly contrite and penitent 
for their sins, and having confessed the 
same, 




Sir Aymer de Athol's Chantry. 



** of the goods given by God, shall bestow in gratitude the aids of charity for the 
reparation and emendation of the church of Saint Andrew of the town of Newcastle upon 
Tyne and of the chapel of the Holy Trinity therein, and with a pious mind shall say the 
Lord's Prayer with the angelic salutation for the healthful estate of Sir Aymer de Athel, 
knight, and for the souls of his wife and Aymer his son, and for the souls of all the 
faithful dead." 

The second document I have mentioned is an indulgence granted by the 

bishop of Galloway, in Scotland. It is dated at York on the feast of St. Martin 

in the year 1392. It grants forty days' indulgence to all 

" who, for the reparation or ornament, or emendation of the church of Saint Andrew 
of the town of Newcastle upon Tyne, in the diocese of Durham, and of the chapel of the 
Holy Trinity on the north side (in parte aquilonari) of the same church shall give, bequeath, 



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258 

or cause to be given, gold, silver, books, chalices, or whatsoever other ornaments are now 
necessary to the said church, chapel, or the altar and image of the Holy Trinity in the 
said chapel ; or who [shall give] candles for the lights or shall make oblations ; or who 
shall kneel before the aforesaid image of the Holy Trinity, and, with a pious mind, say the 
Lord's Prayer with the angelic salutation for the healthful estate of Sir Aymer de Athol 
whilst he lives and for his soul after his death, and for the soul of Lady Mary his wife whose 
body reposes in the same chapel of the Holy Trinity, and for the souls of all the faithful 
dead." 

The architectural character of the chapel accords with the dates of these 
indulgences. It retains a beautiful east window of three lights, one of which 
is blocked up by the vestry. Its north window is a later insertion. Bourne 
mentions that "at the Top of the North Window in the Chapel there seems to 
be a Picture of the Holy Trinity, represented according to the Superstition of 
these Times [i.e., the times of Athol] by the Face of an old Man ^ our Saviour 
upon the Cross^ and the Figure of a Dove.'' ** Three panes of stained glass," of 
which **the middle one plainly represents a crucifixion," remained in the same 
window in Brand's day, and were evidently what Bourne had described. They 
have since been destroyed, either by a "restorer," or, as is perhaps more 
probable, by a clerical hater of popery. 

The " brass " of Sir Aymer and dame Mary has almost shared the fate of 
the stained glass. Gray is the first writer who mentions the monument, and he 
gives the inscription in a very imperfect way. Stainsby has transcribed it more 
fully, and so has Bourne, and the one supplies some at least of the omissions of 
the other. From the two authorities it may be restored as follows : 

t^ic Jacent 9Dominu0 £lliamaru0 He J£lt||Ol, 9^fle0, ic 9D'na 9^aria 
ujcor eiu0 quar obtit j^uarto Hecfmo 9Die 9^en0f0 Januarit, i£lnno 9Domfni 
9^UU0tmo Cricente0tmo i^Dctoge^imo &eptfmo^ [jS^uonim] J£lnfmabu0 
proptttetur [9Deu0^ J£lmem] 

The monument, prepared, no doubt, during Sir Aymer's life, probably never 
bore the date of his death. Before Bourne's time the brass had begun to 
disappear. His account is that 

" Sir Adam de Atholy and his Wife Mary^ [were interred in Trinity Chapel] under 
a very large Stone ; which has originally been plated very curiously with Brass. The 



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Remains of Athol's Brass. 



Remains of their Effigies are still to be seen. He is pictured at length in Armour, having a 
Sword on his left Side, and a Dagger on his Right. Her Effigies hath no thing remaining 
of it, but from the Shoulders upwards. The Arms of both their Families are still to be 
seen on the Tomb-stone." 

Stainsby tells us what these bearings were : '' First, a fess chequy surmounted 
by a bend engrailed — second, paly of six.'' 

The later history of the 
monument will be best told in 
the words of the late James 
Clephan, written in July, 1858: 

" The monument endured 
to our own day; • • • but, 
slowly and gradually, it began 
piecemeal to disappear, and with 
equal steps, the privileges of the 
freemen have crumbled away; 
as if there were some charm in 
the old * brass,' by which the holders of tl*e Moor were secured in their possessions so long 
as the record remained in the church. All that remained of the knight's effigies, up to 
last week, when petitions were presented to parliament affecting the title of the freemen, 
was the lower portion, representing his feet resting on a spotted leopard. The church- 
warden's of St. Andrew's had suffered all the rest to disappear — no one knows whither — 
probably to the melting pot or the * collector.' It was but too probable that the last 
fragment would be destroyed, if some step were not taken for its preservation ; it had 
been torn from its ancient site, to facilitate the enlargement of a pew, and tossed aside as 
rubbish ; so, seizing hold of it, one of the churchwardens rushed off to a place of safety — 
met the Very Rev. Monsignore Eyre, a Catholic canon, in the street — placed it in his 
hands for the Society of Antiquaries — and it was duly delivered up to the Chairman 
[on the 7th July, 1858], * ♦ • with many expressions of joy that a portion, at least, 
of the neglected and ill-used monument had escaped destruction." 

It is now preserved in the Black Gate Museum.* 

* Sir Aymcr de Athol was the son of David de Strathbolgie, the eleventh earl of Athol, whose wife was Joan 
Cumin, the daughter of John Cumin, who was slain by Robert Bruce before the high altar in the church of the Friars 
Minors at Dumfries. Sir Aymer was a younger brother of David, twelfth earl of Athol. Queen Philippa appointed 
him and John de Strivelyn, Roger Fulthorpe, and William Kellaw her justices of assize for the franchise of Tindale. 
David de Strathbolgie, earl of Athol, granted to him the reversion of the manor and forest of Felton after the death of 
Mary de St. Paul, the wife of Sir Adomar de Valence, earl of Pembroke. He, on his wedding day, was killed in a 
tournament, and, within a few hours, the countess was maid, wife, and widow. Her sister-in-law, Joan de Valence, 
married John Cumin, and was, therefore, the grandmother of Sir Aymer de Athol. Sir Aymer entailed the manor and 
forest of Felton upon his two daughters and their husbands, and the countess of Pembroke attorned these estates to him 
by a deed dated 6 May, 1372. In 1381 he was sheriff of Northumberland, and, in the same year, he and Sir Ralph Eure 



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26o 

The yearly value of Athors chantry at its dissolution was £2> 5s* ^od. Its 
^' ornaments *' were 

** One vestment of white fustyan, one of grene and one of lynnen clothe, with the 
appurtenaunces, a masse boke, ij. altercloths, ij. olde towels, one hanging of rede and yello^ 
and ij. litle candlesticks.*' 

3. The chantry of St. Thomas. It is not mentioaed in the Valor Ecclesias- 
ticus of 153s, in the certificates of chantries in 1546, or in the certificates and 
inventories of 1548. Yet old deeds, quoted by Bourne and Brand, mention a 
house in Newgate Street, and an orchard somewhere else, which belonged to 
this chantry. 



were knights of the shire for the same county, in which office they had each an allowance of 4s. a day during their 
attendance in Parliament. The Scottish army on its march from Newcastle, in August, 138S, to the famed field of 
Otterburn, besieged *' Sir Haymon de Aphel, in his castle of Ponteland, where he was lord, and after a sharp assault, 
won it, and took him prisoner." Some parts of a mediaeval fortalice, said to have been the stronghold of Athol, now 
form part of the " Blackbird " inn, a little to the north of Ponteland church. 

Athol was twice married. His first wife was Eleanor, only daughter of Sir Robert Felton, and the widow of 
Robert Lisle of Woodburn. The parentage of his second wife is not known. Hodgson oflFers an untenable conjecture 
that she was the daughter of Sir Adomar de Valence. By her he had issue, one son and two daughters. The son, 
named Aymer, died before 1387. One of the daughters, Isabella, married Sir Ralph de Eure, and the other, Mary, was 
second wife of Robert de Lisle of Felton. Both appear to have died without issue. 




W^^^^ 



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26l 



THE TUTHILL STAIRS. 

The part of Westgate now known as Clavering Place was formerly called 
the Tuthill. In 1587 it is described as "the Towtehill." Bourne oflFers the 
amusing suggestion that the name "should be Tout-hill^ from the touting or 
winding of a Horn upon it." With far more reason it may be derived from the 
word tout^ to watch. " Places called Tot Hill, Toot Hill, or Tooter Hill, are 
very numerous, and may possibly," says Isaac Taylor, "have been dedicated to 
the worship of Taith," — a Celtic deity ; but that they were the watch-hills of 
much more recent times seems more probable. 

The Tuthill Stairs are the direct means of communication between the 
Tuthill and the Close. Though an ancient thoroughfare, the stairs have lost 
almost every evidence of antiquity. Indeed, it is only when the visitor is 
guided to the rear of the modem cottages on the eastern side of the stairs that 
he finds anything to repay him. There, however, he is amply rewarded. He 
finds an extremely picturesque, four-storied, half timbered mansion. It is now 
abandoned, and the marks of dilapidation and decay are everywhere apparent. 
There are two points from which its exterior may be seen to advantage. Onp 
of these is the yard on the south side of a large building, which, from 1798 to 
1853, was occupied as a Baptist chapel, and is now divided into tenements. 
Here we look down on the house. If, however, we turn through a pointed 
archway in the Close, we enter what was the court-yard of the old mansion. 
Here we look up at it. From both points, we see that the house is built against 
the hill-side. The basement story is built of stone, and the higher parts of 
brick and timber. The principal apartment is on the first floor, to which there 
is a separate entrance from the Tuthill Stairs. Its walls are panelled with oak, 
and its ceiling is stuccoed. But the best panelling has been removed. Mr. T. 
W. Waters, of St. Thomas's Street, possesses some excellent woodwork from 
this room, including the pilasters and lintel of a doorway. The latter bears the 



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262 

date, 1583, and the initials — H. C. — of Henry Chapman, the builder of the 
mansion. Messrs. T. C. Angus and Company, of Stockbridge, have a carved 
panel from the same apartment, which bears the date, 1588. 

This is a historic house, and with it are associated many noteworthy names. 
Before the present house was built another one occupied the same site, 

and was the home of the Chapmans. Oswald 
Chapman, who was sheriff of Newcastle in 
1545 and mayor in 1558, in his will, dated 
6th October, 1566, bequeathed to his son 
Henry ''the howse I dwelle in, whiche is in 
the Close, &c., my backsyd, wher my coles 
lye, and a greate pece of the west parte of 
my orchard, [which] I bought of Mr. Henrie 
Anderson, my father-in-lawe.*' Oswald Chap- 
man was the founder of his family's fortunes. 
His wife was a daughter of Henry Anderson, 
and by her he became allied to the leading 
families of Newcastle. He was a member of 
the Merchants' Company, and is mentioned as one of the ** assistants'' of the 
governor of that society in the charter granted to it in 1547 by Edward VI. 

He was succeeded by his son Henry. He, as I have mentioned, built the 
present house. In his day, and for long afterwards, its surroundings were very 
diflFerent from what they are now. The old title-deeds repeatedly mention an 
orchard on the north. Henry Chapman was sheriff of Newcastle in 1581, and 
mayor in 1586, in the latter part of 1597, and in 1608. He represented his 
native town in the parliaments of 1597 and 1604. He was one of the most 
extensive coal owners of his day. In Elizabeth's great charter, granted in 1600, 
his name occurs as one of the aldermen, and he is also included in the company 
of Hostmen, which was incorporated by the same document. Thirteen years 
later he was appointed one of the commissioners for the conservation of the 
river Tyne, an oflBce which he also held under the new commission of 16 17. 




Carved Panel. 



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263 

He died in April, 1623, a victim of some pestilence then raging in the town. 
He bequeathed the family mansion to his wife, Rebecca, for her life, and 
afterwards to his nephew, Henry Chapman. The latter Henry was sheriflF of 
Newcastle in 161 3, and mayor in 1620 and 1627. He died in February, 1633, 
having sold his late uncle's mansion four years before to Alexander Davison. 

Davison was sheriff of Newcastle in 161 1 and mayor in 1626 and 1638. 
During his second term of office Charles I. visited Newcastle, and was magnifi- 
cently entertained bv the mayor, whom he knighted on the occasion. In the 
siege of Newcastle, in October, 1644, Davison was one of the gallant defenders 
of the town, though then an octogenarian, and died on the i ith of the following 
month from injuries he had received in the fray. 

Whether Sir Alexander ever resided in the Tuthill Stairs house we do not 
know, but in January, 1638, he leased it to his son-in-law, Thomas Riddell, 
and his daughter, Barbara, Riddell's wife. Riddell was the son of Sir Thomas 
Riddell of Gateshead. He was appointed recorder of Newcastle about the 
year 1622, and was knighted at the same time as his father-in-law. He was 
the ancestor of the Riddells of Swinburne Castle, Cheesebum Grange, and 
Felton. 

The property remained in the hands of the Davisons for some years ; but 
after recorder RiddelPs removal to Fenham part of it became the residence of 
Yeldred Alvey, the royalist vicar of Newcastle. 

Alvey was appointed lecturer at St. Nicholas's church about the year 1623, 
and in 1627 was collated to the vicarage of Eglingham, in Northumberland. 
In 1 63 1 he succeeded Dr. Jackson as vicar of Newcastle, and, retaining 
Eglingham, became a pluralist. He seems in some way to have been indebted 
to his predecessor for the preferment. Prynne's " Hidden Works of Darkness '* 
describes him as "the Arminian and Superstitious Vicar of Newcastle." 

Considerable light is thrown on Alvey's personal and priestly character by 
a case which was tried before the High Commission Court at Durham. On 
the 5th December, 1635, George, the son of Sir George Tonge, was married 
at Newcastle to Barbara, daughter of James Carr, merchant, of that town. The 



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264 

wedding dinner was held at the house of the bride's parents, and the rank and 
wealth of Newcastle were present. Vicar Alvey was there, and so was John 
Blakiston, mercer, afterwards a regicide ; a puritan of the parish of St. Nicholas, 
though more frequently an attendant at All Saints', as finding the preaching of 
Dr. Jennison more to his taste than that of Alvey. Mrs. Blakiston was at the 
wedding also, and after dinner she and the vicar entered into conversation, and 
sat "apart from the companie at the table side in a serious discourse, in which 
they continewed a pretty space.'* This was not agreeable to the husband, who 
approached his wife, took her by the hand, and said, "Wife, what discourse is 
this yow have with Mr. Alvey ? If yow doubt of anie thing I would have yow 
be satisfied with your husband at home, and if he cannot then may yow goe to 
your minister to be resolved.'* The priest grew wrathful, and replied, "What! 
art thou comen to outface me, man ? Thou art but a preistes sonne more then 
I am." Blakiston, whose father was a prebendary of the seventh stall at 
Durham, mildly replied that he would make no comparisons with Alvey, but 
would give him all the respect due to his place and calling. On this the priest's 
passion became more furious, and he retorted, " Goe, I will have notheing to 
doe with ye, for thou haste noe religion in thy heart." The dispute proceeded, 
and Blakiston declared, "I will mainteyn that in your last sermon at Allhallowes, 
yow delivered seaven errors;" and, on Alvey saying, " Mr. Blaikston, yow will 
justifie this," he added, "Yea, I will justifie seaventene, or seaventy, since yow 
came to the towne." 

The scene at the wedding was followed by a scene in church. Blakiston 
was at St. Nicholas's on a lecture day. He behaved himself " reverently^ by 
bowing his body and bending his knees, haveing his hatt before his face, and 
resting his arme upon the peiw, without any oflFence to the congregacion." 
Others sitting near "did not behave soe reverently." Of these Alvey took no 
notice, but, ceasing to read the prayers, sent the beadle to Blakiston to say, 
"the vicar bids you kneel." Blakiston made some reply and the beadle returned. 
Immediately Alvey spoke to Forster, the curate, requesting him to send the 
parish clerk to Blakiston with a similar message. He replied that he knew his 



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265 

duty as well as the curate. Meantime many ot the congregation rose to their 
feet and watched the proceedings with amazement. 

In March, 1636, Alvey instituted a suit against Blakiston in the High Com- 
mission Court. The charges against him were, that he had accused Alvey of 
delivering seven errors in one sermon, that he did not conform himself to the 
rites and ceremonies of the Church of England, and that for four or five years past 
he had not received holy communion at his own parish church. The judgment 
of the court was, that Blakiston should make acknowledgment to Alvey for 
charging him with seven errors in one sermon, and the like acknowledgment 
of his non-conformity; that he should be declared excommunicate ipso facto in 
his parish church ; that he should pay ;^ioo to the king, and the costs of the 
court, and be committed to prison till bond was entered for the performance 
of these things. 

Blakiston was clearly a victim of the then prevailing ecclesiastical powers ; 
but retribution followed speedily. The battle of Newburn was fought on the 
29th August, 1640, "and then,*' says lieutenant-colonel John Fenwick, 

" there was flying indeed to purpose, the swiftest flight was the greatest honour to the 
Newcastilian new dubd knights,* a good Boat, a paire of Oares, a good horse, (especially 
that would carry two men) was more worth than the valour or honour of new knighthood. 
Surely Vicar Alvey too would have given his Vicaridge for a horse, when he for haste leapt 
on horseback behinde a countrie-man without a cushion, his faith and qualifications failing 
him he might well feare to fall from grace by the Scots comming ; we leave him in his 
flight to the grace of Canterbury^ and the new dubd knights and others to the Courts 
grace for full twelve-moneths, until the Scots were gone home againe. They no sooner 
returned to Newcastle^ but the first Sabbath Day after the Scots were gone, Vicar Alvey 
appeares in publike againe, new drest up in his pontificalitie, with Surplice and Service- 
booke, whereof the Churches had been purged by the Scots lads, and therefore now become 
innovations, and very offensive to many, who could digest such things before ; but my 
wife being lesse used to have her food so drest, growing stomack-sicke, set some other 
weak stomacks on working, who fell upon the Vicars new dressing (the Surplice and 
Service^booke) which set the malignant superstitious people in such a fire as men and 
women fell upon my wife Hke wilde beasts, tore her cloaths,t and gave her at least an 
hundred blowes, and had slaine her, if the Maior had not stept out of his pue to rescue 
her, he and his officers both well beaten for their paines, such was the peoples madnesse 
after their Idols." 

♦ The " new dubd knights " were Sir John Marley, Sir Alexander Davison, and Sir Thomas Riddell the younger- 
t " Nota^ Some men carried away pieces of her cloaths, and made as much of them, as if they were holy reliques. 
This was a bold affront, the Parliament then sitting." — Note by Fenwick, 

Y 



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Elsewhere Fenwick declares that 

" all the Priests and Blacke-coats fled as fast as they could, but meanely mounted, 
when Vicar Alvey himselfe in great hast got on horse backe behind a Country man as 
before : the next bout if the Scots come againe, he may perhaps learne to foot it» (after 
my friend Wtndebancke) into France, and to dance and sing : Alas poor e Vicar ^ whither 
wilt thou goe^ 

Alvey 's account of these transactions is embodied in a letter to the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, dated i6th October, 1640, in which he says, 

'* I am for the present Outed of all my Spiritual Promotions, to the Yearly Value of 
300/. and have most of my movable Goods seized upon by the Rebels ; being forc'd (upon 
some Threatning Speeches given out by them, that they would deal more Rigorously 
with me than others) suddenly to Desert all, and to provide for the Safety of myself, 
Wife, and Seven Children, by a Speedy Flight in the Night-time. How they would have 
dealt with me, they have since made Evident, by their harsh Dealing with two of my 
Curates, whom I left to officiate for me in my Absence ; who have not only been inter- 
rupted in Reading Divine Service, but Threatened to be PistoKd, if they would not desist 
from the Execution of their Office." 

Walker states that Alvey was afterwards **not only pulled out of his 
Pulpit by two Holy Sisters, but Imprison'd at Newcastle, at Holy Island, and 
at Norwich.'* His wife died at Easter, 1643, at the age of 34, having borne 
him ten children, five of whom were sons, and five daughters. In 1645 he was 
deprived of his livings. An ordinance of the Lords and Commons was sent to 
Newcastle, requiring that '* Yealderd Alvey, now vicar of that towne, who is a 
notorious Delinquent, be displaced and removed from his vicaridge and cure 
there, and that Doctor Robert Jenison be viccar of the said towne in his 
place.'* Alvey died in March, 1649. Walker says his death ** was hastened, as 
'tis thought, by his SuflFerings." His children ** were reduc'd to great Streights, 
and Subsisted in good measure by Charity." 

After Alvey's death the house was occupied for a time by a branch of the 
Newcastle family of Stote. Edward Stote, merchant, who died in December, 
1648, and who is believed to have been the father of Cuthbert Stote, the 
intruding rector of Whickham, lived here. His widow remained in the house 
after his death. She was the tenant in 1651, and died in August, 1660. 

From the time of the occupancy of the Stotes till the year 1720 we know 
nothing of the history of the old mansion. But in that year it was purchased 



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for the sum of ;^I20 by George West, a wealthy Baptist, for the use of his 
religious associates.* The principal room of the first floor was converted into a 
meeting house, and the apartments above became the minister's residence. 
Douglas, the historian of the Baptist churches in the north of England, 
supposes that the original use of the room occupied from 1720 as a chapel, was 
unknown, *^but," he adds, "it is clear that the Corporation of Newcastle, 
previously to the Revolution, attended it as a place of worship, as there were 
affixed to the old pews two hands, for holding the sword and the mace of the 
corporation.'' Unfortunately the "hands" have not been preserved, and there 
is nothing to show whether the room was already pewed when the Baptists 
entered upon the premises. It is, however, not improbable that the house had 
been previously used by some section of Nonconformists. The biographer 
of Ambrose Barnes tells us that, after James II., "to usher in liberty to 
Papists," had granted religious toleration to Protestant dissenters, " both sorts 
opened their public meetings for worship, and the magistracy was mixt with 
Papists and Protestants, Conformists and Nonconformists. Men were at a 
loss,'' he continues, "to see how suddenly the world was changed, the cap, the 
mace, and the sword, one day carried to the church, another day to the mass- 
house, another day to the dissenting-meeting-house." 

The early days of the Baptists of Newcastle in their new home were not 
prosperous. A letter from a Gateshead member of the society, written in 

* The early history of the Baptists in Newcastle is obscure. During some part of the Commonwealth they 
appear to have worshipped in St. Thomas's chapel at the Bridge end. The society was formed about the year 1650, 
and one Thomas Gower or Goare was the first minister. In 165 1 a Baptist congregation was gathered together at 
Hexham, under the ministry of Thomas Tillam, a person of some notoriety in connection with one Ramsay, a Jesuit, 
who posed in Newcastle and Hexham as a " converted Jew." Tillam seems to have been a generous, open-hearted, and 
thoroughly guileless character, whose failings, like those of the parson in the ** Deserted Village," " leaned to virtue's 
side." Unfortunately, however, he and his congregation became embroiled in a controversy with the society at New- 
castle. The letters which passed between the two churches are still extant. One reads in them a sad lesson. A people 
who were then a mere handful in all the earth, hated of all men, and finding no toleration even in the tolerant days of 
the Commonwealth, fell to persecuting each other, or doing something very much like it. The following entries in 
the parish accounts of Gateshead relate, I think, to Gower : 

1669. Spent at Durham, being caused to witnesse against Mr. Goore for preaching at Richard Stocktons 
on Sunday, July 11, 4s. 
Spent at Durham by William Snarey and Thomas Wilson, being subpenaed in to witnesse against 
Mr. Goore and commanded to stay 5 days to attend the assize, j^i los. 



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1749) laments the condition of **the poor, reduced, and distressed church of 
Christ, usually meeting at Tuthill-stairs/' The writer, however, hopes for 
better things, inasmuch as *' the Lord, in his providence, hath removed Mr. 
Durance, the great opposer of the gospel, from the place.*' But in 1780, one 
Richard Fishwick, a member of the Baptist church at Hull, settled in New- 
castle, for the purpose of establishing the Elswick Lead Works. He was a 
devoted and liberal supporter of the cause, and from the time when he joined 
the congregation at Tuthill Stairs success seems to have attended their 
exertions. 

The one most memorable name associated with the meetings of the 
Baptists in the old mansion is that of John Foster, the well-known essayist. 
He became their minister in 1792, but remained only a few months. In one 
of his letters he describes the meeting house. 

" But our meeting for amplitude and elegance ! I believe you never saw its equal. 
It is, to be sure, considerably larger than your lower school ; but then so black, and so 
dark! It looks just like a conjuring room, and accordingly the ceiling is all covered with 
curious, antique figures to aid the magic. That thing which they call Xht pulf>it is as 
black as a chimney ; and. indeed, there is a chimney-piece, and very large old fire-case 
behind it. There is nothing by which the door of this same pulpit can be fastened, so 
that it remains partly open, as if to invite some good person or other to assist you when 
you are in straits. My ft-iend Pero [a favourite dog], whom I have mentioned before, 
did me the honour one Sunday to attempt to enter ; but, for some prudential notion, I 
suppose, I signified my will to the contrary by pulling to the door, and he very modestly 
retired. Yet I hke this pulpit mightily ; tis so much the reverse of that odious, priestly 
pomp which insults your eyes in many places. T hate priestly consequence and ecclesias* 
tical formalities. When I order a new coat I believe it will not be black." 

The Baptists continued to worship in this interesting old house till 1798, 
when they removed to the new chapel, which they had built on what was 
formerly its orchard. There they remained till 1853, in which year the chapel 
in Bewick Street was opened. 




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THE JESUS HOSPITAL. 

The Jesus Hospital is not an ancient institution. It was founded and 
endowed by the Corporation of Newcastle in 1681, and was built on part of 
the Manors, a freehold which belonged to the town. It was designed as a 
home and refuge for aged and impoverished freemen and their widows, and 
also for their unmarried sons and daughters. The endowment consisted 
originally of a messuage, with quay and garden in the Close, the site of which 
was afterwards occupied by the Mansion House, and estates at Etherley in the 
county of Durham, and Whittle in Northumberland. These properties cost 
the town ;^3,6io. At first this endowment produced only about ;^8o a year. 
But in 1717 the Corporation purchased the manor of Walker for the sum of 
;^i 2,220, towards which they sold the Etherley and Whittle estates, and, in 
lieu of these, settled on the hospital a yearly rent charge of ;^i85. As, how- 
ever, the purchase had been made without the king^s licence being obtained, 
the newly acquired estate, by the statute of mortmain, was forfeited to the 
Crown. It was not till 1723 that the king^s pardon was granted to the Cor- 
poration. William Carr, who then represented Newcastle in Parliament, on 
bringing the good news to the town, was welcomed by the ringing of bells and 
every demonstration of joy. 

An annual gift of a ** fother " of coal to each inmate at Christmas was voted 
by the Corporation in 1752, and in 1769 the yearly payment to every brother 
and sister was raised to £t. This was the sum which was allowed till 181 1, 
when it was advanced to £\2. In 1845, in consequence of litigation, com- 
menced in 1836 and continued for more than nine years, the Corporation 
increased the rent charge on the Walker estate to £ioo per annum. The City 
Road, formed in 1882-3, passes over part of a green lawn which formerly fronted 
the hospital, and also cuts off access to the remaining portion. Each occupant 
now receives ;^I3 3s. (of which £\ 3s. is a consideration for the loss of the 
lawn), and four tons of coal a year. 



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270 

The hospital is an interesting example of the architecture of the seven- 
teenth century. It is three stories in height. The basement story has an open 
arcade extending from end to end. In the centre is an oak staircase which 
gives access to the first and second floors. The carvings which adorn the 
handrail merit the attention of the visitor. The one at the foot of the stairs 
represents Charity protecting orphan children. It has no claim to be regarded 
as a work of art. A figure of a sea-horse holding a shield charged with the 
town's arms, and another of a lion holding a blank shield, are admirable pieces 
of work. These are placed at the first and second returns of the staircase. 
In front of the entrance to the upper floors is a large fountain or "pant," a 
singular structure, which, considering the period of its erection, and the use for 
which it was designed, shows some evidence of taste on the part of its architect. 

The front of the building presents a large stone slab, with rudely carved 
border. It bears the following inscription : 

Ptochotrophium 

Sumptibus Civium et 

Burgenfum Novi Caftri fuper 

Tinam Anno Salutis 1683 Conftruc 

Timothio Robfon Maiore 

Johanne Squire Vicecomite 

Nunc vero manent haec tria Fides 

Spes Charitas maxima autem 

harum Charitas. 




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271 



AKENSIDE HILL AND DOG BANK. 

Akenside Hill is without doubt the ** vicus carnificum juxta le OUecross'* — 
the street of butchers near the Ollecross — otherwise the Cail Cross, mentioned 
in 1336 in the foundation charter of St. Catherine's chantry in All Saints' 
church. In 1539 the street had acquired the name of Hallow or AUhallow Bank. 
In that year, amongst the possessions of the dissolved monastery of Tynemouth, 
a rent of 6s. from a burgage in Hallowebanke is mentioned. In the record of 
an inquisition, held in 1577, amongst the properties of the then lately dissolved 
house of Benedictine nuns in Newcastle, a waste inthe street called *' AUhallow 
Bancke'' is named. At a later period this street came to be called Butcher Bank, 
a designation by which it was known till recent years. Bourne describes it as 
** a narrow Street, and a great Descent,'* and adds, that ** It is mostly inhabited 
by Butchers^ who have their Shops and Houses there." Its south side was 
entirely rebuilt after the great Gateshead explosion, and the thoroughfare was 
then considerably widened. But its ** great Descent*' — up and down which 
stage coaches and stage waggons, formerly struggled on their way between 
Pilgrim Street and the Bridge of Tyne — still remains. The butchers, however, 
are gone, though at the time of Whitehead's first Directory of Newcastle — 
the year 1778 — of the fifty- five tradesmen whose business it was to provide for 
the carnivorous appetites of their fellow-townsmen, not fewer than twenty- 
seven had their shops in Butcher Bank. Gradually, however, they moved oflf 
elsewhere. In 181 1 their number had fallen to sixteen. In 1838 there were 
but five. Nine years later only three were left, and now there is not one. 

Once more, and in honour of the one native of Newcastle who ranks 
amongst English poets, the name of this street has been changed. It is now 
Akenside Hill. 

At the foot of the street is a conspicuous block of modern property known 
as Printing Court Buildings, wherein, it may satisfy some curious investigator 



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272 

in another generation to learn, such typographic taste and skill as, I am proud 
to say, Newcastle now affords, have transformed the manuscript on which I have 
toiled into the pages in my readers' hands. These buildings occupy the site of 
one of the famed old inns of Newcastle, the ** Nag's Head." A now almost 
forgotten tradition has it that this house was the abode, during one of his visits 
to Newcastle, of James I. Definite history of the hostelry, however, com- 
mences in the reign of his ill-fated son. The three Norwich travellers who 
visited Newcastle in 1634 paid at least a flying visit to this house, and com- 
mended its entertainment. '* Then did wee take a view of the Market Place, 
the Towne Hall, the neat Crosse [the Cail Cross, that is], ouer against w^ 
almost is a stately, prince-like, freestone Inne, in w^ we tasted a cupp of good 
wine ; then taking a view of the 4. churches in the Towne, and breaking o' fast 
in that fayre Inne (Mr. Leonard Carr's), we hastened to take horse/' And Sir 
William Brereton, who passed through Newcastle in the following year, 
declared that "The fairest built inn in England that I have seen is Mr. Carre's, 
in this town." The host was a noteworthy man. In 161 7 he was appointed 
one of the conservators of the Tyne. He was elected sheriff in 1635, and in 
the following year he was appointed, with William Warmouth, a deputation to 
endeavour to adjust a serious dispute which had arisen between the Merchants' 
Company of Newcastle and that of London. Though his efforts in this mission 
were not successful, and the quarrel remained unsettled for nearly thirty years, 
it deserves to be mentioned that, in the end, the merchants of Newcastle 
gained their cause. Carr was made an alderman in 1641, and would have risen 
to higher dignities save for the events of his time. He was a staunch church- 
man, and an unyielding Royalist, and the ascendancy of Presbyterianism, 
Independency and Republicanism barred his progress. He was, however, 
governor of the Merchants' Company in 1645, and of the Hostmen's Company 
in 1642 and 1653. He was a delinquent, and articles were exhibited against 
him. One of these was that he had "joined with Sir John Marley and others 
in Newcastle in lending money to the late king Charles." He was also charged 
with having, under Marley's directions, built a fort in Newcastle, " against the 



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Parliaments forces ; which he performed so well, that for his merit they call'd 
it by his name, Carr's Battery." Summoned before the Privy Council to 
answer the charges, he confessed their substantial truth. In 1657 the Corpora- 
tion received a letter from Cromwell and his Council, requiring the removal of 
" Mr. Leonard Carr from his office of Alderman of Newcastle/' He died in 
August of the following year. Bourne has the following note on his grave- 
stone in the old church of All Saints: 

" There is an old Stone which lies between the Vestry and Quire-Door^ with its 
Inscription erased. It belonged to Alderman Leonard Carr^ who gave 5/. yearly to the 
Poor of this Parish, and appointed it out of divers Houses in the Butcher bank. He was 
an Alderman of the Town before the Rebellion^ and turned out by the Rebels. 

" He deserves a better Monument." 

There are still a few quaint old houses, with projecting upper stories, half- 
timbered and covered with rough-cast, in Butcher Bank. Externally, they 
form a picturesque group. Within, there is nothing to reward the visitor who 
has courage enough to enter them. One of these old buildings has a curious, 
lozenge-shaped panel over its entrance, on which is carved a mermaid, with 
one head and two bodies. The house now numbered 33, and immediately east 
of that just mentioned, is a modern building, which occupies the site of the 
poet Akenside's birthplace. He was bom here on the 9th November, 1721. 
True to the traditions of the Bank, his father was a butcher. Akenside's life 
is well known, or easily may be. The only facts which need to be recorded 
here are that in early life he was associated with the Close Gate, afterwards the 
Hanover Square, congregation of dissenters, of which his father was a member, 
and that in his later life he was ashamed of his native town and of his humble 
origin. 

From the head of Akenside Hill a narrow and steep street leads to the 
point at which Broad Chare and Cowgate meet. This is Dog Bank. How it 
attained its present name I do not know. At an earlier period it was known 
as Silver Street, and, says Brand, **Jews who dealt in silver wares have 
probably lived here formerly.'* Many of the houses in this street are quite 
modem, but a group at the west end of the north side are old, quaint, and 

z 



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picturesque. A house on the opposite side of the road, now divided into 

filthy tenements, bears on the lintel of its doorway the following initials and 

date : 

H 
MW 

1679. 

It is the only house in the street which it is worth while to enter. It con- 
tains a good, though narrow, staircase, with spiral balusters. When this 
staircase was constructed some of the wealthy burgesses of Newcastle resided 
in Dog Bank. 




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ALL SAINTS' CHURCH. 

What place shall be assigned, in the chronology of Newcastle, to the 
foundation of All Saints'? This is a question which will probably never be 
answered. Mr. John Hodgson Hinde indulged in learned conjecture as to the 
order in which our ancient churches were built. Following the parent church 
of St. Nicholas, he considered St. Andrew's next in order of date, then St. 
John's, and lastly All Saints'. But he was certainly mistaken in dating St. 
John's after St. Andrew's ; and the only unsettled question of priority rests 
between the latter church and All Saints'. Unfortunately the old church was 
totally destroyed a little more than a century ago, and the descriptions of the 
fabric given by our earlier historians are too unscientific to aflFord us any help 
in ascribing dates to its various parts. The only data that can possibly assist 
us are aflForded by a drawing, executed, whilst the old edifice was in ruins, by 
Ralph Waters, a local artist, to whom antiquaries at the present day are 
under many obligations. When we turn to his picture, our interest centres, 
first of all, in the western doorway. What is its date ? If the artist's pencil 
can be trusted — and his work on subjects in which his accuracy can ixow ^e 
tested inspires our confidence — ^this doorway must be styled a Transitional 
Norman one, but whether early or late in that mixed style it is impossible to 
judge. We thus, however, acquire evidence that All Saints' was founded 
between 1150 and 11 90. 

The subsequent history of the edifice it is impossible to trace. We know 
that about the middle of the fourteenth century the chancel was rebuilt. John 
Cragg of Newcastle, making his will on the Tuesday next after the feast of St. 
John the Baptist (24th June), in the year 1349, directs his body to be buried 
in the church of All Saints', "within the new chancel (infra novam cancellam)." 
Waters's drawing shows us this new chancel, with its north and south arcades, 



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276 

each of four arches. As an architectural achievement it far surpassed anything 
to be found, either of earlier or later date, in the other churches of the 
town.* 

The rest of the church, at the time of its demolition, was chiefly of Per- 
pendicular character. Even the aisles of the chancel had been rebuilt during 
the prevalence of that style. How much of the tower walls belonged to the 
original structure I cannot say, but I am inclined to think that to the height of 
the string-course over the great west window they were of Transitional date. 
It is needless to add that, in this case, the arches opening into the nave and its 
aisles, as well as the west window,, were insertions. 

The best description of the old edifice is that given by Bourne, who 
reveals his affection for the structure with which so much of his life was 
associated, in many a stray sentence of the twenty pages of that section headed 
*' Of ALL-HALLOWS Church," in his quaint folio. From him I borrow 
the following paragraphs : 

*' This Church is seated upon a Hill, which is much about the same Height with the 
Situation of St. Mary^s in Gateshead^ and upon the same Line with it. 

"It is not so long as St. Nicholas^ being only 55 Yards, one Foot, a Quarter long; 
but it is broader, as being 25 Yards, two Foot broad. The Steeple is but of a mean 
Height, being a Square Tower, with only one Spire arising from it. The Bells belonging 
to this Church were founded in the Year 1696. They were cast out of the Metal of that 
famous Statue of King James the Second, which stood on the Sand-HilL [See pages 
27-28.] They were founded in the Ground belonging to St. Austin Fryers^ in that Part 
of it, which is in the Back-side of the Hospital of the Holy Jesus. Their Sound is not 
so Melodious as the others in this Town, but the Note is exceedingly exact, and more 
tuneful than the others.f 

" Whatever Robert Rhodes did to this Steeple^ his name is under the Belfry of it, as 
at St. Nicholas, In one of the Registers belonging to this Church oi All- Hallows^ we 
have the following Account. About the Round where the Bells are drawn up into the 

* Whilst the above paragraphs were in t3rpe, Mr. John Gibson, of the Castle, showed me two extremely valuable 
pencil drawings in his possession, both of which represent the old church of All Saints' during the process of its 
demolition. They throw much greater light on the architectural character of the chancel than the more finished 
drawing by Waters. Although they leave my views of the Transitional date of the original building unchanged, they 
enable me to emphasise what I have said of the superior character of the later chancel. The piers of its arcades, which 
consisted of clustered cylindrical shafts, had beautifully moulded capitals and bases, and hood-mouldings which 
terminated in carvings. 

t The bells were re-cast when the present church was built. The tenor bell in the old peal was inscribed, 
** I sound King William's deliverance from Popish conspiracy in the year 1695-6. — Christopher Hodshon made me." 



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277 ' 

Bell-house in the Steeple, there is written, Orate pro amina Robert! Rhodes. His Arms 
are also without, at the East-end of the Church, on the Breast of an Angel; which, as I 

take it, is a Tyger^ or Grey-hound on a Chief, and three Annulets on the Escutcheon, 

• • * • • 

" Upon the East-end of the Chancel^ in the South-east Window, there was the 
Picture of our Saviour at large, but in the Time of the Rebellion it was wholly taken away. 

" Next to it, as you go up the South-side, there was the Picture of a Boy standing 
upon chequered Pavement, as it seemed, and on the Glass under him, 

Like as the Jamen moist and cold. 

Is full of Tempest Day by Day, 
So is one Child of ten Years old. 

Hath no Understanding, but all on Play. 

" The same Authority adds, I suppose the rest of the Months were also in this 
Window in former Times, but I have seen it only ; and it was taken away ako in the 
Time of the Rebellion. 

" In the Window above the South Door, which leads into the Quire, towards the 
Porch, were the Pictures of Roger Thornton's Children, Two Men and Three Women 
Kneeling at Altars. There remain now only Two of the Women. 

'* There are higher up this Isle, in the Windows towards the Porch some Characters, 
one is like an (I) with an (S) through it, and other Three Characters^ which are the 
Merchants Skin-mark^ for they are but a little Different from the Skin-mark^ which is 
upon the Stone of Christopher Elmer. It is a Token that some Merchant was a 
Benefactor to the Church, and perhaps some Part of the South Wall of the Church : 
I take it to be the Skin-mark of Roger Thornton^ for the very same is in the Chantery 
of St. Peter ^ over-against his Tomb. 

" Tradition says, that from the West-end of the Vestry to the Porch, the old South 
Wall was taken away, and rebuilt further into the Churchyard by Roger de Thornton, 
That the old Wall was farther into the Church than the Wall now is, is plain from the 
Piece of it now remaining, which is on the East-end of the Vestry; and I think the 
Pictures in the Windows above-mentioned, is a good Confirmation of the Truth of the 
Tradition of the Builder. In that Window next the Porch Door, but one, there have 
been the Pictures of the Twelve Apostles. There are now only remaining St. Matthew^ 

St. James the Less, St. Andrew^ St. Philips St. James Major, and another. 

• « • • • 

**The Chancel of this Church stands upon a large Vaults which consists oid^ pretty 
long Entrance^ arched at the Top^ and of a pretty large Square Room, with a curious 
Pillar in it^ which is the grand Support of eight large Stone Arches. The Entrance into 
this Vault is in the Church-yard^ on the North-side of it.* 

** As you enter into the Chancel from the Nave of the Church, you have on the left 
Hand of you, an old Pair of Stairs^ to which are adjoining the Stairs of the Butchers 

* "June 2d, 1783, I examined this crypt underneath the chancel. The pillar was in the center. There were 
very observable windows in it, which had been built up, greatly below the level of the floor of the late church, which, 
perhaps, might have been raised by the great number of burials in it during a long course of time." — Brand, 



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Gallery: These Stairs formerly led into the same Place, but then it was into a Gallery 
different from what the Butchers Gallery is now. They led into a Loft or Gallery 
called the Rood Loft* 

• • » • • 

** A few Years ago the Chancel was beautifyed. It is pannel'd round with Wainscot. 
The Table is a large curious Marble Stone, which was given to the Church for that Use 
by an unknown Hand.f 

» » • » • 

" On the South-side of the Altar is a Prothesis^ or Side- Altar ^ that the Priest, accord- 
ing to the Rubrick^ may more conveniently Place the Elements upon the Altar. 

» » » » * 

" In the Book above-mentioned, belonging to the Church of All-Hallows^ we are 
told, that there is at the South-East End of the Church, upon the Out-side, a fair -fi'and 
Fy a^nd on each of them half a Catherine- Wheel ; but what they signify no Man 
living knoweth. At present there is no such Thing. Whose Name the Letters 
were placed for, I believe it is indeed impossible for any Man living to tell : But as for 
the Catherine- Wheels, it is easy to conclude that they are placed on the South-East end 
of the Church to signify that St. Catherine's Chantery or Altar was under the South- 
East Window." 

Bourne's description shall be supplemented by a few passages from Sop- 
with's '* Historical and Descriptive Account of All Saints' Church.*' 

** The principal entrance was by a door of Saxon (!) architecture, situated at the base 
of the west side of the steeple : • • • this led into an open area or porch of con- 
siderable extent, and communicating with porches at the north and south extremities, the 
former leading into Silver Street, the latter projecting a few feet beyond the body of the 
Church, to a flagged passage which extended from thence to Pilgrim Street. 

• • • • • 

'* The stately groined arches which supported the belfry • • • were * ♦ ♦ 
entirely concealed from the floor of the porch by a bell loft. 

* I am inclined to think that the galleries which remained till 1639, "obstructing the chancel," in the churches of 
St. Nicholas and All Saints were the rood-lofts. In that year bishop Morton wrote to vicar Alvey that "it was required 
of the church-wardens of St. Nicholas, according as his Majesty hath commanded, that the gallery which obstructs the 
chancel should be removed : which being not done, the church-wardens of All Hallows, who were afterwards commanded 
the like, presumed that theirs might stand also. I pray you, therefore, to call upon the church-wardens of St. Nicholas, 
that they, without any longer delay, perform his Majesty's command : * * * and as soon as they begin, require the 
same performance of the church*wardens of All Hallows for their gallery : for without further questioning both must be 
down." But the people of All Saints* were attached to their gallery, and the wardens paid Ss. to " John Hall and W"» 
Robson for their necessary charges in goeing ouer to Auckland to intreat the bishop for ye standing of the Gallery." 
The mission of these worthies proved fruitless, and the wardens were compelled to incur a further charge of 5s., which 
was paid "to the Joiners for takeing downe the gallery over the Quire, by the Chanchlo^ spec, directions." 

t " Presented February 6th, 1684, by John Otway, merchant."— -5ra«</. 



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" From the middle of this porch an aisle extended eastward into the body of the 
Church, for a considerable length, and terminated in a small area, on each side of which 
were seats or stalls, similar to those in Cathedrals. It was here that the rood loft or 
gallery .was formerly situated. • • • [The place of the rood loft] was afterwards 
supplied by a new erection, which remained until the demolition of the church, and was 
called the Butchers* Gallery. 

• • « • • 

" Immediately behind, or east of the butchers' gallery, was the chancel, not adjoining 
the east extremity of the church, but separated from it by a considerable space, into which 
there was free access from the body of the church. 

• • • • • 

" The pulpit stood on the south side of the middle aisle, against one of the pillars 
which supported the roof, a line of these with rudely formed capitals, supporting gothic 
arches on each side, separated in the middle from the north and south aisles, which were 
furnished with pews similar to those in St. Nicholas. 

• • « • • 

** Immediately above the west door of the steeple, was a large gothic window, con- 
taining several beautiful compartments. * • • Above this was a belfry window, 
divided by a single mullion, branching to each side at the top. The corresponding 
windows on the north and east side were exactly similar, but that on the south side was 
divided by three [? two] mullions branching out into gothic compartments at the top. 
The tower was supported by buttresses at the corners on the west side, and terminated 
with [a parapet] with large embrasures. From the centre rose a small square turret, 
surmounted by a short spire, and terminating with a gilt vane. 

• • • • • 

" The exterior of the east end of the church was formed by three gables, separated 
by square buttresses, and containing four large pointed windows with stone mullions, 
divided by arches in the middle, and branching into plain compartments at the top. 
Two of these windows were contained in the gable on the north side, and were also 
divided by a small buttress ; the whole of the roof was covered with lead, and that of the 
middle aisle was ceiled." 

The structure gradually fell into decay. In 1521 the "kirkmasters" and 
parishioners sold a house with its appurtenances in the Broad Chare which had 
been given to the church a few years before by John Coke, alderman of New- 
castle, and mayor in 1477 and 1482. The purchaser was Edward Baxter, 
merchant, and the price paid was ^66 13s. 4d., **to theym [the kirkmasters] 
paid in ther greate necessite, for the buyldynges and reparacions of the said 



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church of Alhalows» which was in greate ruyne and decaye at that tym, and 
without the speciall ayde and helpe of the said Edward Baxter, couthe nott 
at that tyro have ben buylded/** 

At a visitation held in Newcastle in 1601 the churchwardens of All Saints' 
were presented ** for that they have not made their account, and the chancel is 
not repaired/' In 1655 the wardens petitioned the Corporation for stones 
from the Manors, in order ** to build up the east end of All-Hallows church, 
being now ready to fall." **The stones of the old ruinate chapell*' were 
granted them. In 1661 the Four and Twenty and the ''Auncients of the 
Parish " were called together, when it was reported that the east wall and 
other parts of the church had become *' very ruinous, and if not timely pre- 
vented would fall into utter ruine and decay. '* In 1694 the church was again 
said to be ** very ruinous." In 1753 one of the windows above the vestry fell 
out, and two others were in a dangerous state. The repairs effected on these 
and other occasions were all insuflScient to preserve the old edifice. In 
December, 1785, *'the south ,pillars in the interior of the church gave way,*' 
and shortly afterwards the south wall shrunk considerably. Reports as to the 
state of the edifice were prepared by three local architects. One of these 
reports, drawn up by William Newton, contemplated the repair of the edifice 
at a cost of ;^i,683 13s. He declared that if his plans were carried out, the 
church would have a handsome appearance, and might be of many years' 
duration. The reports of the other architects, David Stephenson and John 
Dodds, deprecated any attempt to restore the building, and recommended its 
entire demolition, and the erection of a new edifice. Their enumeration of the 
defects and dangers of the structure, there can be little doubt, was, as is usual 
in such cases, greatly exaggerated. They both reported the extremely unsafe 
and ruinous state of the tower. Yet, when it was actually taken down, '* the 
firm manner in which several parts of the tower were cemented, rendered it 

• One of the conditions of sale was that " every yere yerely forever, the said Edward [the purchaser] and his 
heyres upon ther propir costs and expenses shall cause to be celebrate and songen one Aniversary in the said churche of 
Alhalowes the sixten day of Juyne placebo and dirige with the masse of Requiem with noote, And all the belles rongen 
with the belman goyng aboute the towne as the maner is, And a hedemasspenny offered at the masse lor the soules of 
John Coke, his wiffe, ther faders and moders soules, and all Cristyn soules to the some of thre shillinges and seven pens." 



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necessary to have recourse to the operation of blasting with gunpowder." The 
counsels of Messrs. Stephenson and Dodds prevailed. In August, 1786, the 
demolition of the old edifice was commenced. The vestry and part of the 
chancel were suffered to remain till August, 1789. The new church, from 
designs by Stephenson, was commenced in 1786, and completed in 1796, at a 
cost of about ;^2 7,000. A description of its architecture would not interest 
the reader, and shall not be attempted. The structure has many elements 01 
genuine grace and beauty joined to others of clumsy deformity. But it is in 
every respect an interesting edifice. It is an embodiment of the ecclesiastical 
spirit of the era in which it was built, and it serves to show how thoroughly 
that spirit was freed from the influence and traditions of mediaevalism. There 
are those who will say that it belongs to a period when genuine ecclesiastical 
feeling had sunk to its lowest ebb. I have no right, in these pages, either to 
accept or deny such an assertion ; but it deserves, at all events, to be said that 
the present church of All Saints has features of independent reality and 
genuineness which are absent from much of the church architecture of the 
present day ; and that it is not, like many more recent structures, a weak and 
puerile attempt to imitate what cannot be imitated. It is also a final proof that 
many things for which there is a loud clamour in our times are not inevitably 
necessary in the worship of the Church of England. 



Chantries. 

There were seven chantries in All Saints'. Of the foundation of each of 
these, following my practice in previous chapters, I give a brief account, and 
thereto I append the inventory of ornaments the chantries possessed at the time 
of their dissolution. 

I. — The chantry of St. Thomas, founded about the year 1356, by John 
Pulhore,* priest. Its yearly value at the dissolution of chantries was £4 8s. 4d. 

♦ John Pulhore, son of Alan Pulhore of Newcastle, was rector of Whickham and Whitburn, constable of Durham 
Castle, and receiver-general to bishop Hatfield. 

A A 



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" One vest of crymyson velvet, ymbrodert, one vest of tannye damaske, one of white 
fustian, one of grene counterfett bawdkin, with the appurtenaunces, ij. peces of olde 
hangings of tapestrey, one candlestyke of brasse, one olde masse boke of parchement, one 
litle bell, ij. alterclothes, ij. towels." 

2. — The chantry of St. Mary the Virgin, founded before 1334, but by 
whom is not known. In that year Thomas de Carliol of Newcastle granted the 
presentation to this chantry to Peter, son of Peter Graper, Cecily, his wife, 
and their heirs, but reserving the right of presentation to himself during his life. 
Yearly value at the dissolution, £^ 12s. 6d. 

"One olde vest of rede Turkey damaske, one of white damaske, one of white 
chamblett, one of read sea, with the appurtenaunces, a masse boke of parchement, ij. 
candlesticks of brasse, ij. crewetts, vij. alterclothes and ij. feder coodes [r.^., cushions 
stuffed with feathers]." 

3. — The chantry of St. John the Evangelist, founded in 1404 by Richard 
Fishlake, chaplain, and (?) Richard Willeby. Yearly value, £^ i6s. 

** One olde vest of blew damaske, one of grene seye and one of chaungeable seye, one 
masse boke, ij. candlesticks, iiij. alterclothes and iij. corpores cases." 

4. — The chantry of St. Peter, founded about the year 141 2 by Roger 
Thornton. Yearly value, £6. 

** One vest of grene sylke, one old vest of sey, one old vest of fustyan, with the 
appurtenances, ij. pare of hangings painted, ij. pare of whyte fustyan, ij. alterclothes, 
ij. candlestyks and a paxe." 

5. — The chantry of St. Catherine, founded in 1336 by Robert de Chirton 
and Mariot, his wife. Yearly value, £$ los. 

**One vest of reade damaske, one olde vest of blew worstet, with ther appurtenaunces, 
ij. litle candlesticks of brasse, one old masse [boke], ij. crewets of tyne and iiij. alter- 
clothes." 

6. — The chantry of St. Loy, founded in the reign of Edward III. by 

Richard Pykering.* Yearly value, £2> 9S- 8d. 

" One vest of blewe damaske, one of whyte fustyan and one of rede sea, with the 
appurtenaunces, iij. copperas cases, iiij. alterclothes, ij. crewetts, one masse boke and iij. 
litle candlesticks." 

* The name of Richard Pickering, burgess of Gateshead, occurs in 131 6 as witness to the will of John Coquina. 



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7. — The chantry of St. John the Baptist, founded by John Warde.* 
Yearly value, £^ i8s. 8d. "Ornaments, &c., nil here because all the goodes 
and ornaments of this chauntrie be charged before in the value of the goodes 
and ornaments of St. Loye's chauntrie." 



The Font. 

When the old church of All Saints was taken down, its ancient font was 
discarded. For a time it was preserved, amongst many similar ecclesiastical 
curiosities, in the garden behind Alderman Hugh Hornby's house in Pilgrim 
Street. From thence it was transferred, by some 
means, to the vicarage garden at Kirkharle. It is now 
used as the font of Kirkharle church. 

This font, which must be ascribed to the end of the 
fifteenth, or the first quarter of the sixteenth century, is 
octagonal in shape, and is of Frosterly marble. Each 
side is deeply hollowed, and is adorned with a shield. 
The shields, with one exception, bear arms. In its 
repeated migrations the font has suffered greatly, and 
much of its heraldry is almost, if not quite, obliterated. 
As it now stands, only the basin and the upper part of the old font. 

the shaft are original. Fortunately we have an engraving of it in the pages 
of Brand, which, though pictorially very defective, is archaeologically of the 
greatest value. In addition to this, that historian prints from the Ellison MSS., 
which are not now accessible, certain notes which record the blazon of the 

* John Ward, merchant, was sheriff of Newcastle in 1446, and mayor in 1448 and 1450. In the latter year he was 
elected one of the representatives of Newcastle in Parliament. He was the founder of an almshouse in Manor Chare, 
the site of which is indicated on Speed's map of the town. Leland states that " one John Warde a riche marchant of 
Newcastelle made a maisun Dieu for 12 poor men and 12 poore women by [near] the Augustine- Freres in Newcastell." 
In a deed of 1475 it is described as "John Wardes almous hous stondyng in Cowgate nye the Frer Augustynes lately 
edified and belded by the said John Warde." The Milbank MS., as quoted by Bourne, states that, "The f^\ti Alms-house 
in the Town is the Ward's^ near the Manour ; the MUU at Pandon-gate should give them, as I remember, 20s. per annum^ 
to buy them Coals; but old Mr. Brandling pulled off the Lead, on purpose to expel the poor People, which he did. The 
Mills are now fallen into one Homers's Hand, and so is lost for ever. I have seen the Writings, and know it." 




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284 

various shields. It is evident that in Ellison's time the shields retained much 
of their original tinctures. Now, it is needless to say, not a trace of colour 
remains. Helped by Brand's engraving and Ellison's notes, I am enabled to 
oflFer the following very imperfect explanation of the heraldry of the font. I 
will begin with what strikes me as the principal shield. 

I. Argent, a fess gules between three popinjays vert, membered and 
collared of the second,* for Lumley ; impaling, sable, a chevron and a chief 
dancette, argent, for Thornton. This is the coat of the granddaughter of the 
first Roger Thornton. She married George, Lord Lumley (see page 177, 
note)y and impaled her own coat upon his. As occasional residents in Thorn- 
ton's mansion in Broad Chare, they were parishioners of All Saints'. Lord 
George Lumley died 23 Henry VH. 

2 **a chevron sable between three water bougets gules." So 

Ellison, but elsewhere he gives a tincture as sable which unquestionably was 
gules, a consequence doubtless of a well-known process of discolouration, and 
this he may have done in the present case. All my eflForts to identify this coat 
have been fruitless. A brass plate aflBxed to the wall of Kirkharle church, 
the work of some tyro in heraldry, who is probably destined to lead more 
than one unlucky antiquary astray for many generations to come, describes it 
as that of " Lilbume of Newcastle-upon-Tyne." 

3. Gules, three oak trees eradicated argent, for Anderson of Newcastle 
and Bradley. This family is believed to have descended from the same stock 
as the Andersons of Haswell Grange, who, probably, at an early period bore 
the same coat, and one of whom, John Anderson, married a daughter of 
Thomas Lockwood, who was mayor of Newcastle in 1488. Henry Anderson, 
of the Bradley branch, was sheriflFin 1520, and mayor in 1531. 

4. Argent, an orle gules, t and in chief three martlets of the second, a 
mullet for diflFerence, for Rotherford, of Middleton Hall, Northumberland. 

5. A merchant's mark. 

•"Collmred or," Ellison, 
t " An orle sable," Ellison. 



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285 

6. Argent, on a bend azure* three lozenges ermine, for Dent of New- 
castle. Engraved as a bend ermine by Brand, and put in the wrong place in 
his picture of the font. This family formerly resided at Byker, "and a village 
on the Tyne, called Dent's Hole, had its name from a pool there, in which 
ships belonging to the family used to anchor " (Hodgson). Roger Dent was 
sheriff of Newcastle in 1510, and mayor in 15 15. 

7 *'a chevron sable between three pellets.'* So Ellison, who 

omits the tincture of the field, and whose sable may again mean gules. I am 
unable to identify this shield. The aforenamed brass plate at Kirkharle gives 
** Beverley of the County of Derby " as the explanation. 

8. Gules,t on a bend ermine three cinquefoils sable, and in the sinister 
chief an annulet argent, for Roddam of Northumberland. Brand engraves 
five cinquefoils, and puts the shield in the wrong place. His artist has, in fact, 
transposed our 6 and 8. 

Monuments. 

Amongst these the chief place must be accorded to the Thornton ''brass.'* 
Except this brass, the whole of Thornton's monument was ruthlessly destroyed 
when the old church was taken down. Its place was in the south aisle of the 
chancel, at or near the east end. From an engraving in Brand we may form a 
fairly accurate idea of its appearance. It was an altar tomb, surmounted by a 
canopy. On the exposed side of the tomb, in the centres of three carved 
quatrefoil panels, were shields bearing arms. The first and third shields bore 
the arms of Wanton, and the second those of Thornton. In each spandril of 
the canopy was an angel standing on a corbel, and holding a shield of arms. 
The one on the dexter side held the arms of Wanton, and that on the sinister 
the arms of Thornton. Bourne seems to say that the arms of Lumley occur 
on the brass, but he possibly means only on some other part of the monument ; 
and beside Brand's engraving the Lumley arms are twice depicted, though for 

* "A bend sable," Ellison, 
t" Sable," Ellison. 



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286 

what purpose, or in what connection, there is nothing to show. The Lumley 
shields are of later shape than those of Thornton and Wanton on the monu- 
ment itself ; and it is not unlikely that they were added to some part of the 
shrine not shown in Brand's engraving. Roger Thornton's granddaughter 
married, it must be remembered, Sir George Lumley (see page i77«). The 
brass was inlaid in **a large Stone of that kind call'd Touch-stone^'' which 
formed the top of the altar tomb. 

The brass is of Flemish workmanship. It takes rank amongst the largest 
and finest monuments of the kind now existing in England.* The accompany- 
ing plate renders detailed description unnecessary ; but some of the most 
interesting features must be mentioned. The inscription reads : 

^ l^fc facet homtcella affited quoham fijcor roefferf tfioritton que ob(it in fiiffeUa 
0aitete fcatr(tie anno hommi m cccc xi propfc(etur tieu0 amen ^ |^tc lacet cofferud 
tfioritton m'cator itou( caisttrf 0upei: tfitam qui obf(t aitno titii mflle^tmo cccc xx ix 
et m hie fanuarif 

The brass was engraved and inscribed during Thornton's life, with the 

exception of the words 

XX ix €t m hie fanuarii 

These words are engraved in a way very inferior to that of the remaining parts 

of the inscription. Space has been left for a petition for Thornton's soul, but 

for some reason this was never added. In the comers of the brass are the 

evangelistic symbols, whilst in the middle of each side is a shield charged with 

arms. On the dexter side is the whole coat of Wanton, and on the sinister the 

whole coat of Thornton. At the top and bottom of the brass the shields bear 

the arms of Wanton impaling those of Thornton, instead of, as we should 

expect, Thornton impaling Wanton. 

Roger Thornton is represented as dressed in a long, loose gown, with 

ample sleeves and deep collar buttoned at the throat. A girdle, buckled in front, 

* The five largest Flemish brasses in England are the following : 

Lynn : Adam de Walsokne and his wife. lo ft. o in. by 5 ft. 7^ in. 
Newark : Alan le Fleming. 9 ft. 4 in. by 5 ft. 7 in. 
Lynn : Robert Braunche and his two wives. 8 ft. 8 in. by 5 ft. 5 in. 
St. Alban's : Thomas de la Mare. 9 ft. 3^ in. by 4 ft. 3^ in. 
Newcastle : Roger Thornton and his wife. 7 ft. S in. by 4 ft. 3 in. 



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287 

passes round his waist, and from it hangs a sword in a chased scabbard. His feet 
rest on a dog gnawing a bone. His wife is attired in a long gown with wide 
sleeves, close collar buttoned at the throat, and with a girdle round the waist. 
Over the gown she wears a mantle, with high peaked collar. Her hair is done 
up in a caul or crespine, but it is entirely hidden by a large veil which hangs in 
folds by the sides of her head and falls upon her shoulders. The heads of both 
effigies rest on embroidered cushions, each of which is supported by two angels. 
Each figure rests beneath a canopy, the vault of which is bespangled with stars. 
Below the male effigy are figures of seven boys, and below the female effigy 
figures of seven girls. These represent Roger Thornton's children. It is 
almost certain that at the time of Thornton's death his only surviving issue was 
his son Roger, but we know that he had had other children, both sons and 
daughters. His window in St. Nicholas's (see page 93) was inscribed with the 
words ** Pray for the soul of Roger Thornton, and for the souls of his sons and 
daughters." Beside and above the effigies are tiers of niches containing figures 
of saints, angels, etc. I venture to oflfer the conjecture that the figures in the 
niches nearest the sides of the brass, represent the inmates of Thornton's 
hospital of St. Catherine. The rest of the figures will be best explained by 
the ** key " on the following page.* 

* The mistakes of some of our local historians, in dealing^ with Rog^er Thornton's pedigree, are amazing. Bourne 
and Welford are the only ones who are accurate. Brand blunders hopelessly. " It appears," he says, " by the pedigree 
in an ancient visitation of Northumberland [Flower's of 1575] ♦ ♦ ♦ that one Hodgkin Thornton was the father 

of iht first Roger Thornton, who married to his first wife * * * the daughter of Law, by whom he had issue 

John, Roger, and Gyles. * * * The first Roger Thornton, to his second wife, married Elizabeth, daughter of the 
baron of Greystock, by whom he had a daughter, married to Ogle, • * ♦ and another married to Lumley " He 
further tells us that '* the daughter of the Baron of Grejrstock was Roger Thornton's second wife, and survived him 
several years." On the strength of all this he adds, almost in a tone of triumph, " I have rejected Bourne's note, and 
account from Dugdale's Baronage, both of them being exinnuly erroneous." Now, in the first place, the Hodgkin 
Thornton of the visitation is none other than our Roger the first. And the Roger, one of whose wives was Elizabeth, 
•daughter of baron Greystock, was the second Roger, our Roger's son. Moreover, the visitation to which Brand refers 
makes the second Roger marry Elizabeth Greystock as his first wife, and this was actually the case ; but as Brand saw 
from the first Roger's monument that his wife [the first one, he thought] was not Elizabeth, but Agnes, he concluded 

that she must be the Law of the visitation, and forthwith charged the heralds with "a transposal ♦ ♦ ♦ which 

the inscription on the plate enables us to correct." Next we come to Hodgson, who gives the second Roger his proper 
place in the pedigree, and assigns to both Rogers their own wives, but makes Hodgkin Thornton the first Roger's father, 
thus carrying the pedigree a generation further back than he has any authority for doing. 

Of Thornton's parentage we know nothing. Leland tells us that he was "borne yn Witton," in Northumberland. 
Tradition affirms, or rather, used to affirm, that he was "at the fyrst very poore, and, as the People report, was a Pedlar." 
The rhyme which records his entrance into Newcastle at the Westgate has been printed in an early chapter (see page 12). 



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289 

Formerly All Saints* possessed another brass. Bourne gives the following 

account of it: 

** There is in this Part of the Church a very large Stone, insculp'd with Brass, of 
which several Years ago no more could be read than hie Tumulatus — dono dei datus mitts 
clero^promotor Ecclesiarum, My Authority imagines this to be the Burial Place of 
Robert Rhodes. He says, the Picture upon the Stone was very like that of Roger 
Thornton; all the Difference is, that the Gown of this Picture is not so deep as that of 
Thornton^ s. He conjectures it to be the burial Place of Robert Rhodes ; because of the 

Leland describes him as "the richest Marchaunt that ever was dwelling in Newcastelle," and adds elsewhere that he 
*' died wonderful riche : Sum say by Prices of Sylver Owre taken on the Se." Hodgson has marvellously misapprehended 
this passage, taking Leland to mean "Silver, overtaken on the sea," whereas, "silver ore, taken on the sea" is clearly 
what is meant. 

Roger Thornton first occurs in authentic history in 1394, and then as a shipowner. He, with Robert Gabiford, 
John Paulin, and Thomas de Chester, was proprietor of a Newcastle ship called "The Good Year," a vessel of two 
hundred tons burden, and valued, with her equipments, at £^QO. It appears that about Easter, in the year just named, 
this vessel, laden with woollen cloth, red wine, &c., to the value of 200 marks (;^I33 6s. 8d.) was seized by the people of 
Wismar and Rostock. Two of the ship's crew were killed in the attack, and the rest were detained in prison. In 1405 
Sir William Esturmy and John Kington, canon of Lincoln, were deputed by the king to require satisfaction for the 
injuries done on this occasion. 

Thornton was one of the bailiffs of Newcastle in 1397, and its mayor in 1400 and several subsequent years, 
though how often, in the absence of any authentic list of mayors for that period, it is not possible to say. He also 
represented Newcastle in the parliaments of 1399, 1411, I4i7i and 1419. In 1401 he had a grant from bishop Skirlaw of 
a lease for twelve years of certain lead mines in Weardale. Henry IV., in 1405, granted him, for his losses and services 
in the late rebellion of the earl of Northumberland and others, the manors of Aclome and Kirklevington in Cleveland, 
and a place called the Foucher house, in Whickham, all of which had been forfeited by the earl of Northumberland and 
Henry Boynton. In the same year Thomas Griffith conveyed to him, Agnes his wife and others, his manor of Witton- 
on-the-Water, as well as all the lands he possessed in Witton, Wyndegates, Wotton, Stanton, Horsley, Gerardlee, 
Stannington, Benton, Killing^orth, Belsey, Shotton, Plessy, and Trenwell. 

Thornton's foundation of the hospital of St. Catherine on the Sandhill has been briefly recorded in a previous 
chapter (see pages 12 and 13), but this seems a suitable place in which to translate the more important portions of the 
documents which record that foundation. In 1403 Henry IV. granted the following licence to Thornton : 

" Henry by the grace of God king of England abd France, and lord of Ireland, to all to whom the present 
letters shall come, greeting. Of our special grace, and for ten shillings which Roger Thornton, burgess of the 
town of New Castle upon Tyne has paid to us in the hanaper of our exchequer, we have granted and given licence 
for us and our heirs, as much as in us is, to the same Roger, that he may be able to give and assign, to the mayor, 
sheriff and aldermen of the town aforesaid, one hundred feet of land in length and twenty-four feet of land in 
breadth, with the appurtenances, in the same town, which are held of us in burgage as it is called, to have and to 
hold to themselves and their successors, in order to provide certain poor persons with food and clothing in a certain 
Domus Dei, to be built by the said Roger on the land aforesaid, who shall for ever pray on every day for our 
healthful estate and that of the mayor, sheriff and aldermen aforesaid, and of the commonalty of the town 
aforesaid, and of the said Roger, whilst we live, and for our souls when we shall depart from the light of this 
world ; as well as for the souls of the father and mother of the said Roger, and for the soub of all the benefiactors 
of the same house, according to the appointment of the said Roger, to be made on this behalf. ♦ ♦ ♦ Witnessed 
by myself at Westminster, the twelfth day of February in the fourth year of our reign." 

In 141 2 Thornton had the following licence from the king to found his hospital of St. Catherine and his chantry 
of St. Peter : 

"The King, &c. Know ye that of our special grace, and in consideration of a certain sum of money 
recently paid into our treasury, by our beloved Roger, we have granted and given licence, &c., to the aforesaid 

BB 



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290 

Words Promotor Ecclesiaruniy lib. AlUHalV, The words Promotor Ecclesiarum are not 
now to be found. However, had they been there still, I think they are but a weak 
Argument to prove that Robert Rhodes was buried here, when it is considered that he 
founded a Chantery in St. Nicholas^ that his own Soul, and his Wife's might be prayed 
for. For People were generally buried in the same Church, and near the very Place, 
where they erected a Chantery or an Altar.'* 

[I may interpolate Bourne in order to say that Rodes's residence in Newcastle 
wras v^ithin the parish of All Saints*; that from 1530 to 1534 the prior and 
convent of Durham maintained a chantry for Robert and Agnes Rodes ; and 
that the non-existence of a chantry founded by himself in that church, is re 

Roger, that he may be able to make anew, create, found and establish in perpetuity a certain hospital in honour 
of St. Catherine, in his certain messuage recently in part built by the said Roger, in a certain place called 
Le Sandkilly in our town of Newcastle upon Tyne, containing loo feet in length, [and J 40 feet in breadth, for 
one chaplain to celebrate every day divine service within the hospital aforesaid, for the healthful esUte of the 
said Roger whilst he lives, and for his soul when he shall depart from the light of this world, and for the soub of 
the father and mother of the said Roger, and of Agnes lately his wife ; as well as [for the souls] of their ancestors 
and children, and of all the faithful dead ; and for nine poor men and four poor women, constantly residing in 
the same hospital, according to the appointment of the said Roger, or his executors, to be made on this behalf. 
Also that that hospital shall exist in perpetuity by itself, private and incorporate, and also that the chaplain of 
the aforesaid hospital, for the time being, shall be the master of the said hospital ; and that the same chaplain 
and the aforesaid men and women shall be called the master, brethren and sisters of the hospital of St. Catherine, 
called Thornton s Hospital \Ti Newcastle upon Tyne; and that the master, brethren and sisters, and their successors, 
by the name of master, brethren and sisters of the Hospital of St. Catherine, called Thorntons Hospital in Newcastle 
upon Tyne, shall be persons capable and able to acquire, take and receive, and hold to themselves and their 
successors, keepers, brethren and sisters of the hospital aforesaid in perpetuity, all manner of lands, tenements, 
rents and services and other possessions whatsoever, from any persons whomsoever, the royal licence therein 
being first obtained. And also that the same master, &c., may be persons able to implead others, and to be 
impleaded by others, and to defend themselves in all manner of pleadings and disputes, by the name of master, 
brethren and sisters of the hospital of St. Catherine, called Thornton's Hospital in Newcastle upon Tyne. And 
it is permitted that they shall have a common seal to serve in perpetuity for the transactions and actions of the 
same hospital. And further, &c., we give licence, &c., to the aforesaid Roger, namely, that he shall be able to 
make, found and establish in perpetuity, a certain chantry for one chaplain to celebrate divine service every day, at 
the altar of the Blessed Peter, in the chapel of All Saints in the town aforesaid, for the estate and souls aforesaid, 
according to the appointment of the said Roger or his executors on this behalf to be made. We have granted 
also, &c., to the aforesaid Roger that he shall be able to give and assign, to the aforesaid master, brethren and 
sisters of the hospital aforesaid, his messuage aforesaid, with the appurtenances, which he holds of us in burgage, 
after the aforesaid hospiul shall be so made, founded and esublished, to have and to hold to themselves and their 
successors, both for their inhabitation and in aid of their maintenance in perpetuity. We have granted, moreover, 
&c., to the same Roger, that he, his heirs, assignes or executors may acquire to themselves lands, tenements and rents, 
with the appurtenances, to the value of ;^io per annum, either such as are held of us in burgage, or such as are 
not held of us, and shall be able proportionately to give, assign and grant them to the aforesaid master, brethren 
and sisters of the aforesaid hospital, and to the chaplain of the aforesaid chantry, when it shall be so founded and 
established, divided according to his discretion and limitation ; to have, &c., in perpetuity, &c. Witnessed by 
the king at Westminster, the loth day of June." 

The endowment does not seem to have been effected till 1424, and consisted of "ten messuages and ten tofts with 
their appurtenances in Newcastle upon Tjrne." 



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291 

garded by so good an authority as Mr. LongstaflFe as **not conclusive" that 
Rodes was buried elsewhere.] 

" But whoever it is, this I think may be safely concluded from the Grandeur of the 
Grave Stone^ that he was some wealthy Person ; and from his being Promotor Ecclesiarum^ 
that he was also Religious. 

" The Effigies is very Tall, and is surrounded with very curious Pictures of the Saints, 
and some other Things ; but the Brass is now tearing off, and going very fast into Ruin. 
It is a pity it should not have more care taken of it, as it is an Ornament to the Church, 
and the Monument of it's Benefactor. The Promoters of Churches should be always 
remembered with the most grateful Respect, that they may be shining Lights to the most 
distant Ages." 

Thornton's wife was Agnes Wanton, apparently an heiress, but of what family is not known. Her arms were, 
argenty a chevron and in base an annulet sable. A family of the same name in Essex bore, argent^ a chevron sable; and 
another family of Wantons in Huntingdonshire bore, argent^ a chevron and in dexter chief point an annulet sable. The 
only incident in her life which has come down to our times is recorded in the following passage from Jacob's " History of 
Faversham " : 

" It is recorded in the red book of Faversham, that on Wednesday after the feast of St. Alphage, 2 Hen. IV. A.D. 
140 1, William Clerk, hosier, fled to the church of St. Saviour, of Faversham, for sanctuary, and desired the coroner. On 
which W. Ledys, ma*" and coroner of the Lord the King for that purpose, went to the aforesaid place, and before him, 
on the day and place abovesaid, he acknowledged himself a felon of the Lord the King, and confessed that, on Sunday, 
on the feast of St. Stephen in that said year of our Lord the King, he feloniously stole from Agnes Thornton, of Newcastle 
upon Tyne, one pair of beads, value two shillings, and desired, according to the law and custom of England, he might be 
delivered from the church ; on which being led to the door of the church, he abjured the King of England before the 
said coroner, who assigned him the port of Dover for his passage out of it." 

Leland ascribes the erection of "the Towne Haulle" of Newcastle to Thornton, and the mart3rrology of Newminster 
states that he built the castle of Witton. If tradition may be trusted, he was also the builder of the West Gate. 

Thornton died on the 3rd January, 1430. The inquisitions held after his death show that he was possessed of 
property in London, in Yorkshire, and in the counties of Northumberland and Durham. His possessions in Newcastle 
were very extensive. All these are enumerated by Mr. Welford in his " History of Newcastle " (i. pp. 284-287), by 
whom, also, in the same volume, Thornton's interesting will is printed (pp. 281-284). 




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ST. MARY'S CHAPEL, JESMOND. 

Jesmond is the Kensington of our northern metropolis. But Jesmond has 
what Kensington has not. It has a glorious **dene.'' Poets have sung its 
sylvan charms. Artists never tire of depicting its delightful scenery. It is at 
once a park, a garden, and a secluded rural vale. And yet, so near is it to our 
city, that children from the crowded streets know and find their way thither, 
and the breeze which rustles amongst the trees carries the hum of a great 
population's industry. 

The "wov A Jesmond^ like all other place names, has changed as the centuries 
have passed by. And it has grown more euphonious, until now its very sound 
seems to suggest all that is sweet and soft of nature's tints and melodies. But 
it is a name which has been strangely misunderstood. The writer of Murray's 
" Handbook to Durham and Northumberland " mentions the pilgrims who 
formerly came "to Jesus Mount, now Jesmond (Jesu munde)."* The error is 
an old one ; but as long ago as 1827, John Hodgson, the historian of North- 
umberland, pointed out that Jesmond, anciently C2\\tAJesemuthe^ means simply 
the mouth of the Ews- or Ouse-hnvn. 

Besides its dene, Jesmond has its holy-well, its ancient mill, and its "Free 
Chapel of the Blessed Virgin." Of the well. Bourne tells almost all that we 
authentically know. Writing about 1730, he says, 

" St. Mary's Well in this Village, which is said to have had as many Steps down to 
it, as there are Articles in the Creed, was lately inclosed by Mr. Coulson for a Bathing- 
Place; which was no sooner done than the Water left it. This occasioned strange 
Whispers in the Village and the adjacent Places. The Well was always esteemed of more 
Sanctity than common Wells, and therefore the Failing of the Water could be looked 
upon as nothing less than a just Revenge for so great a Prophanation. But alas! the 
Miracle's at an End, for the Water returned a-while ago in as great Abundance as ever." 

• Brand says, " There is said to have been an artificial mount at or near this village, on which a cross or some 
image of Christ stood, from whence the place is thought to have derived its name." He wisely adds, however, •* Sed 
quaere." 



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PbotoXitkagrapk«d&nnDt*<] by James Akrrmao.S.QucM Sqaare.W C 



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A mill existed at this place as early as the seventh year of the reign of king 
John (1205-6), when William de Bikere paid five marks for his share of thie 
mill of Gesemue. A water mill existed here in 1396. 

But the chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary is our present subject. It is an 
ivy-clad ruin, near the famed ** holy well." It is left, to a large extent, to reveal 
its own history, for its written records are extremely scanty. When we carefully 
examine the existing parts of the edifice, we find that they exhibit work of three 
periods. The oldest portions are of Norman date, and were built about the 
middle of the twelfth century. The jambs of the chancel arch, and part of the 
south wall of both nave and chancel, are of this period. On the north side the 
arch sprung from a massive cushioned capital, whilst the capital on the south side 
bears a rude and early form of the volute. The voussoirs of the arch, of which 
only two or three now remain, were adorned with roll and chevron mouldings. 
High up in the south wall of the chancel, and near its west end, one jamb of 
an original Norman window still remains. The nave is almost totally destroyed, 
but excavation would probably reveal its foundations. During the prevalence 
of the Decorated style, the chancel at least was almost entirely rebuilt, and the 
whole of the chapel on its north side is also of this period ; but whether the 
Norman chancel had a northern chapel, we cannot say. At the same time the 
chancel arch underwent a singular transformation. The arch itself was taken 
down, five courses of new masonry were raised upon the original capitals, and 
on this later masonry the arch was re-erected. The east window, of three lights, 
and the two-light window in the south wall, nearest the east end, are of the same 
date. After this the chapel remained unaltered, except that during the Perpen- 
dicular period several new windows were inserted. 

At an early date the manor of Jesmond seems to have been divided into 
three parts, and the owner of each portion held also a third part of the advowson 
of the chapel. The first mention of the chapel in written history occurs in the 
register of bishop Hatfield, who, on the 12th June, 1351, instituted William de 
Heighington into the chaplaincy of "the free chapel of Jesmuth, within the 
parish of Newcastle,'* on the presentation of Sir Alexander Hilton, and his wife 



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Margaret. Heighington's title, or that of his patrons, seems to have been 
disputed, for, on the 27th of the following month, he renounced *^all right and 
every kind of authority which he had in or to the said chapel, or which he might 
have in the future, declaring that he had not, and never had at any time, any 
title in this matter." In 1369 Sir Alexander Hilton died, seized, conjointly 
with his wife, of a third part of the manor and a third part of the advowson of 
the chapel of Jesmond. From various Inquisitiones post mortem we learn that 
at one time or other the Stryvelyns, the Middletons, the Monbouchers, the 
Harbottles, and the Askes had similar rights in the manor and chapel. Beyond 
these slight notices, and the records of the institution of two or three chaplains, 
we know nothing of the history of Jesmond chapel till the time of the dissolu- 
tion of chantries. The last chaplain, William Weldon, or Welton, was instituted 
on the 2ist April, 1526. In the "Certificate of the Names of all the late 
Chauntryes, Stipendaryes, Salarys, Perpetuytes, Freechapels, Gyldes, Brother- 
heddes, Obytes, Lyghtes, and suche other, wythin the seyd countye of 
Northumberland,*' dated 14th February, 1548, we find the following account 
of this chapel : 

** The Free Chappell of Our Lady of Jesmonde within the sayd Parishe of Saint 

Androwe. Welton, Incumbent, who is not resident there, nor no Devyne service 

used, being in distance from the parishe churche ij. myles and more. Noe landes, nor 
tenements solde sithe xxiij. daye of November, in the xxxviij*** yere of the reygne of our 
late Soveraign Lorde King Henry the viii"*. • • • Plate, none. Groodes, none." 

In 1549, Edward VI. granted the free chapel of the Blessed Mary of 
Jesmond, with all its walls, stones, timber, and lead to the mayor and burgesses 
of Newcastle, from whom, fortunately, it soon passed into private hands. In 
Brand's time the body of the edifice was used as a bam, and the chapel on the 
north of the chancel was turned into a stable. 

It is a singular fact, considered in connection with the tripartite division 
of the manor and advowson of the chapel, that in the walls of the existing ruin 
there are still three piscinas. Each piscina, of course, implies a distinct altar^ 
and the suggestion occurs to my mind that each lord of the divided manor 
probably maintained a chantry. 



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That the chapel of Jesmond was a shrine resorted to by pilgrims is certain. 
William Ecopp, the rector of Heslarton, in Yorkshire, made his will on the 6th 
September, 1472, wherein he provides that immediately after his burial, one or 
more pilgrims shall set out to visit various shrines, at each of which the sum of 
one groat was to be offered on behalf of the testator's soul. The will enumer- 
ates the shrines whereunto the pilgrims were to bend their steps, and amongst 
the rest is that of the Blessed Mary of Jesmownt. 




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THE HOSPITALS OF GATESHEAD.* 

The Hospital of the Holy Trinity. 

About the end of the twelfth century a chapel and hospital, dedicated 
to the Holy Trinity, existed at Gateshead. The date of its foundation is 
unknown, as is also the name of the founder. It was afterwards united with 
the hospital of St. Edmund, Bishop and C6nfessor. All that we know of the 
history of the older house we leam from three or four grants of land to it. 
Of these the following paragraphs are abstracts. 

* The one subject on which our local historians have pre-eminently blundered is that of the hospitals of Gateshead. 
Two distinct and independent foundations have, in their pages, been rolled into one. The confusion which has arisen 
from documents and events which relate to different establishments being ascribed to one institution is perplexing and 
appalling beyond description. Hutchinson, whose account of the Gateshead hospitals is as confused as it would be easily 
possible for anything to be, hazarded the conjecture that "from all the uncertainties noted in the account of St. Edmund's, 
it is probable * * * that there were two hospitals, one dedicated to St. Edmund the Bishop, and the other to St. 
Edmund, King and Martjn*, in distinct and distant situations ; " and he adds presently that "there is an irreconcileable 
confusion in this subject, and we are apt to believe there were two religious foundations here, dedicated as before noted." 
But he makes no attempt to clear up the difficulty, and declares that, "not having other records to refer to in support of 
the idea, we leave the conjecttu-es for the reader's application." Brand's account of the hospitals is as confused as 
Hutchinson's, but he naively ignores the confusion. Surtees is scarcely in advance of his predecessors. He says, however, 
that "either Hutchinson's supposition must be admitted, that there existed two contemporary foundations, * * * or 
else it must be conjectured, //r^d^x with mon probability^ that at the dissolution some small portion of the endowment of 
St. Edmund's was suffered to retain its original destination, for the support of a chantry or hospital." Mackenzie, whose 
design and resources were incompatible with original research, and whose capacity seems to have been incompatible with 
an original idea, merely paraphrases Surtees. Even Mr. Welford, whose acumen in the analysis of facts and documents 
is evident in every page of his volumes, leaves this question exactly where he found it. Mr. Longstaffe alone, in sundry 
brief footnotes to a paper by Mr. W. H. Brockett in the sixth volume of "Archaeologia iEliana," and in his edition of 
"Ambrose Barnes," places the matter in a correct light. It falls to my lot to sketch, for the first time, the separate history 
of the Gateshead hospitals of St. Edmund, Bishop and Confissor^ and St. Edmund, Ki$ig and Martyr. 

That the two hospitals existed contemporaneously there has always been abundant evidence. In bishop Hatfield s 
Survey, under the head of Gateshead, we read, " the master of the hospital of St. Edmund thi King holds one place in 
order to have a certain way-leave from the hospital to Frergos, through the lord's park there, and pays at equal terms, 
4d. ; " and, a few linel below, "the keeper of the chantry of the Holy Trinity in the hospital of St. Edmund thi Confessor 
holds two messuages, at one time Alan Preste's, and pays per annum, 2s. 6d." And in a list of the persons who attended 
a synod in the Galilee of Durham Cathedral on the 4th October, 1507, both "the master of the hospital of St. Edmund 
thi Bishop in Gateshevid," and "the master of the hospital of St. Edmund thi King in the same place," are mentioned. 
But the most convincing fact, though it has been strangely overlooked, is the perfect distinction between the endowments. 
The whole of the possessions of the dissolved hospital of St. Edmund thi Bishop are enumerated amongst those of the 
Benedictine nunnery of Newcastle, and no part of thisi has iver ban hild by thi ixisting hospital of St. Edmund thi King, 
And no part of the endowment of the latter hospital, as enumerated in James the First's charter of re-foundation, or as 
now actually possessed, is ever mentioned in connection with the hospital of St. Edmund thi Bishop. But, besides all 
this, until the year 181 1, the chapels of the two hospitals, both structures of the thirteenth century, were still in existence. 



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Osmund, the son of Hamon of Gatesheude, gave to the chapel of the 
Holy Trinity of Gatesheud four acres of cultivated land in the Harleia,* on the 
south side, near to the wood of Benchehelm, being part of the farm (cultura) 
which he had received from bishop Philip in exchange for Hulkestan (Ouston). 
Philip de Pictavia was bishop of Durham from 1197 to 1208, and it was during 
this period that Osmund's grant was made. Gerard, son of Geve, spoken of 
in the next grant as procurator of the hospital, is one of the witnesses to 
Osmund's charter. 

About the same time Baldwin with the Head (Baldewinus cum Capite) 
gave to the hospital of the Holy Trinity of Gateshead, and to Gerard, the son 
of Geve, master (procurator) of that hospital, and to the other brethren serving 
God therein, seventeen acres of land, lying on the south side of the farm which 
is called Alrisbume, paying yearly for the same for ever eight pence to the 
bridge of Tyne, namely, four pence at the feast of St. Martin and four pence 
at Pentecost. The first witness to this grant is Osmund, son of Hamon. 

The estate of Baldwin cum Capite passed to two daughters, his co- 
heiresses, who also were benefactors to the hospital. Alice de Quicham 
(Whickham), one of these daughters, in her widowhood, gave to the hospital of 
the Holy Trinity in the borough of Gateshead, all the land in the territory of 
Quicham which belonged to her by hereditary right, and which had previously 
formed part of the tenement of Baldwin with the Head, her father, except 
three acres of land in the same tenement, which she had previously given to 
her sister. Alienor, and which the said Alienor, in her widowhood, and with 
her consent, had given to the said hospital. The charter goes on to say that 
the donor made this gift in consideration of four marks of silver, which the 
executors of Adam de Merley had given her, in the time of her necessity, in 
accordance with the will of the said Adam. 

Baldwin's other daughter. Alienor, formerly the wife of Symon de Lam- 
ford, makes a grant similar to that of Alice, but gives, in addition, the three 

* I am inclined to consider the Harleia of Osmund's charter as probably identical with the Harles of Redheugh 
which are mentioned at a much later date. In the parish accounts of Gateshead for the year 1626, I find : ** Recaved of 
Mr. Thomas Ledelle ffor the Harlles beloninge to the Redhuth, 6s. 8d." 

CC 



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acres which she had received from her sister, and does all this in consideration 
of five marks of silver, which, in the time of her great necessity, she had 
received from the executors of Adam de Merley, in accordance with his will. 
The charters of the two sisters are witnessed by the same persons, and were 
evidently executed at the same time. 

Bishop Richard de Marisco, in 1222, confirmed the gift of the vill of 
Kyhov (Kyo in the parish of Lanchester) to the hospital of the Holy Trinity of 
Gatesheued, a gift which had been made by Henry de Ferlinton. The 
establishment at that time consisted of a chaplain and three poor men. 

The Hospital of St. Edmund, Bishop and Confessor. 

Bishop Nicholas de Farnham was the founder of this hospital. The 
foundation charter was confirmed by prior Bertram de Middleton, who was 
elected to the priorate in 1244 ; and, as Farnham resigned the see in 1249, ^^ 
was during the interval between these dates that the hospital was founded. Of 
this charter the following are the most important clauses : 

" To all the feithful people of Christ who shall see or hear the present charter, Nicholas, 
by the grace of God, bishop of Durham, sends greeting in the Lord. Know ye that we 
with the consent of our chapter have granted, given, and, by this our charter, confirmed, 
to God, and to the blessed Edmund the Confessor, and to the four chaplains in the chapel 
which we have built (construximus) at Grateshead in his honour, serving God there for 
ever, all the vill of Ulkistan (Ouston), both in lordships and in services, with the villans 
and their goods, with the wood and the mill, with suit and soc, and with all other its 
appurtenances, without any retention. We give also and grant to the same chaplains 
and their successors for ever, all the old lordship of Gatesheved, with all its appurtenances, 
and with the wood which is called Benchelm containing 43 acres, by these bounds, 
namely, between the arable land of the Holy Trinity and the way which leads to Farnacres, 
to be held as meadow. We give and grant to the same chaplains and their successors for 
ever 29 acres of land of our escheats, with their appurtenances in Aluresacyres, to have 
and hold to God and to the blessed Edmund the Confessor, and to the said chaplains and 
their successors for ever of us and our successors, in free, pure and perpetual charity, as 
any charity may be freely and quietly given or held." 

Farnham 's charter of ordination of the hospital throws considerable light 
on its internal life, and is altogether a document of the highest interest. I 
translate the principal portions : 



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** To all the sons of holy mother church to whom the present writing shall come, 
Nicholas by Divine grace bishop of Durham sends greeting in the Lord everlasting. 
• • • We decree and ordain that in the chapel which, at Gateshead, to the honour of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, in the name of the Blessed Edmund the Confessor and of the 
glorious bishop Cuthbert we have founded, dedicated and endowed, for the salvation of 
our soul [and of the souls] of our predecessors and successors, there may be at all times 
four priests of good life and honest conversation ministering, namely, a presbyter to whom 
we commit the custody of the chapel aforesaid and of all things belonging thereto whilst 
he shall live, with three other priests associated with the same presbyter, but with the 
additional condition, that on all days, for ever, they sing matins and other canonical hours 
at the same time ; and four masses shall be celebrated every day, by one priest [the mass] 
of God, by another [the mass] of the Blessed Virgin, by the third that of the blessed 
confessors Edmund and Cuthbert, and by the fourth [the mass] for our soul [and for the 
souls] of our predecessors and successors and of all the feithful dead, with Commendation, 
Placebo and Dirge. And the aforesaid four priests shall eat at the same table, and sleep 
in the same chamber, except some disease at any time will not permit a sick brother to 
remain amongst them. And the aforesaid three priests shall be obedient to the aforesaid 
master of the house and his successors, and shall each one, besides an honourable board, 
receive from him yearly twenty shillings in order to provide himself with vestments 
and other necessaries. If any one of them, by diabolic instinct, shall be given to incon- 
tinently wandering about, or living in any other disorderly way, and, being admonished 
by the Master for the time being, shall persist in his wickedness,* he shall be removed by 
the same Master without the requisition of the superior, and in his place without further 
cost another priest shall be substituted. Besides this, as there is a certain chapel of the 
Trinity, and to its maintenance, a sustenance had been assigned which was poor and 
meagre, so that the inmates lived neither secularly nor religiously, that it may be under- 
stood how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity, with the 
consent of the prior and convent of Durham, and of those who have been accustomed to 
live in the aforesaid chapel, we have consolidated the aforesaid chapel, with its appur- 
tenances, by the aforesaid authority, with the aforesaid chapel which we have founded. 

** We also ordain and decree that the bishops of Durham for the time being shall be 
the patrons, advocates and defenders of the aforesaid place, and of all things belonging 
thereto, and that by them the masters shall be at all times instituted, that is, the 

♦ In mtUitiaperduraverit. Brand had the misfortune to misprint " m/litia" for ** nwlitia," and this slip, for it could 
be nothing else, gave Surtees occasion for one of those charming notes which brighten his pages, as the pages of no 
other English topographer are brightened. 

Surtees loquitur. '* * Si quis, diabolico instinctu incontinens, vagabundus^ &c., in sua malitia perduraverit,' &c. 
For obvious reasons, no offence which a monastic could commit was held more scandalous than that of deserting hi& 
convent (an act which was indeed very likely to lead to every other irregularity) ; but for mflitia (Brand, p. 467, note,, 
line 6,) read malitia ; for though the monk who had cleared the pales of his convent, and was scampering like a stray 
deer through the mingled sweet briars and quicksets of the secular world, might be well said to persist m miliHa sua^ in 
the service in which he had engaged, * under the sooty flag of Acheron,' or not less expressively, according to the Scotch 
divine, * under the brode banner of Black Sanctus,* yet the metaphor is generally applied by divines, ancient and modern, 
in miliorem parUm^ [to] the Christian warfare, the church militant, &c. ; and the stray monk is therefore rather repre- 
sented as hardening his heart, and persisting in malUta sua^ with obstinate endurance and malice a/onthougkty 



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presbyters residing under his oversight in the place aforesaid. But if any master 
instituted to the government of the house shall be negligent, or shall otherwise become 
useless, he shall be removed by the bishop of Durham for the time being, and one who is 
worthy shall be preferred to the government of the house without delay. But if it shall 
happen to any keeper who praiseworthily had before governed the aforesaid house to fell 
into such debility through disease or age that, on account of his infirmity, another is 
preferred to the same place, the one so removed from government for honourable reasons 
shall be sustained in the necessaries of life out of the goods of the house, if he cannot be 
sustained by any other means, and the same shall be observed with the priests, to whom 
the aforesaid cases shall happen." 

An early benefactor to the consolidated hospital was John de Coquina, 
or, as Surtees calls him, John of the Kitchen, a burgess of Gateshead who gave 
land in Gateshead, lopposite **the vennel which is called Waldeschere,'' **to 
God and the blessed Edmund the Cohfessor of Gatisheved and to Hugh de 
Segrave keeper of the chapel of the said blessed Edmund.*' He was probably 
the John de Coquina who witnessed the charters of the daughters of Baldwin 
with the Head. On the 19th September, 13 16, the will of another John de 
Coquina, a priest, was proved in the chapel of St. Edmund the Confessor of 
Gateshead. In this will was the clause, *' I give and bequeath to the house of 
the Holy Trinity and of St. Edmund the Confessor, half a mark of yearly rent.'* 
John de Denton was then master. 

Denton died about the end of the year 1325, and on the ist February in 

the following year the domestic and ecclesiastical chattels of the hospital were 

handed over to his successor. The document which records this event is of 

too great interest to be abridged. I translate from the pages of bishop Kellaw's 

register. 

*' This tripartite indenture testifies, that on the vigil of the Purification of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, in the year of our lord [M] ccc™®. twenty five, the following gifts were 
delivered to the reverend father, Sir Rouland, archbishop of Armagh, keeper of the hospital 
of St. Edmund the Confessor, in Gatesheved, by Sir John de PoUowe and John de Der- 
lington, executors of the will of Sir John de Denton, recently keeper of the same hospital, 
deceased, in the presence of Sir Peter de Mainford, then the sequestrator general of the 

lord bishop of Durham, and of Mr. Blaykiston, then his sequestrator. In primis, 

in the chapel, two gilded chalices, four vestments, of which one is better, with a tunic and 
a dalmatic, the gift of Sir John de Denton, and three other vestments, [and] a chasuble 
greatly worn. Item, one alb by itself, with a stole and a maniple, the gift of the same 



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Sir John, four and a dalmatic, [and] two copes of silk. In the choir, two missals, 

of which the better is the gift of Sir John, one manual, three antiphonars, two gradales, 
and a third one (good), the gift of the same Sir John, one legenda, two collectaria, one 
ordinal, two psalters, a third, the gift of the same Sir John, six consecrated towels (tuealia 
benedicta), of which the two better ones are the gift of the same Sir John, one frontal of 
carpet (de chaloniis), four surplices greatly worn, one thurible of tin, two metal candlesticks, 
four phials. In the buttery, four worn napkins, one long towel, three worn napkins 
(savenapes), seven silver spoons, of which three are broken and worn, six tubs, one large 
tub, one brass saltsellar, two hempen napkins for boys, and two chests. In the hall, one 
lavatory, with a foot bath, two tables. In the kitchen, two small cracked pots, a vessel 
containing four flagons (una patella continens quatuor lagenas), a gridiron, a trivet, with 
three stone mortars. In the brew-house, two leaden cauldrons fixed in the earth, one 
large vat for brewing, with six smaller ones. In the bakehouse, two hand mills, a trough, 
with cover and vat. In the granary, twenty-two quarters and seven bushels of grain in 
sheaf by estimation, ten quarters of pease, four quarters of barley, twenty quarters of oats ■ 
by estimation as before. In the byre, sixteen oxen and three beasts of burden (afri), each 
worth 13s. 4d. In the pig-sty, eight pigs, each worth 2s. In the court, two carts shod 
with iron, two waggons not shod. In the field, 72 acres of land sown with grain. Item, 
legacies to the aforesaid hospital [bequeathed] by the said Sir John de Denton, deceased. — 
Imprimis, one baudekin of silk, one vestment, two large brass pots, one great mazer cup, 
six silver spoons, one good breviary (portiforium), and one missal. Item, there was deli- 
vered to the lord archbishop aforesaid, the following writings — namely, a certain writing 
concerning the ordination of the chapel of the Blessed Edmund."* 

For more than a hundred years the records of the hospital contain nothing 
beyond the appointment of masters and a few transactions in reference to the 
lands of the house. In 1448, however, bishop Neville appropriated the hospital, 
with all its possessions, to the nunnery of St. Bartholomew in Newcastle. The 
charter by which this appropriation was effected, dated 7th October, in the 
year just named, sets forth that the bishop had received a petition from the . 
prioress and nuns, in which it was stated that the income of their house, by 
reason of fire ** and other misfortunes of the world,** and especially by the non- 
payment of an annual pension of two marks, formerly received from the rectory 
of Washington, was insufficient to support the nuns and their servants, to main- 
tain their accustomed hospitality, and to keep their houses and buildings in 
repair. It was true that the bishop had assigned an equal pension from the 
church of Ryton in lieu of the lost income from Washington, but this, in conse- 
quence of the litigious proceedings of the curate, the nuns had never received. 

* This document tenninates abruptly, and is evidently incomplete. 



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For these reasons, the bishop, with the consent of the prior and chapter of 
Durham, annexed, united, and incorporated the chapel of St. Edmund the 
Bishop in Gateshead with the monastery of St. Bartholomew in Newcastle. So 
soon as the master or keeper of the chapel should leave, remove, resign, or be 
removed, the prioress and convent were to enter upon real possession thereof. 
The claim to the pension from Ryton was to be abandoned. The prioress and 
convent at their own costs were to find two chaplains of good life and honest 
conversation to say mass and other divine offices every day in all future time in 
the same chapel of St. Edmund, for the souls of its founders. The nuns were 
also to maintain the chapel and other buildings belonging thereto in sufficient 
repair, and to discharge all ordinary and extraordinary burdens incumbent on 
the chapel. Lastly, they were in all future times to pay a yearly pension of 
6s. 8d. to the bishop of Durham, and a pension of 3s. 4d. to the prior and 
convent. 

On the 20th October, in the same year, the prioress executed a deed of 
obligation to pay the required pension to the prior and convent of Durham. 
She would also execute a similar deed on the bishop's behalf. 

On the 1st May, 1449, an indenture was made "between William Hilder- 
skelfe, perpetual chaplain, keeper or master of the free chapel or hospital of 
St. Edmund the Bishop in Gatesheved in the county of Durham, of the one 
part, and Margaret Hawkeswell, prioress of the house and Church of St. Bar- 
tholomew the Apostle, in the town of Newcastle upon Tyne and the convent 
of the same place, of the other part,'* by which the master confirmed to the 
nuns all that the bishop had previously granted, but required them to find a 
suitable presbyter or chaplain to celebrate divine service every day in the said 
chapel or hospital for the souls of its founders and benefactors, and for the souls 
of their ancestors and heirs, and also for the good estate of Robert, bishop of 
Durham, whilst he lived, and for his soul after his death, as well as for the souls 
of all the bishop's predecessors and successors, of all their benefactors, and of 
all the faithful dead. The nuns were also required to find, either after the 
death of the said Hilderskelfe or after his promotion to some ecclesiastical 



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benefice of the value of ;^io a year, a second suitable presbjrter to celebrate 
divine services every day, for the estate and souls aforesaid, in the said church 
of St. Bartholomew, in the presence of the nuns of that house. The bishop 
confirmed this indenture on the 7th October, 1449, and on the i6th November, 
1458, the pope issued a bull endorsing with his approval the whole of these 
transactions, and threatening all who should infringe upon the privileges of the 
prioress and her nuns with the indignation of Almighty God and of the blessed 
apostles Peter and Paul. 

On the 3rd January, 1540, the nunnery of St. Bartholomew, with all its 
possessions, was surrendered into the king's hands by Agnes Lawson, the last 
prioress, who was allowed to reside for the rest of her life in the hospital of 
St. Edmund. She died there in 1565. In a valuation of the lands of the 
nunnery, those of the hospital are included. The latter are given as follows : 

Item, the Hospytall of Sanct Edmund the Busshop and Confessor, by yer, £\2. 

It.' a tenure and clos in the hands of Henry Anderson, by yer, 6s. 8d. 

It* a tenyre in the hands of the Prests of Farnacres, by yer, 13s. 4d. 

It* in Whikham, a tenire in the hands of Thomas Pendrat and his faJo, by yer, 6s. 

It* a tenire in Usworth, in the hands of Thomas Harle, by yer, 8s. 4d. 

It* a tenire in Kyo, in the hands of Robart Marlay and Wyllm Lawes, by yer, £2, is. 

It* Ulston, by yer, £ii, 13s. 4d. 

On the 9th March, 1544, John Hochonson, or Hutchinson, was appointed 
priest of the chantry of the Holy Trinity in St. Edmund's chapel, and the bailiflF 
and burgesses of Gateshead were declared to be the true patrons of the chantry. 
Hutchinson also held the chantry of the Holy Trinity in St. Mary's. 

The subsequent history of the lands of the hospital, especially of those 
portions known in later times as the Town Fields and the Windmill Hill, is of 
absorbing and almost romantic interest, even down to very recent years ; but 
this subject does not fall within the scope of this chapter, and is reserved for 
another place. 

Of this hospital the chapel still exists. There is no evidence that it was 
used for the purposes of religious worship after the suppression of the nunnery 
of Newcastle. It appears to have gradually fallen into decay, and engravings 
of the last and early part of this century, represent it as a roofless ruin. In the 



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year 1837 it was ^'restored/' Mr. Cuthbert Ellison, of Hebburn Hall, to whom 
it belonged, gave it to the rector and churchwardens of Gateshead, pn the 
express condition that it should not at any future time be altered or enlarged. 
Its entire demolition was threatened a few years ago, in order to make way for 
the new edifice of a ** church extension*' movement. This project was success- 
fully resisted, but it is now intended to take away the north wall and turn the 
present chapel into the south aisle of a new church, — a proceeding, it need 
scarcely be said, which will totally destroy its character. 

The whole chapel is of one date, and was undoubtedly built by bishop 
Famham. The west front has a deeply recessed central doorway, flanked by 
two tiers or arcades, whilst over these is an upper arcade, the alternate recesses 
of which are pierced by lancet Hghts. The whole front, though it presents in 
a marked degree the hardness of the restorer's work, is of the most striking and 
effective character, and, whilst exquisitely beautiful in the simplicity of its v 
general design, possesses details, especially in its mouldings, of the richest 
description. The side walls have each five tall lancet windows, with nook 
shafts at the external angles. In the north wall are two closed up doorways, 
which formerly, no doubt, communicated with the domestic buildings of the 
hospital. The east gable is lighted by a triplet of lancets. The only ancient 
memorial of the departed which now exists here, is a large stone slab, which has 
once been inlaid with brass. It is fixed to the wall on the south side of the 
yard in front of the chapel. 

The Hospital of St. Edmund, King and Martyr. 

This hospital, like that of St. Edmund the Confessor, appears to have been 
founded by the bishops of Durham. Of the period of its foundation we know 
nothing. The earliest reference to it which I have seen occurs in the register 
of bishop Kellaw, who, on the nth of June, 1315, appointed Hugh de Loking- 
ton, priest, to the custody and mastership of **the hospital of St. Edmund, 
King and Martyr, situate in our town of Gatesheved." I have met with no 
further appointment till 1353, when bishop Hatfield instituted John de Apilby 



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305 

as master, rector, and keeper of this hospital. Eight years afterwards Apilby 
occurs as paying los. at the Halmot Court held at Chester-le-Street for a right 
of road from the manor of Freregose* through the bishop's park at Gatesheved 
to his hospital. This payment was to cover the right for the whole of Apilby's 
life. His successors, as we learn from Hatfield's Survey, paid 4d. a year for 
the same privilege. 

In 1378, bishop Hatfield gave to William de Brantyngham, keeper of the 
hospital of St. Edmund the King at Gateshead, and to his successors, three 
cottages, within the soil of the said hospital, two of which had previously 
belonged to Julian de Jarowe, and the third to John de Abirforth. These 
cottages were to be held "in pure and perpetual charity to the aforesaid 
William, keeper of the hospital aforesaid, and to his successors, the brethren, 
sisters J and poor people of the hospital aforesaid,'* who were required for ever 
"to make, celebrate, and pray, for us and our predecessors, the founders of the 
hospital aforesaid, and also for our successors, the masses, prayers and other 
Divine services, used before this time, and appointed to be oflFered according 
to the ordination of the founders of the hospital aforesaid." The document 
from which I quote thus oflfers early evidence that the bishops of Durham were 
the actual founders of this second hospital of St. Edmund, and that, at least 
during the episcopacy of Hatfield, women were included in the establishment. 

* Friar's Goose still forms part of the hospital endowment. As to the origin of this singular field name, 
I can only offer the conjecture, which I think exceedingly probable, of my friend, Mr. R. O. Heslop. In a letter 
to me he says : 

<* I have only a guess to make in attempting to solve the curious name, Friar's Goose. I suppose some word has 
been dropped. The original name in full would thus read — * Friar's Goose [Croft] ' or * Friar's Goose [fields].' In 
colloquial use this would readily suffer attrition and be spoken * Friar's Goose ; ' and, presently, so written. 

"That such conjecture is not improbable, I may illustrate by the fact that in the ancient town fields of Corbridge 
a * Goose-croft' existed. When the common fields were divided, this portion was put down in the survey as measuring 
8a. 2r. up. — no inconsiderable place. 

" Portions of land suitable for feeding geese are necessarily rare. Conditions of watering and of pasture are 
required, which are only found in specially favoured localities. These conditions are so marked as to impress an 
enduring place-name on the particular spot. To this day * Goscroft lane ' at Corbridge perpetuates the ancient Goose- 
croft. 

"This may have been the case at Friar's Goose. If you can recall the former conditions of the place, before the 
days of alkali works, you can imagine the *Nest House* looked down on the little stream and on the goose fields of the 
brethren. To a late period such a spot was likely to preserve a distinctive character, and with that its name. 

"It is always called familiarly *The Geyva* (The Goose) on T)meside, and this has invariably suggested, when I 
have heard it, some word understood — say, *The Geyus Croft,'" 

DD 



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After this, except the appointment, in 1399, of Reginald Porter, rector of 
Pittington, as master, on the express condition that **the nature or foundation 
of the said hospital should be in no way changed," I find no record of its history 
till we reach the reign of Henry VIII. In 1544, Anthony Bellassis, a great 
pluralist, was master. In 1546, the following account of this hospital occurs 
amongst the certificates of colleges and chantries in the counties of Northum- 
berland and Durham : 

" The hospitalle of St. Edmund, in the parish of Gatishedde, was founded by the 
predecessors of the bushoppes of Durham by reporte, but to what intent or purpose we 
know not^ for we have not sene the foundation therof. Yerely value 109s. 4d. — value 
accordyng to this survey 81. as apereth by a rentall, wherof is paid out of the Kinge's 
majesties tenthes 12s. 3d. and remayneth clerly 7L 7s. 9d. which Doctor Bellases, now mas- 
ter of the same, hath towardes hys lyvyng, and giveth out of the same four marks by the 
year to a prieste, to say masse there twyse in the weke, for the commoditie and easement 
of the parishioners that do dwelle fan* from the parishe churche. — It standeth about halfe 
a myle distant from the parishe churche of Gatishedde aforsaid — value of ornaments, &c. 
nil. — ^for ther be neither goods, catalls, ne ornaments appertaining to the same to our 
knowlege. — Ther were no other landes nor yerely profitts &c.'* 

The unfortunate incumbent, under Anthony Bellassis, was one Robert 
L3msey. In the certificate of chantries, etc., in the county of Durham, in 1548, 
we have the following entry : 

" The service of one preste within the Ospitall of Saincte Edmonde, for terme of 
xcix. yeres, as appereth by indent., dat. xij. Aug. a<* xxix H. VIQ. Incumbent, Robt. 
Lynsey. The yerelie revenue, iiij/i. xiij^. iiijd. Stocke, &c. none. Leade upon the same 
chapell, conteyninge clx. square yerds of good webe, ponderis by est., after the rate of 
Ixvij. li. in every yerde, iiij. ff. iij. qr. ff. dim. c*** and xxiiij. li." 

In 1552, on the death of Bellassis, Robert Claxton was appointed to the 
mastership by bishop Tunstall. He was succeeded, in 1579, by John Woodfall. 
But in the preceding year bishop Barnes had granted a lease of the manors of 
Gateshead and Whickham to the queen, for the term of seventy-nine years. 
This lease was superseded, in 1582, by a new one, usually described as the 
*' grand lease," for ninety-nine years. The queen, in 1583, assigned the lease 
to Henry Anderson and William Selby, merchants of Newcastle. In 1587, 



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Woodfall resigned the mastership of the hospital, probably for a substantial 

consideration, and Anderson and Selby claimed to present his successor. This 

claim the bishop allowed, though he is careful to record in his register that they 

were patrons "for this turn only." The state of the hospital a few years later 

may be gathered from the report of an inquisition held in 1594, in obedience to 

a royal commission '* to enquire of charitable uses of all colleges, hospitals, 

almshouses, rooms, and other places for relief of poor, aged, and impotent 

people within the bishoprick of Durham.*' The jurors declare that, 

" Concerninge the hospitall of sancte edmund nighe gatesheade, they finde that 
the same hospitall standeth att the upper end of Gatesheade. • • • The maisters and 
governors therof have bene clergie men and spirituall persons, and [it] is said to have bene 
founded by one of the Bushoppes of Durham MBut in what tyme or by which of the said 
Bushoppes, or by what name of fundacion or incorporacion, or whether there haith bene 
any chainge frome the first fundacion they cannot finde. 

" The poor of the Hospitall or Free Chappell of Sanct Edmundes, nigh Gateshead, 
are and have bene indifferently of both kindes as men and women. But whether sicke or 
whoU, lepers or way fairinge, so they be poore, needie, and indigente, is note respected. 

" There belongeth to the same a demaine lyeinge att the said hospitall, and a parcell 
of grounde called Shotley Bridge, all which amount to noe more then the valewe of itf . 
of aunciente rente, wherof 13®. yearly is assigned for the reliefe of everie poore Brother and 
Sister there, and the residewe to the mainteynance of the said Maister and reparacions of 
houses belonginge unto them. As for other rentes, revenewes, somes of money, leases, 
goodesy and chattalles, ther is none, and therfor noe allowance att all eyther for diett to 
the said Brethren and Sisters, or to the said Maister, or for mendinge of bridges or high- 
waies, or for exhibicions to schollars or the like. The revenewes and profittes wherof 
have for theise ten yeares last past, bene taken upp by Mr. Richard Hodgshon and Mr. 
William Riddell of Newcastell upon Tyne, merchant, and there assignes, by vertue of a 
lease to them made by John Wodfall, clerke, lait Maister of the same Hospitall or Free 
Chappell, and the Brethren and Sisters then of the same, who have imployed the same 
quarterly (as haith bene accustomed) to the maynteynance and relief of the said Maister 
and Brethren and Sisters. The staite, propertie, possession, and occupation of which 
premises by vertewe of the aforsaid lease, doth as yett remayne in the handes of the afor- 
said Richard Hodgson and William Riddell, or ther assignes. 

" There be three poore persons mainteyned and reley ved in or about the said Hos- 
pitall or Free Chappell of St. Edmundes, whose names and aiges are as foUowihge, Johne 
Dunninge, about the age of 70 yeares, Robert Pawlinge, about the aige of 76 yeares, and 
AUice Pickeringe, about the aige of 56, who are daylie and continually resident and 
abideinge in and about the said hospitall, havinge no allowance nor reversion of any 
allmes-rome in any other colledge, hospitall, or house for the poore. 



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"John Wodfiall, clerke, lait Maister of Sanct Edmundes Hospitall aforesaid, about 
seaven yeares ago was putt in truste with the kepinge and custodie of the charters, deedes, 
evidences, and writinges, both of the erection and fiindacion of the landes, revenewes, and 
possessions of the said hospitall or free chapell, who deceased about the said tyme in 
London or therabout (where he then had his abode), since which tyme what became of 
the said charters, deedes, and evidences, cannot be known." 

In 1599 the ** grand lease*' was assigned to the mayor and burgesses of 
Newcastle, and on this ground the corporation claimed the hospital of St. 
Edmund's. In March, 161 1, the common council determined to apply for 
letters patent refounding the hospitals ** belonging this saide towne,'* amongst 
which "the hospitall of Saincte Edmonds in Gateshead" is included. But 
throughout the whole of these transactions it seems to have been forgotten 
that the bishop's patronage of the hospital could not possibly be transferred by 
the "grand lease," since it was vested in him, not as lord of the manor of 
Gateshead, but as bishop of Durham. 

King James's charter of re-foundation is a lengthy document, filling 
fourteen pages of Allan's Collectanea. I can only give the briefest possible 
abstract of its contents. It sets forth that in the town of Gateside an hospital 
exists, commonly known as the Hospital or Free Chapel of St. Edmund, King 
and Martyr, whereof the founder is not known, and that it consists of a master 
and three brethren ; that the charter and letters patent of the foundation and 
endowment of the said hospital, by accident, or the negligence of some of the 
masters, are lost, or by long usage or age are worn away, consumed or rotted ; 
and that certain persons are endeavouring to pervert the estate of the hospital, 
and to transfer its lands, tenements, and possessions to their own private use. 
For these reasons, the king declares that the hospital shall remain for ever an 
hospital of poor people in Gateside, for their sustenance, relief, and maintenance ; 
that it shall consist of a master and three poor men ; that it shall for ever hence- 
forth be called the Hospital of King James ; that the rector of Gateshead for 
the time being shall be the master ; that therein there shall be for ever three 
poor and indigent men, celibates, or widowers, and of advanced age, who shall 
be called the brethren of the Hospital of King James. The hospital was to 



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309 

have the usual powers of a corporate body to acquire lands and other posses- 
sions, to have a common seal,* and to plead and be impleaded in actions of law. 
On the death or removal of a master, the bishop of Durham was to appoint 
the succeeding rector of Gateshead to the mastership. On the death or removal 
of one of the brethren, the master was to. elect another suitable person in his 
place within the ensuing fourteen days. The bishops of Durham for the time 
being were to be the true and indubitable patrons of the hospital, and to have 
the presentation, nomination, and institution of the masters. The bishop of 
Durham for the time being was also from time to time to revise, examine, and 
enquire into the ancient statutes, laws, ordinances, and constitutions of the 
hospital, and also to make and constitute other good, suitable, and wholesome 
statutes, laws, ordinances, and constitutions in writing, both concerning the 
celebration of Divine service in honour of God from day to day in the said 
hospital, and concerning the government and direction of the master and 
brethren of the hospital. The then master was to pay each brother ;^3 6s. 8d. 
a year ; but future masters were to have themselves one-third part of the clear 
income of the hospital, and to divide the remaining two-thirds amongst the 
brethren. 

Subsequent rectors of Gateshead have been the masters of the hospital 
down to the present time. In 1731 ** there were standing in the Chapel-Garth 
a chapel wherein duty was performed by the master, a mansion-house for the 
master, with a dove-cote, stables, and other conveniences, and three houses for 
the bedemen, wherein they lived at that time." In 1733 William Lambe was 
instituted to the rectory of Gateshead and the mastership of the hospital. By 
him the chapel "was disused as to public service being performed in it." To 
this procedure some of the parishioners very justly took objection, but " this 
rector compromised the matter in dispute * * * by preaching in lieu 
thereof a sermon every Sunday afternoon in the parish church.'' But Mr. 

* The seal of the hospital is still preserved. It is an oval, measuring 2^ inches by 2 inches. The centre bears 
a representation of the master and the three brethren, all in the costume of the time of James I. In the distance is a 
building which may be intended to depict the hospital itself. The margin bears the following inscription : 
THE • M» • AND • THREE • BRE • OF • K • lAMES • HIS • HOSPITAL • IN • GATESHEAD. 



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Lambe went further. " The same rector, after allowing a small yearly income 
to the brethren to find them lodgings, pulled down their respective houses, 
which stood very near the chapel." Andrew Wood, who became rector m 
1769, compelled his predecessor's widow to pay him ;^300 for her husband'? 
dilapidations of the hospital. Dr. Fawcett, who was rector from 1772 to 1782, 
repaired the chapel and covered it with red tiles. Brand, writing about the 
year 1788, says, **On a late visit to this desecrated place, I found cocks and 
hens roosting on the sides of the pulpit. On the north wall there was a board 
put up, inscribed, ' The Shipwright's Pew in Newcastle.' One of the orna- 
ments of the altar-piece has been converted to a very whimsical purpose : the 
present tenant's wife makes use of the truly frightful figure of a mutilated 
cherub to frighten her unruly children into order and good behaviour ; the 
sight of this piece of sculpture, which she calls *The awd angel,' never failing 
to procure an instantaneous silence." In Brand's time the sites of the houses 
of the master and brethren were overgrown with grass. 

In 1 8 10 a new chapel was built on a site a little south of that of the old 
one. In the following year three cottages were built for the brethren. At the 
same time Shute Barrington, then bishop of Durham, in accordance with the 
powers vested in him by the charter of James I., framed new " Statutes and 
Ordinances" for the government of the hospital. He provided for the addition 
of ten younger brethren ; for the payment of ;^25 a year to each of the ancient 
brethren, and £^0 a year to a chaplain ; and for the division of the balance of 
the income of the hospital amongst the ten younger brethren, to none of whom, 
however, was more than ;^25 a year to be paid. At the present time each of 
the elder brethren receives ;^27 12s. per annum, and a new suit of clothes 
every year, and is plentifully supplied with coal. The younger brethren receive 
;^26 I2s. a year each, and new clothes every second year.* 

* One of the tldir brethren of this hospital deserves to be remembered. I quote from the NiwcasiU CkronkU of 
33rd January, 1834 : 

" Mr. Thomas Gustard, one of the ancient brethren of St. Edmund's Hospital, Gateshead, haying attained the 
looth year of his age on Saturday last, the Rev. John Collinson [worthy, tender-hearted rector CoUinson, loved by all 
men !] resolved on celebrating the event. A dinner was in consequence provided at the rectory for both the ancient 
and the younger brethren, the old man sitting at the head of the table, and Mr. Collinson honouring them with his 



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The ancient chapel was taken down in 1811. There is an engraved sketch 
of it in Brand's " History.'* Mr. LongstaflFe possesses a large sepia drawing, 
which adds very materially to our know- 
ledge of the architecture of the edifice. 
It consisted of a nave and chancel. In 
the south wall of the chancel were two 
lancet lights, whilst at the east end was 

a window of three lancets enclosed in Chapel of St. Edmund the King. 

a single arch. There were doors and windows of Jacobean date in the south 
wall of nave and chancel, and the west gable was crowned by a bell cot. But 
it was clearly a building of Early English character, erected in the thirteenth 
century. 




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presence. Nothing, we are told, could exceed the hospitality and urbanity of the worthy donor ; and the party, after 
drinking to the health of their patriarchal brother, &c., in the juice of the grape, departed highly gratified with the 
entertainment they had received." 

Thomas Gustard died on the asrd March, i8a8, aged 104 years. 




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ST. LAWRENCE'S CHAPEL. 

Less than a stone's throw from the landing stage of the Tyne Steam Ferry 
Company, at Mushroom, are the meagre ruins, hastening rapidly towards 
total obliteration, of an ancient chapel. They are the ruins of the chapel of 
St. Lawrence, a building from which the neighbouring district has acquired the 
name by which it is now known. Bourne had the misfortune to say that this 
chapel " was dependent upon the Priory of St. John's of Jerusalem " — a state- 
ment totally without foundation, but, nevertheless, accepted, or rather copied, 
unhesitatingly by more than one later writer. Neither can it have been built, 
as Bourne declares it is said to have been^ " by one of the Earls of Northum- 
berland.'' That it was founded by one of the ancient Percies there is no 
reason to doubt, but its architecture is more th^an a century earlier than the 
time of the first Percy who was earl of Northumberland. 

The first reference to this chapel which I have found in written history 
occurs in the pages of bishop Bury's register, under date the 3rd August, 1340, 
There had been a dispute between William Burdon, vicar of Newcastle, and 
Peter de Haukeswell, the priest who ministered at the altar of this chapel. 
They at length came to an agreement, the nature of which the bishop places 
on record. 

The dispute had reference to the oflFerings pertaining to the chapel, and it 
was agreed that its priests should in all future time receive all the oblations 
made in the chantry of the chapel, as well as tithes of hens, geese, . . . pigeons, 
and sucking pigs, fed and bred within the boundary and precinct of the glebe, 
farm, and territory of that place, . . . and of the garden plot ; the real tithes 
being reserved to the vicars of Newcastle. The priests of the chapel were 
also required on each St. Bartholomew's day to pay to the vicar the sum of 
6s. 8d. in silver. 



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On the 20th June, 1373, at an inquisition held at Corbridge, the jurors 
found that " the ancestors of the lord of Byker had founded a chantry in the 
chapel of St. Lawrence of Byker, to which chantry they gave various tenements 
and lands to provide a chaplain to celebrate Divine service there, which chantry 
had been lately done away by Joan, formerly the wife of John de Coupland ; 
and the lands were worth £^ per annum, inasmuch as they were leased for 
that amount by the said Joan." 

In the Certificates of Chantries, etc. (a.d. 1345), the following account of 
this chapel is given : 

" The lire chappell of Saynt Laurence, in the lordshippe of Bycar, within the parishe 
of Saynt Nicholas, in the towne of Newcastell upon Tyne. The said fre chapell was 
founded by the auncesters of the late erle of Northumberland, toward the fyndyng of a 
prieste to pray for their sowles, and all christen sowls, and also to herbour such [? sicke] 
persons and wayfiayryng men, in time of nede as it is reported. 

" The yerely value 60s. — Value by this survey the same, as appereth by a rentall, 
whereof is paid to the Kinge's majestie for the yerelie tenths therof 6s. and remayneth 
clerely S4s. which one Leonarde Myers hath to his owne use, for the term of his lyfe, by force 
of a graunt to hym, made by the late earle of Northumberland, by hys letters patent, under 
hys scale of armes, bering date the 12th day of Auguste, in the 2Sth yere of the Kynge's 
majestie*s reigne [1533], in consideracion of the good service done by the said Leonard 
heretofore ; which graunte is confirmed by a decree under the scale of the Kinge's courte 
of augmentations, bearing date the 12 dale of Februarie, in the 33d yere of the reigne of 
our soveraigne lord Kinge Henry the 8th [1542], The said fre chapel is within the 
parishe of Saynt Nicholas aforsaid, and about halfe a myle distant from the parishe 
churche by reporte. 

** Ornaments, &c. nil. For ther be neither goodes, catalk ne ornaments belongyng 
to the same by reporte. Ther wer no other landes nor yerelie profitts apperteyning to 
the sayd fre chappell, sith the 4 daie of Februarie in the 27 yere of the King's majestie's 
reigne [1536] more than is before mendoned." 

The Certificate of Chantries in Northumberiand, drawn up in 1 548, gives 
us the information that Leonard Myers was then still the incumbent of this 
chapel and was " of the age of fifty yeres " ; and also that there was " no 
Devyne service to the honour of God kepte in the same." 

Brand gives the following account of a visit he paid to the ruins of St. 
Lawrence's chapel on the 5th September, 1782 : 

*'I found it converted into a lumber-room to an adjoining glass-house. I traced 
where the eastern window had been. It is now built up with brick, except where there 

E£ 



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is an entrance to a loft. The western door, too, may be seen from within. Rubbbh 
thrown around it has filled up the south wall on the outside, almost to the roof, so that 
it resembles a cellar. The neighbouring workpeople talk of treasure as being buried in a 
vault somewhere near it, and, with their usual superstition, suppose it to be haunted by 
apparitions." 

A visit to these ruins can scarcely be described as an inviting expedition. 

There is in truth little to be seen, and 
what is yet left is fast disappearing. The 
plan of the chapel can, however, be easily 
traced, and its east and west gables are 
comparatively entire. There is a round- 
headed doorway in the west wall a little 
on one side of the centre, and there is 
a walled-up, square-headed window in the 
same gable. There is a second doorway 
in the north wall. The east window 
consists of three lancets under one arch. 




East Gable op St Lawrence's. 



The structure may be ascribed to the early part of the thirteenth century. 




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315 



THE CLOSE. 

Riverside Newcastle was anciently cut into two distinctly marked halves 
by Tyne Bridge. Below the bridge the river shore was a quay, and was con- 
sequently only built upon on its inner side. Above the bridge vessels of any 
considerable size could not pass, and so the water-side roadway came to be 
built upon on both sides. The street thus formed is the Close, which must 
have been occupied on both sides from a very early period, for there is no 
evidence that any mural defence to the town ever existed, between the tower 
in the immediate vicinity of the Close Gate, and the end of Tyne Bridge. The 
houses which occupied the entire space formed, indeed, a suflScient defence ; 
but we can scarcely believe that the wall would have been omitted here had 
the ground been vacant when the town was being immured. 

In bygone centuries the Close was the principal residence of the grandees 
of Newcastle. Here in the days of Edward the third lived the Bertrams, the 
Lumleys, and the Frismersks. In the times of the fourth, fifth, and sixth 
Henries it was the home of the Hebbums and the CliflFords. When we come 
to the reign of Elizabeth we find, amongst the wealthy occupants of the Close, 
the great mercantile families of Anderson, Carr, and Brandling. The Claverings 
appear amongst the residents early in the following century. The reader has 
only, with these names in his mind, to look down the calendars of Newcastle's 
sheriflFs, mayors, and burgesses in parliament, and into the pedigrees of the 
county families of Northumberland and Durham, to realize the high social 
status of the Close in bygone times. Bourne continues the legend of the rank 
and dignity of the people of this ancient street : 

" It was formerly that Part of the Town where the prindpal Inhabitants liv'd, Sir 
John Marly y Sir William Blackety Sir Mark Milbank ; and the Houses of many other 
Gentlemen of Figure are still remembered by the ancient Inhabitants. And indeed 
however the Street itself may be, however mean the Fronts of the Houses are, within 
they speak Magnificence and Grandeur, the Rooms being very large and stately, and for 
the most Part adorn'd with curious Carving. • • • Of late years these Houses have 
been forsaken, and their wealthier Inhabitants have chosen the higher Parts of the Town." 



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One of the seventeenth century inhabitants of the Close must not be 
forgotten. I allude to Ambrose Barnes, the famed dissenting alderman of 
Newcastle, in whose house a conventicle of co-religionists was accustomed to 
be held, after the restoration of Charles II. When Sir George Jeflfties, after- 
wards Lord Chief Justice, travelled the northern circuit, and sat in the assizes 
at Newcastle, a list of the more prominent non-conforming inhabitants was 
ftimished him. Barnes's name occurred amongst the rest. ** Jeflfries in private 
enquired what part of the town he lived in ? They told him his house stood in 
the Close. Jeflfries, having already had an odd representation of him, cryes 
out, * I even thought so ; some close or field for that rebel to train and muster 
his men in.' " 

As we enter the Close at the Tyne Bridge end the first building that 
attracts our attention is the Duke of Cumberland inn, formerly known as the 
" Yellow Doors." Not more than half the building is now standing. The 
masonry of its lower portions is of ancient date, and is possibly as early as the 
fifteenth century. It has, however, been considerably altered in Jacobean 
times, and the higher stories are of a still later day. It is said to have been a 
fortified building — a statement which I do not believe. 

Almost opposite the Duke of Cumberland was a now obliterated roadway 
down to the river-side, known as Bower Chare. West of this stood the 
ancient mansion of the earls of Northumberland. It is first mentioned in an 
Inquisition post mortem on the death of John Duke of Bedford, who, in 14 
Henry VI. (1435-6), died seized of a messuage which stood here, and which 
was called the " Earl's Inn." Brand prints a deed, dated loth April, 1482, by 
which Henry, then earl of Northumberland, grants this mansion to a servant, 
George Byrde, for a yearly rent of 13s. 4d. It is described as " a tenement 
with the appurtenaunce, latly called ye Erles In, within the town of Newcastell 
upon Tyne, in ye stret called ye Close, bitwixt a tenement pertayning unto ye 
Hospitall of Saynt Katarine ye Virgin upon ye Sand-Hille of ye sayd town, 
late in the haldyng of William Byrd, upon the west syde, and a vennell called 
Bower-Chare upon the est syde, and extends from the King's highway before 



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Ph^n n tjlk^Fiph J i IVidt^d ^T '' B C»J Mr^M . t Q Ji IE ^<J Oar* W C 



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3^7 

anenst the north, unto the ground ebbe of the water of Tyne behynde forgaynst 
the south.'* Bourne tells us that the Earl's Inn " was that House which has at 
its Entrance a great Gate, besides which there is a large round Ball of Stone 
[which said ball gave to an adjoining passage the name of * Round Stone 
Entry']. In the lower Part of this Building, towards the Water, are very 
manifest Tokens of its Antiquity." Part of the old house was brought to light, 
in 1846, during the removal of old buildings to make way for one of the piers 
of the High Level Bridge. 

A little way further, on the same side of the street, we come to the end of 
a narrow lane which leads to the river, and which enjoys the singular name 
of Javel Group^a name which has given rise to much curious speculation on 
the part of local antiquaries. 

On the opposite side of the street, and at the foot of the aptly-named 
Long Stairs, is a most picturesque block of old buildings, now occupied as the 
cooperage of Mr. John Arthur. 

Behind some of the warehouses and other modem buildings, on the south 
side of the street, are several blocks of buildings of early date, which will well 
repay examination. In the yard of Messrs. John Dove and Company we find 
a structure of the sixteenth century; whilst between the yard and the river 
is a quaint old house with pantiled roof. In Messrs. Johnson Brothers' yard 
there are remains of buildings of Tudor date, and towards the river a half- 
timbered edifice probably of the seventeenth century. Then on the east side 
of Messrs. Locke, Blackett, and Company's lead wharf we have another group 
of old buildings. 

We now reach the well-known Mansion House. It is a great square brick 
building, totally destitute of architectural beauty. Yet its walls once enclosed 
a magnificent establishment. It was built in 169 1-2, at a cost of ;^6,ooo, and 
occupies the site of an earlier edifice which was devoted to the same purposes. 
Bourne says, " It is a Building grand and stately; and considering the Place it 
stands in, is very ornamental." The Mansion House was formerly the oflScial 
residence of the mayors of Newcastle during their year of office. The chief 



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3i8 

magistrate of Newcastle, we are told by one who held the position in last 
century, ** lived in his Mansion House with more state than any in that office in 
England, except the lord mayor of London. The certain allowance for the 
year was ;^i,200, a sum much short of the expenses in some years. He had 
the corporation coach [and] several servants in livery attending in his constant 
manner of living and appearance ; but his stated public entertainments exceeded 
any of the same kind, with the above exception. These were given on the 
guild days, the common council days, the king's birthday, the anniversary of 



\ 







Mansion House and the Close, from the River. 

his accession, the 5th of November, the 29th of May, and many other 
occasions." Here he entertained the judges of assize. Besides a state-coach, 
a barge was provided for his use at the town's cost. But after the passing of 
the Municipal Reform Act the fate of the Mansion House was soon sealed. 
The council, in 1836, resolved that the establishment should be discontinued 
and that its furniture, plate, linen, library, etc., should be sold by auction. 
The sale took place in January, 1837, and occupied fifteen days. The port 
wine, of which there were about 370 dozens, was sold in August of the same 
year. The silver plate weighed nearly 3,cxDO ounces. Since the period of its 
dismantlement the Mansion House has been devoted to the purposes of 
commerce, and now every trace of its former splendour has vanished. The 



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interior is almost gutted, and the stately rooms, and the staircase of black oak, 
which, Mackenzie tells us, was " singularly commodious and magnificent," are 
to be numbered amongst the things of the past. The oak room, " used as the 
dancing-room at balls," and which was " a very grand apartment," contained a 
" noble carved chimney piece," which had been taken from the Bee Hive inn 
on the Sandhill. This is now preserved in the great hall of the Castle. 

A little way beyond the Mansion House, an inscribed slab, inserted in the 
wall by the footpath side, informs us that we have reached the site of the Close 
Gate. It was taken down in 1797. Behind the present wall and north of the 
street, some fragments of the town wall may yet be traced. The steps, how- 
ever, 140 in number, by which it was surmounted, fitly called from the 
steepness of the hill side which they mounted, **the Break Neck Stairs," have 
long ago disappeared. 

« * » «'« « « * « ♦ 

In the preceding pages, you, patient reader, and I have traversed the old 
towns of Newcastle and Gateshead, and our artist has given us permanent 
memorials of much that we have seen. My task as guide and cicerone has 
been to me a pleasant one. I trust I have not tired you, kind reader, either 
with the length of our perambulations or the tedium of my stories. But our 
wanderings and our enquiries are at last at an end, for here, in this chapter, 
after walking through the ancient streets, after lingering in the venerable 
churches, after invading the privacy of many an olden mansion, I have brought 
you, indulgent reader, to 

THE CLOSE. 



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INDEX 



Aberdeen, college tower, 1 1 1 . 

Abirforth, John de, 305. 

Accliffe, Andrew, 167. 

Aclome, iS^n. 

Acton, Lawrence, 5411. 

Acton, William de, 54, 184. 

" Adam Main's Diligence," 12911. 

Adam the Glover, 241. 

Adamson, Rev. E. H., 178. 

Ad Caprae Caput, 137, ii^n. 

Adda, 137. 

Ad Munim, 137, 180, and n. 

Aidan, 137. 

Airy, J., 38. 

Akenside Hill, 134, 17211, 174, 271-273. 

Akenside, Mark, 273. 

Akewelgate. See OakwtUgate, 

Albemarle, Stephen de, 43. 

Aldepark, Gateshead, 248. 

••Algiers, battle of," painting repre- 
senting, 216. 

Allan's Collectanea^ 308. 

Allason, Matthew, 38. 

Allen, Andrew, 226ir. 

All Hallow Gate, 178. 

All Hallows' Bank, i72«, 271. 

All Hallows' Church. See All Saints' 
Church, 

Allot, J., 38. 

All Saints* Church, 30, 100, 102, 164, 
170, 171, 178, 19211, 264, 273, 
275-291 ; date of foundation, 275 ; 
chancel rebuilt, 277 ; tower, 276, 
278, 279 ; bells, 28, 276 ; stained 
glass, 277 ; crypt, 277 ; Butcher's 
gallery, 277, 279; rood-loft, 27g, 
279 ; credence table, 278 ; nave, 
279 ; chancel, 279 ; falls into decay, 
279, 280 ; tower blown up with gun- 
powder, 280, 281 ; taken down, 281 ; 
new church erected, 281 ; chantry 
of St. Thomas, 281 ; chantry of St. 
Mary, 282 ; chantry of St. John 
the Evangelist, 282 ; chantry of 
St. Peter, 13, 277, 282, 29011; 
chantry of St. Catherine, 271, 



278, 282 ; chantry of St. Loy, 282 ; 
chantry of St. John the Baptist, 
283 ; Trinity House chantry, 199, 
200, 207, 208, 209 ; Trinity gallery, 
209 ; font, 163, 283-285 ; Rodes's 
brass, 9511, 289. 

Alnwick, 49, 60. 

Alnwick Castle, 44, 47. 

Alnwick, John de, 51. 

Alrisbume, 297. 

Aluresacres, 298. 

Alvey, Yeldred, 1 01, 210, 263, 264, 265, 
266, 278«. 

Alvey *s Island, 181. 

Amen Corner, 28. 

Amport, window at, io8». 

Ancaster, window at, 10811. 

Anchor, old, at Trinity House, 217. 

Anchorites, 93, 142, 160. 

Anderson, — , 22i«. 

Anderson, arms of, 284. 

Anderson, Bertram, 199. 

Anderson, family of, 315. 

Anderson, George, 121, i26>r, 1511;, 

152«. 

Anderson, Henry, 262, 263, 284, 303, 

306, 307. 
Anderson, John, 284. 
Anderson, Mr., i99». 
Anderson Place, 126, 189. 
Anderson, Robert, izdn. 
Anderson, Sir Francis, 12611. 
Andrew Tower, z$^. 
Angiport, Gateshead, 22 S. 
Angirton, Robert de, 93. 
Angus and Co., 182, 262. 
Anne, queen, portrait of, 216. 
Antiquaries, Society of, of Newcastle, 

28, 64, 65, 68, 96», 227ir, 259. 
Antonio, Marcus, 23o«. 
Apilby, John de, 304, 305. 
Apothecary's Lonnin, 240. 
Appleby Castle, 48, 49. 
Apprentices, regulations respecting, 

17-20. 



" Archaeologia" itliana, mentioned, 27>r 

41/1, iis^t, 142^, 296ir. 
Armagh, Sir Rowland, archbishop of, 

300. 
Armourer's Chare, 174. 
Armourers* Company, 174. 
Armstrong Park, 34. 
Arrowsmith, Elizabeth, i4+«. 
Arrowsmith, John, 144. 
Arrowsmith, Robert, 143, i44«. 
Arrowsmith, Thomas, monument of, 

143 ; account of, 144 ; will of, 144^1 ; 

mentioned, 236;r. 
Arthur, John, 317. 
Aske, family of, 294. 
Askew, family of, 244, 
Assizes held in St. Nicholas's, 98. 
Athol, Aymer de, 257, 26o«. 
Athol, Isabella de, 26011. 
Athol, Lady Mary de, 257, 258. 
Athol, Mary de, 26o«. 
Athol, Sir Aymer de, 135, 256, 257^ 

258 ; brass of, 258, 259 ; arms of,. 

^59- 
Atkinshawe, William, 167. 
Aubone, William, 148. 
Auckland, 278«. 
Audland, John, 29. 
Aurea Valle, Richard de, 91. 
Austin Chare, I72«. 
Austin Friars, 131, I72«, 189, 243*, 

276, 280, 28 3« ; stones from carried 

to North Shields, 20o« ; granted for 

repair of Ail Saints', 280. 
Ayer, Launcelot, 148. 
Aynewik. See Ahmick, 

Back Lane, 175. 
Back Loaning, Gateshead, 228. 
Back Row, i, 66, 152^, 165. 
Backhuysen, painting by, 216. 
Bailey Chare, Gateshead, 17311, **6^ 

227ir, 228, 229. 
Bailey Gate, 72, 73. 
Bailiff Chare, Gateshead, i73«, 226,. 

227. 

FF 



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Baillie, Lieut.-General, 2537, 254«. 

BaiUif, Robert, 209, 214. 

Baily, Joseph, 24611. 

Bainbrigge, arms of, 113, 114. 

Bainbrigge, Richard, 95^, 114. 

Baiteman, George, 29, 3o«. 

Baker, Sir George, 171. 

Bakers and Brewers, Company of, 195. 

Bakers and Brewers* Hall, 197. 

Baldwin with the Head, 297, 300. 

Baliol, barony of, 52. 

Baliol, Bernard de, 49. 

Baliol, Edward, 191. 

Baliol, John, 50. 

Bamburgh, 236. 

Bamburgh Castle, 43, 44, 46, 83, 84. 

Bankes, William, 224. 

Bankwell Lane, Gateshead, 244. 

Bannockburn, battle of, 52, 53. 

Banquet in the Castle, 64. 

Baptist chapel on Tuthill Stairs, the 

new, 261, 268 ; the old, 267, 268 ; 

chapel in Bewick Street, 268. 
Barber, Joseph, 28. 
Barbican of the Castle, 57, 58, 66. 
Barford, William de, 244. 
Barker, Robert, 1 1 9. 
Barnard Castle, 95». 
Barnard Castle, John of, 245. 
Barnes, Ambrose, 24, 25, 316; memoir 

of, quoted, iS-^n, i72,n, 256, 267, 

316; mentioned, 296/1. 
Barnes, bishop, 227^, 306, 307. 
Barrington, bishop, 310. 
Barrow on Humber, 121/r. 
Barton, Conan, 242. 
Basire, Dr., 89. 
Basire, Isaac, 38. 
Bates, Andrew, 163, 164. 
Bates, arms of, 163. 
Bates, C. J., i8o«. 
Bates, Matthew, 247. 
Baudkin^ 103/r. 
Baumburgh, John de, 244. 
Baxter, Edward, 279, 280. 
Baxter, Peter, 99, 100. 
Baxter's " Glossarium," i8o«. 
Beacon Hill, Gateshead, 241. 
Beadfolk, 208. 
Beck, bishop, 184, 242. 
Bede, quoted, 137, 180, 225«. 



Bedford, Agnes, 94/f. 

Bedford, John, 94ir, 225M. 

Bedford, John Duke of, 316. 

"Bee Hive" Inn. 319. 

Bee, Jacob, " His Booke," quoted, 

227«. 

" Beehive of the Romish Church," 
quoted, 163^. 

Bgir (a kind of barley), 161/. 

Beer Market, i6w. 

Bell, George, 25411. 

Bell, John, zyn. 

•' Bell of the Hoop," inn sign, Gates- 
head, 225M. 

Bell, Peter, 148. 

Bellassis, Anthony, 306. 

Bellassys, Sir Henry, 23 1«. 

Bells of the Exchange, 25. 

Belsey, 289M. 

Belton, Lincolnshire, 245. 

Bensham, wood of, 297, 298. 

Benridge, 136. 

Benton, 289^. 

Benwell, i5i«, i8oif. 

Benwell, colliers of, 87. 

Benwell Hall, 152M. 

Bertram, arms of, 10911. 

Bertram de Middleton, prior, 298. 

Bertram, family of, 315. 

Bertram, John, 163. 

Bertram, Roger, 136. 

Berwick, loi, 102, 184, 236, 238. 

Bethel Lane, 188. 

Betti, 137. 

Beverley, arms of (?), 285. 

Beverley Chare, 174. 

Bewick, arms of, 1 5«. 

Bewick, family of, 107. 

Bewick, Robert, 15^. 

Bewick Street, 268. 

Bewick, William, 12011. 

Bickers, Christopher, 38, 39. 

Bickley, Mr., pressmaster, 203. 

Bigg (a kind of barley), i6«. 

Bigg Market, i6«, 126, 12911, 130/f, 160. 

Biggs, Thomas, 125. 

Bikere, William de, 293. See Byker, 

Bilton, Williams, and Co., \\n. 

Binks, John, 214. 

Birch, — , publican, 22811. 

Birchfield, 121M. 



" Bird in Bush," 132. 

Bishop Auckland, 173*. See Auck- 
land. 

Bishop Wearmouth, 166. 

Black Bessie's Tower, 254«. 

Black Boy Chare, 1 74. 

Black Gate, 64, 65, 165 ; built, 50 ; 
described, 66-68, 84. 

Black Gate Museum, 259. 

Black Sanctus, broad banner of, 299. 

Blackbeard, the pirate, 217. 

Blackett, Christopher, 97. 

Blackett, Sir Thomas, i26«. 

Blackett, Sir Walter, 8, 9, 166. 

Blackett, Sir William, 12611, 315. 

Blackett, William, 2011. 

Blackfriars, 189-197, 243». 

Blackshields, 10. 

Blagdon, 6. 

Blair, Robert, quoted, 14211, 164. 

Blakiston, John, 264, 265. 

Blaykiston, — , 300. 

Blida or Blitha, William, 184. 

Blind Chare (Percy Street), 172/1. 

Blind Chare (Quayside), 175. 

Blindman*s Chare, 17211. 

Blindman's Lonnin, 150. 

Blount, Edmund, 149. 

Bloxham, M. H., mentioned, 142^. 

Blue Anchor Chare, 173. 

" Blue Bell," Gateshead, 225. 

"Blue Posts," 132. 

Blue Quarry Spring, Gateshead, i42«. 

Blue Stone, 33, 218, 223. 

Blyth, 202. 

Blythman, Robert, 205. 

Blyth's Nook, 181, 184. 

Boazman and Co., 175. 

Bolbeck, barony of, 52. 

Boldon Buke, mentioned, 218, 248. 

Borne, William, 122. 

Bonfires at Midsummer, 212. 

Bonner, Thomas, 11, 21, 2oi». 

Booth, bishop, 95//. 

Boroughdon, Gilbert de, 53. 

Bothal, 192. 

Bothal, barony of, 52. 

Bottle^ the word as a place name, 223. 

Bottle Bank, 223-227. 

Boundary stones, 88. 

Bourne, Eleanor, 178. 



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Bourne, Henry, quoted, i, 4», 6, 7, 12, 
22, 54, 61, 63, 87, 89, 9i«. 94, 95, 
121, 122, 12411, 125, 12611, 129, 130, 
139*1 h8, 150. i55» 162, 163, 169, 
171, 17211, 174, 181, 182, 186, 190, 
197, 250, 256, 258, 261, 271, 273. 
276-278, 283«, 289, 292, 312, 315, 
317; notice of, 178 ; mentioned, 76, 
i72«, 184, 285, 287«. 

Bower Chare, 17211, 316. 

Bowes, crest of family of, lom. 

Bowes, Henry, 20M. 

Bowes, Margery, 101 n. 

Bowes, Mrs., loin. 

Bowes, Richard, loin. 

Bowes, Sir Francis, i2o«. 

Bowes, Sir George, loiif. 

Bowring and Angier, 1 1. 

Boy-bishop, ceremonies of, 136. 

Boynton, Henry, 289^. 

Bradley, 284. 

Bramham Moor, 16211. 

Brancepeth, 142. 

Brancepeth, castle and manor of, 23011, 
23111. 

Brand, John, quoted, 6, 62, 66if, 76, 
82, 11911, i24ir, 125, i26ff, 130, 150, 

153*1 »S8*» 161, 184. 247. *55. ^73' 
27711, a78«, a87«, 292if, 310, 313, 
316; mentioned, 34, 63, 96^, 116, 
117, 122, 14111, 164, i75«, i8o», 
19711, 19811, 258, 283, 284, 285, 294, 
296, 299». 

Brand's " Popular Antiquities," quoted, 
90M, 123 ; mentioned, 13611. 

Brandling, family of, 315. 

Brandling, Henry, 177. 

Brandling, Mr., 28311. 

Brandling, Sir Robert, 101, 169, 177. 

Brantyngham, William de, 305. 

Brasses, Flemish, the largest in Eng- 
land, 286m. 

Break Neck Stairs, 319. 

Brereton, Sir William, 16S, 272. 

Bridge before the Castle, 51. 

Bridge-Foot, 89;/. 

"Bridge" Inn, 169. 

Bridge, Mr., 212. 

Bridge, the Roman, at Newcastle, 40. 

Bridlington, 166, 205. 

Brighton, Roger de, 51. 



Brinkelaw, John de, 59. 

Britby, William de, 55, 56. 

Broad Chare, 169, 176 ,177, 179, 185, 

198, 203, 207, 213, 217, 273. 279. 284. 
Broad Garth, 175. 
Brockett, J. T., quoted, 88«, 173//. 
Brockett, W. H., 296«. 
BrontS, Charlotte, 249. 
Brough-under-Stainmore, 48, 49 
Brown Chare, i72«. 
Browne, George, 236^. 
Browne, Joseph, 144. 
Browne, Mr., innkeeper, 199M. 
Bruce, David, king of Scotland, 54. 
Bruce, Dr., quoted, 4. 41, i54«, 217 ; 

mentioned, 64, 151^. 
Bruce, John, 15 in, 15211. 
Bruce, Robert, 242, 25911. 
Brygham, John, 194. 
Buck's " Prospect of Newcastle," 168. 
Bulkley, Stephen, in, 30^, 31W, 245. 
BulAsy open, 4. 
Bull Ring, 21 3M. 
Bulls baited on the Sandhill, 8. 
Burcestre, lady Elizabeth, 95^. 
Burdon, Nicholas, 214. 
Burdon, William, 312. 
Burgh, Matilda, 99. 
Burn Bank, 185, 186. 
Burwell, Thomas, 146. 
Bury, bishop, 242. 
Bury's (bishop) Register, 312. 
Busy Burn, 240. 
Butcher Bank, 6, 129^, lyzn. 174, 

271, 273. 
Butchers, Company of, 195. 
Butchers' Hall, 196. 
Butlery of the Castle, 53. 
Byker, 285, 313. 
Byker Chare, 186. 
Byker, John de, 183. 
Byker, Ladararie de, 179. 
Byker, lordship of, 179. 
Byker, Robert de, 53, 179. 
Byrd, William, 316. 
Byrde, George, 316. 

Cadiz, expedition to, 119, 120/r. 
Cail and Sons, 175. 
Cail, Richard, 10511. 
Cail, William, i66«. 



Calamy, Edmund, quoted, i jm. 

Calc Cross, 6, 271, 272. 

Calendar, earl of, 61, 71, 87, 23511. 

Calvert, Nicholas, i47«. 

Camden, William, 18011. 

Camer Dykes, 240. 

Camera, Catherine de, 92. 

Camera, John de, 92, 93. 

" Cannon " ale house, 240. 

Cant, Andrew, 102. 

Canterbury, archbishop of, 53. 

Capheaton Hall, 226ir. 

Carew, John, 238. 

Carleton, Walter de, 184. 

Carliol Croft, 125. 

Carliols, 125, 126. 

Carliol, Thomas de, 182, 282. 

Carlisle, bishop of, 5c. 

Carlisle, bishop and prior of, 93, 108. 

Carlisle Castle, 44, 48, 49. 

Carlisle, church of, 91. 

Carlisle, prior and convent of, 91. 

Carmelites. See WAi^f Friars. 

Carmichael, painting by, 216. 

Carpenters' Tower, 183. 

Carr, arms of, ii», i5«. 

Carr, Barbara, 263. 

Carr, Catherine, 11711. 

Carr, Cuthbert, 2541/. 

Carr, Edward, 155. 

Carr, family of, 315. 

Carr, George, 105, 116, 117//, 18711. 
, Carr, James, 263. 

Carr, Jane, 1 1 . 
I Carr, Leonard, 1 5«, 1 99W, 2 1 2, 272, 273. 

Carr monument, 116, i87if. 

Carr MS., mentioned, 122, 13211. 

Carr, Ralph, 11. 

Carr, Thomas, 105. 

Carr, William, 117;/, 1871;, 269. 

Carr's Battery, 273. 

Carr's Hill, 240. 

Carter, George, ion. 

Castell, Robert, 105. 

Castle, 40-85, 95», 97, i6o«, 161, 165 

197. 
Castle Chare (Durham), 17 ^h. 
Castle Garth, 63, 64^, 69, 70. 
Castle-guard rent, 52. 
Castle Heugh, 54. 
Castle Leazes, 3, 150. 



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Castle Rising, Norman keep at, 83. 

Castle Stairs, 71. 

Castle Ward, 52. 

Castle Yard, 37. 

Castro, William de, S5» 56, 57i 58. 

Cathedral, 411, 10, 24, 30, 91-124, 187, 
192, 250, 27s ; bells, 121, 122, 123 ; 
Bewick Porch, 107, 115 ; chantry of 
St. John, 94X, 103 ; chantry of St. 
Catherine, 103, 104, 108 ; chantry of 
St. Peter and St. Paul, 104 ; chantry 
of St. Thomas, 1 04 ; chantry of St. 
Mary, 104, 105, 107, 116; chantry 
of St, Margaret, 104, 107 ; chantry 
of St. Cuthbert, 105 ; chantry of St. 
Eloi, 105 ; choir, 92, 93, 108 ; 
churchyard, 4, 152*; clerestory, 
105, 109 ; crypt, 106, 107, 108 ; 
description, 105-114; east window, 
93, 109; font and cover, 113, 114, 
163; grave covers, 114, 115; library, 
171; moniunents, 114-121; nave, 
92, 105, 106 ; north door, 91 « ; north 
porch, 98 ; old pulpit, 96, 97 ; rood- 
screen, 96, 97, 109 ; rood-loft, 278^ ; 
roof, 109 ; St. George's porch, 108, 
124X; St. Mary's porch, 107; scene 
at, 264 ; south porch, 9$ ; stained 
glass, 124 ; stalls, 96, 97 ; Thorn- 
ton's window, 287 ; tower and spire, 

93. 95» 97, 98» "o. «"» "», "3; 
transepts, 92, 105, 107 ; vestry, Com- 
missioners of England and Scotland 
meet in, 100 ; vicar, 91, 93, 99. 

Catherine's, St., Hospital. See Hos* 
pitalof St. Catherine. 

Catholic Chapel, Gateshead, 232. 

Catterick Church, ii6n. 

Caugy, barony of, 52. 

Caunton, John de, 53. 

Cavendish, William, 205. 

Cedd, 137. 

Chambre. See Camera. 

Chantry within the Castle, 85. 

Chapel in the Keep, 76, 78, 116. 

*Chapels in the Castle, 52, 53, 63, 64, 84. 

Chapman Chare, 172;!. 

Chapman, Henry, 262. 

Chapman, Oswald, 262. 

Chapman, Rebecca, 263. 



Chapman*s " Revenge of Bussy d*Am- 

bois," quoted, 15411. 
Chare Ends (Holy Island), i73«. 
Ckare^ meaning of the word, 17311. 
Charles I., at St. Nicholas's, 102 ; 

entertained at dinner, 118; prisoner 

in Newcastle, I26«, 171, 175 ; at 

Newcastle and Tynemouth, 203 ; 

portrait of, 216; passes through 

Gateshead, 224 ; at Newcastle, 263 ; 

mentioned, 272. 
Charles II., 187;/ ; portrait of, 22, 216 ; 

statue of, 25 ; charter of, 207. 
Charleton, R. J., quoted, 185. 
Chauncellar, William, 219. 
Cheesebum Grange, 263. 
Chequer House. See Exckequtr House. 
Chcster-le-Street, 239, 305. 
Chester, Thomas de, 289K. 
Chicken, Edward, 165. 
Chicken, Edward, junior, 166. 
Chicken, Robert, 165. 
Chill-well, 239. 
Chirton, 187/f. 
Chirton, Mariot de, 282. 
Chirton, Robert de, 282. 
" Chorographia," in. 
Christ's College, Cambridge, 178. 
" Chronicle of Lanercost," quoted, 186. 
Church Chare (Whalton), 173^. 
Church Stairs, Gateshead, 233. 
Church Street, Gateshead, 173^, 223, 

224. 
Church Walk, Gateshead, i73«. 
City Road, 179, 269. 
Civil Wars, 61. 
Clark, G. T., quoted, 73, 74, 76, 80, 82 ; 

mentioned, 79. 
Clark, Richard, 208. 
Clarkson, George, 203. 
Clavering, arms of, 15*. 
Clavering, Colonel, 23611. 
Clavering, family of, 315. 
Clavering, John, i^n. 
Claverings of Calaley, 235, 237. 
Clavering Place, 41 «, 97, 189, 261. 
Clavering, Sir James, 30. 
Clavering Street, 237. 
Claxton, Robert, 306. 
Claxton, William, 219. 
Clayton, Nathaniel, 125, i26«. 



Clayton, Snow, 9. 

Clennell, Thomas, 125. 

Clephan, James, quoted, 149, i6o», 223, 

22711, 229, 233, 259. 
Clerk, William, 29 1«. 
Clifford, family of, 315. 
Close Gate, 148, 315, 319. 
Close Gate meeting-house, 273. 
Close House, 107, i2o«. 
Close, The, 168, \^^n^ 261, 269, 315- 

319. 
Coaches, 2, 128, 12811, 12911, i30ff. 
Coal-trade, 169. 
Coatsworth, William, 33, 248. 
Cock and Anchor Chare, 17211. 
Cock, Ann, 10, 187M. 
Cock, arms of, im, i2o«. 
Cock, Barbara, 187;!. 
Cock, Dorothy, i%fn. 
"Cock" Inn, 2, 128, i29ir. 
Cock, Jane, 12011, 18711. 
Cock, Ralph, 10, 120K, 186. 
Cocken, 11711. 

"Cock's Canny Hinnies," 187. 
Cock's Chare, 187. 
Coglestan, 243ff. 
Coke, John, 279, 280K. 
Colchester, 122. 
Cole, Anne, 147K. 
Cole, arms of, 147K. 
Cole, Elizabeth, 23111. 
Cole, family of, 147, 229*, 247. 
Cole, James, 229, 230K, 23 1«. 
Cole, John, 14711. 
Cole, Nicholas, 23o«, 23 im. . 
Cole, Ralph, 144, 14711, 204, 23011, 

23111, 235. 
Cole, Richard, 230ir. 
Cole, Sir Mark, 23 ik. 
Cole, Thomas, 230^. 
Cole, William, 30. 
Coles, mansion of the, 229. 
Colevill, Hugh de, 51. 
Collier Chare, 172*. 
Collier Chare, Gateshead, 173^, 228, 

240. 
"Collier's Wedding," 166. 
Collingwood, Edward, 125, i3o«. 
Collingwood, George, 130M. 
Collingwood, Henry, 144. 
Collingwood, lord, birthplace of, 3. 



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325 



Collingwood Street, 13011. 

Collinson, John, 310^. 

Collman Chare, 17211. 

Colvin's Chare, I72«, 174. 

Common Chare, 17211. 

Companies, Incorporated, of Newcastle, 

»95- 
Conyers, Elizabeth, 235. 
Conyers, Sir John, 147, 235. 
Cook, or Koc, Robert, 56, 57. 
Cook, William, 203. 
Copper Chare (Morpeth), ly^n. 
Coquina, John de, 300. 
Corbet, Captain, 254^. 
Corbridge, 87, 313. 
Corbridge, church of, 92. 
Corbridge's Map of Newcastle, i75«, 

217. 
Cordwainers, Company of, 195. 
Cordwainers' Hall, 196, 197. 
Corner Tower, 179. 
Corporation accounts, quoted, 89, 122, 

23911. 
Corporation of Newcastle, 3, 64, 65, 

69» 70» 87, 90, 95«, 97, i22«, i26«, 

154, 186, 267, 269, 273, 280, 294, 308. 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 8. 
Cosin, bishop, 145, 220, 226, 227M, 

230M. 
Cospatrick, earl of Northumberland, 

44»- 
Cosyn, arms of, 170, i7i«. 
Cosyn, John, 170, 171. 
Cosyn 's house. Quayside, 170. 
Cosyn, Rebecca, 17 in. 
Coulson, Elizabeth, 153. 
Coulson, Mr., 292. 
Council of the North, loi. 
Coupland, Joan de, 313. 
Coupland, John de, 54, 313. 
Courts held in St. Nicholas's, 98. 
Couyngtre, Walter de, 51. 
Cowdale, Mr., pressmaster, 203. 
Cowen, Joseph, 166. 
Cowgate, 177, 179, 181, 184,273,283//. 
Cragg, John, 275. 
Cragge, Eda, 244. 
Cramlington, 136, i73«. 
Crepping, Robert de, 84. 
Crewe, bishop, 131, 227^, 233, 248. 
Croft, Robert, 100. 



Cromwell, in Newcastle, 12 ; charter 
from, 145. 

Crosswellgate, 183, 184, 185. 

"Crown and Anchor" Inn, izgn, 

" Crown and Thistle " Inn, i29«, 13011. 

Cumberland, Duke of, 8, 237. 

Cumin, Joan, 25911. 

Cumin, John, 259^. 

Cunningham, John, 166. 

Curthose, Robert, 42. 

Cushion Dance, 90. 

Custom House, 175. 

Custom House, the old, 169, 173, 199^. 

Custom House Yard, 175. 

Cuthbert the priest, 243«. 

Cut-throat Lonnin, 240. 

Cutt's " Scenes and Characters," men- 
tioned, 1 4211. 

' Dackham, Thomas, 240. SttDeciham. 
Dacre, Elizabeth, ijftn. 
Dacre, lord John, 176M. 
Dalton, Agnes, 94^. 
Dalton, Joan, 198. 
Dalton, John, 167, 198, 199. 
Dalton Place, 198. 
Dalton, Richard, 94^, 198. 
Dark Chare, 172, 173, 174, 175. 
Dark Chare, Gateshead, 227, 228. 
Dark Lane, Gateshead, 228. 
Damex^ io4«. 
Darre)mes, Robert, 53. 
DaubyngsiourSy 59^. 
Davell, Robert, 194. 
Davell, William, 194. 
David, king of Scotland, 44, 45, 46, 

250M. 
Davidson, John, 2. 
Davison, arms of, ii«, ifw. 
Davison, Barbara, 263. 
Davison, Sir Alexander, i5«, loi, 263, 

26511. 
Davison, Thomas, 10, i5«, 187^. 
Dawe, William, 122. 
Dean Street, 4, 127, i29«, 133. 
Deckham Hall, 240. 
Defoe, Daniel, 246. 
Delaval (hamlet of), 15111. 
De la Vale, barony of, 52. 
Dent, arms of, 285. 
Dent, Roger, 285. 



Denton Chare, 1, 2, 35, 172K. 

Denton (co. Durham), i2o», 147. 

Denton, John de, 51, 300, 301. 

Dent's Chare, 17211. 

Dent's Hole, 285. 

Deptford Strand, Trinity House of, 

203. 
Derlington, John de, 300. 
" Desolation of Eyam," 11711. 
D'Estutevile, Roger, 48, 49. 
Develestime, Robert de, 46. 
Devilstone, barony of, 52. 
Deynes Chare, 17211. 
Dibden, T. F., quoted, 15, no. 
Dickinson, W. O., 2. 
" Dictionnairc de la Noblesse de 

France," quoted, 149. 
Didron's ** Christian Iconography " 

mentioned, 143M. 
Directories, old, i28«, 129*, 130/1,225, 

226ff, 271. 
Diuma, 137. 
Dixon, Mr., 204. 
Dobson, John, 64. 
Dodds, John, 280, 281. 
Dog Bank, 134, 175, 178, 273. 
Dog Leap Stairs, 70. 
Dolphanby, Alice, 242. 
Dolphanby, family of, 241. 
Dolphanby, Joan, 242. 
Dolphanby, John, 141, 242, 245. 
Dolphanby, Robert, 141 », 242. 
Douay, 239. 

Doubleday, John, 34X, 36. 
Douglas, David, quoted, 267. 
Dove (John) & Co., 317. 
Dover, 2911*. 
Dover Castle, 75, 81. 

Draper, , i2o«. 

Drapers* Company, arms of, 170. 

Draw bridges of the Castle, 66, 69. 

Dublin, archbishop of, 50. 

Duck Hill, 185. 

" Duke of Cumberland " Inn, 316. 

Dukesfield, Agnes de, 92. 

Dukesfield, Gilbert de, 92. 

Dumfries, Church of the Friars Minors 

at, 25911. 
Dunbar, battle of, 102, 206. 
" Dun Cow," Gateshead, 231. 
Dungeon of the Castle, 60, 61. 



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326 



Dunkirk, 238. 

Dunninge, John, 307. 

Durance (? Durant), Mr., "the great 

opposer of the Gospel," z68. 
Durant, James, 152. 
Durant, Jane, 152. 
Durant, John, 152. 
Durant, William, 30, 152. 
Durham, 12,94^, 102, 103, 173M, 191, 

23111, 23411, 236^, 239, 267«. 
Durham, Adam of, 167, 
Durham, Alan, 103. 
Durham, bishop of, 8, 99, 142, 218, 219, 

»39f »4o. a4a- 
Durham Cathedral, 99, 100, 24311 ! 

synod in the Galilee of, 29611. 
Durham, dean and chapter of, 1 30 ; 

High Commission Court, 263 ; 

pillory at, 227^ ; prior and convent 

of, 94«. «73«» 218, 219, 241, 242, 

24311, 290; St. Giles's Church, 23011; 

St. Margaret's churchyard, 23111 ; 

St. Nicholas's Church, 99. 
Durham Way, Gateshead, 228. 
Dykes, Cuthbcrt, 87. 

Eanfleda, 137. 

"Earl's" Inn, 316. 

East Burnham, Berkshire, 9. 

East postern of the Castle, 70. 

East Raw, Gateshead, 224. 

Ebor, Richard de, 53. 

Ebor, William de, 53. 

Ecopp, William, 295. 

Edinburgh, St. Giles's, tower of, iii. 

Edward I., 50 ; action against the 

bishop and prior of Carlisle, 92 ; 

grant of, i23«, 179, 184, 190; at 

Heaton, 136. 
Edward II., grant of, io3«, 191 ; pay 

for mass and cloth of gold for Peter 

le Mareshal, 115. 
Edward III., letters patent of, 10311 i 

license of, 104; at Newcastle, 191, 

192. 
Edward IV., 17711. 
Edward VI., charter of, 201, 262. 
Edwin, 137. 
Eglingham, 17 in, 263. 
EIKQN BASIAIKE, 10211. 
"Eldon House," 133. 



Elfleda, 137. 

Elger, Robert, cook, 203. 

Elizabeth, Queen, 306 ; charter of, 61, 

201, 262. 
Ellergill, 119. 
Ellerker, John, 104. 
Ellerker, Nicholas, 104. 
Ellingham, barony of, 136. 
Ellison, arms of, i$n. 
Ellison, Cuthben, 304. 
Ellison, family of, 248. 
Ellison, Henry, 248. 
Ellison MSS., mentioned, 91, 92, 9611, 

105, i58ff, 283, 284, 285. 
Ellison, Nathaniel, 124. 
Ellison, Robert, 15/1, I42iy. 
Elmer, Christopher, 277. 
Elswick, colliers of, 87. 
Elswick Lead Works, 268. 
Erableton, Dr., 17611. 
Eraeldon, Richard de, 103. 
Emerson, William, iszn. 
" Encaenia of St. Ann's Chappel in 

Sandgate," Sgn. 
England, arms of, 16211, 215. 
Erick Burn, 125. 
Errington Chare, ijin. 
Errington, Lancelot, 236. 
Errington, Mark, 236. 
Estlandhordy 56«. 
Esturmy, Sir William, 289«. 
Etherley, 269 
Etton, Henry de, 141;/. 
- Eure, Ralph de, 219. 
Eure, Sir Ralph, 259«, 26o«. 
Evans, John, 98/7. 
Evesyngbord^ 58«. 
Ewbank, Margaret, 34. 
Ewbank, Richard, 33, 34, 34M. 
Exchequer House of the Castle, 51, 53. 
Exciseman, the first in Newcastle, 171. 
Exeter Cathedral, window at, io8m. 
Eyam, wjn, 

"Eye of the North," 168. 
Eyre, Rev. Monsignore, 259. 

Fader, Robert, 243. 
Faim, Francis, 15111. 
Fairs, 123, i24n, 256. 
Fairs, proclamation of, 124/7. 
Falkirk, 237. 



Fandon, John de, 53. 

Fantosme, Jordan, quoted, 47, 48. 

Farnacres, 298, 303. 

Farnham, bishop, 298, 299 

Fasten or Fasting Eve, 208. 

Faversham, sanctuary sought at, 29 1«. 

Fawcett, Dr., 310. 

Featherstonhaugh, Matthew, 25. 

Felton, 60, 259W, 263. 

Felton, Eleanor, 260/7. 

Felton, Sir Robert, 26011. 

Felton, William de, 52. 

Fimoraly 58«. 

Fenham, i2i«, 235. 

Fenrother, Adam, 104. 

Fenwick, arms of, i5«. 

Fenwick, Colonel John, 102, 265. 

Fenwick, Cuthbert, 174. 

Fenwick, Nicholas, i5«, 125. 

Fenwick, Robert, 15/f. 

Fenwick, Thomas, 60. 

Fenwick *s Entry, i72«, 174. 

Fenwyk, John de, 53. 

Ferlinton, Henry de, 298. 

Festivals, musical, held in St. 
Nicholas's, 98/f. 

fflendhachet, John, 59. 

Fife, John, 63. 

Finan, bishop, 137, 180. 

Findern, lord, 8. 

Finlay, David, 254«. 

Fish, symbolism of, 143. 

Fishergate, 183. 

Fishlake, Richard, 282. 

Fishwick, Richard, 268. 

Fittler's print of the Guildhall, 22, 25. 

Fitz Eve, Robert, 46. 

Fitz Richard, Roger, 47. 

Flamborough, 166. 

" Fleece" tavern, 169, 171 and n. 

Fleetwood, Sir William, 221. 

Flemish brasses, the largest in Eng- 
land, 286/f. 

Flesh Market, 41V, i24if, 15111 

Flower's Visitation of Northumber 
land, 287/7. 

Folly, 87. 

Fordham, bishop, 257. 

Fordyce, W., 128/7. 

Forebuilding of the Keep, 75, 82. 

Forster, Alderman, 64, 97. 



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32: 



Forstcr, the curate, 164. 

Foster, John, quoted, 268. 

Foster, Ralph, i^gn. 

Foucher House, iSgn. 

" Foudroyant," ship, 166. 

Forth Banks, 8811. 

Fotheringhay Church, ii6«. 

FouHs, Catherine, 23 1«. 

Foulis, Sir Henry, 23 1«. 

"FounUin" Inn, 31, 32, 244. 

Fourneys, Thomas, 243. 

Fourstones, 240. 

Fowler, William, i24«. 

** Fox and Lamb," 132. 

Fox, George, 29. 

Foxe, John, quoted, i94«. 

Foxton's Chare, lym. 

Freeman, E. A., quoted, 108, ni«; 

mentioned, no. 
Friar's Goose, 296«, 305. 
Friars of the Sac, 184, 189. 
Friary, 189. 

Frismersk, family of, 315. 
Fryer, Mr., 63. 

Fullers and Dyers, Company of, 195. 
Fulthorpe, Roger, 25911. 

Gabiford, Robert, zS^n. 
Gahagen, 15211. 
Gaille, Thomas, 229». 
Gallery in the Keep, 81. 
Gallow-Gate (near the Castle), 66«, 

165. 
Gallowgate (outside New Gate), isin. 
Gallows in the Castle, 59. 
Galway Chare, 17211. 
Gamblin, Humphrey, 211. 
Gaol at Newcastle, 46. 
Gaol of the Castle, 47, 83, 84. 
Gaolegrip. See Javell Group, 
Gaoler's house, 72. 
Garden on the walls of the Castle 

Keep, 62. 
Garderobes of the Castle Keep, 75, 79, 

81. 
Gardner's " England's Grievance," 

mentioned, 4, i83«, 203, 23311. 
Gamers in the Castle, 52. 
Garthy 69. 

Garth Heads Meeting House, 153. 
Gategang, Alan, 242, 24 3«. 



Gategang, family of, 227, 241. 
Gategang, Gilbert, 241, 242. 
Gategang, Henry, 245. 
Gategang, James, 24311. 
Gategang, John, 242, 245, 248. 
Gategang, Nicholas, 242. 
Gategang, Sibilla, 242. 
Gategang, William, 240, 242. 
Gates of the town, 16211. 
Gateshead, in^ 61, 120^, 121 », 168, 

i72«, I73«, 218-249 ; manor of, 306. 
Gateshead, Alan of, 141. 
Gateshead annexed to Newcastle, 220 ; 

attempted second annexation, 221, 

222. 
Gateshead, arms of, 148. 
Gateshead, baililFof, 221, 227, 241. 
Gateshead, beadle of, 224J1. 
Gateshead, bellman of, 224M. 
Gateshead, explosion at, 140, 172, 246, 

271. 
Gateshead, fair at, 219, 222, 223. 
Gateshead Fell, 3, 10511, 23611, 238, 

240. 
Gateshead, fisheries of, 218, 219. 
Gateshead, head of, 237, 238 ; cross at, 

237. 
Gateshead, hospitals of, 296-311. 
Gateshead House, 234, 236, 237, 238. 
Gateshead, Incorporated Company of 

Drapers, etc., 145 ; of Freemasons, 

etc., 225 ; other companies, 22711, 

Gateshead, market at, 219, 222, 223. 
Gateshead, market cross at, 222. 
Gateshead moor or town fields, 222, 

22411, ^ifi^t 303* 
Gateshead, old rectory, 1 39^, 247. 
Gateshead, pants in, 222, 229, 240. 
Gateshead pinfold, 240. 
Gateshead, Scotch army at, 235, 23611. 
Gateshead, the piper of, 224. 
Gateshead, toll booth at. See Toll 

Booth. 
Gateshead, Twenty-four of, 142W, 144, 

145, 224, 225«, 23i«, 234. 
Gatesheved, 1 37«. 
Gaunless Chare (Bishop Auckland), 

i73«. 
Gee, Robert, 36. 
"George" Inn, 129^, i30«. 



" George " Inn, Gateshead, 225 

Gerard, son of Geve, 297. 

Gerardlee, 28911. 

Gesemuth, Adam de, 135, 190. 

Gibson, Alexander, 153. 

Gibson, Edmund, 178. 

Gibson, John, 276». 

Gilbert, 138, 139. 

Gilbertleeze (parish of Boldon), 23011. 

Gildeford, John de, 242. 

Gilpin and Co., 131. 

Gilpin, Dr., 163J1, i7i«. 

Gilpin, John, 245«. 

Glanvile, Ranulpb de, 49, 50. 

Glasshouses, 34, 87, 148. 

Glaziers, arms of the Incorporated 
Company of, 226. 

Goat's Head, 224^, 225;!. 

" Goat " Inn, Gateshead, 225, 232. 

Goekell. S^^Jekell 

" Golden Lion " Inn, 169, 177. 

Goldsmiths, Plumbers, etc., Company 
of, 16411, 17611. 

" Good Year," ship so called, 289*. 

Googe, Barnabe, quoted, 16311, 2I2«. 

Gor Chare, i72«. 

Gosforth, 117. 

Gouddy Raw, 188. 

Govis Chare, i72«. 

Gower, Thomas, 267«. 

Gowerley Chare, 188. 

Gowlar Row, 188. 

Grainger Street, 160, 189. 

Grammar School, 8, 178. 

" Grand Lease," 306, 308. 

Grape Lane (York), i72«. 

Graper, Cecily, 282. 

Graper, Peter, 282. 

Gray, Rebecca, i20«. 

Gray, William, quoted, i, 2, 6, 7, 72, 
93, 125, I26«, 130, I72«, 174, 179, 

' 180, 181, 182, 186, 256, 258; men- 
tioned, i8oif, 188. 

Grazebrook, Sydney H., 149. 

Great Hall of the Keep, 80. 

Great Hall of the king in the Castle, 

50. 51. 53. 
Great pit, prison of the, 55, 69. 
Great tower in the Castle. See Keep, 
Great Yarmouth, 27i«. 
Great Yeldham, Essex, 1311. 



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328 



Green, John, 97. 

Greene, John, 125. 

Greenwell, Canon, quoted, 1731c. 

Greenwell, Thomas, 96M. 

Gregory, Dr. Olinthus, 15111. 

Grey, arms of, i5«, 117. 

Grey, Edward, txifty 155. 

Grey Friar Chare, 126. 

Grey Friars in Newcastle, 125, 126, 

189, 24311. 
"Grey Horse" Inn, 173. 
Grey, Mary, 12 1«. 
Grey, Ralph, t$n. 
Grey Street, 126, 127. 
Grey, Thomas, 162. 
GrejTStock, arms of, 1091c. 
GrejTstock (the parish of), i72«. 
Griffith, Thomas, 289K. 
Grindon Chare, 173. 
Grindon, Thomas, 173- 
Groat Market, i6m, 12911. 
Grundon Chare. See Grmdom Chart, 
Grype Chare, i72«, 17311. 
Guard room of the Castle Keep, 63, 77. 
Guildhall, 12-26, i22», 272, 29111. 
Guilds of Newcastle, 69. 
Gullerow Green, 188. 
Gustard, Thomas, 3 ion. 

Hackney coaches, 13011. 

Half-Moon Battery, 44, 61, 70, 71, 84. 

"HaU-Moon" Inn (Bigg Market), 

"Half-Moon" Inn, Gateshead, 225, 

228ff. 

" Half-Moon " Inn (Swirle), 89. 

Half-Moon Lane, 88. 

Half-Moon Lane, Gateshead, i73», 

226, 227, 22811, 230. 
Halhead, Miles, 29. 
HaUwarkfolk, 218. 
Hall, arms of, ii9», 120^, i47ff. 
Hall, Jane, i2o«. 
Hall, John, 27811. 
Hall, Matthew, 2. 
Hall moniunent, 1 20. 
Hall, Nicholas, i2o«. 
Hall, Sir Alexander, 119, 120, 147. 
Hall,Wimam, 118, 120. 
Hallow Bank, 271. 
Halnaby, 187*. 



Hammond, Samuel, 30, 33. 
Hamon of Gateshead, 297. 
Hanover Square chapel, 273. 
Harbottle, 224. 
Harbottle, family of, 294. 
Harding, arms of, 10911. 
Hardwick in Sedgefield, 94X. 
Hardjmg, dame, 200. 
Hardjrng, John, quoted, 42, 43. 
Hardjrnge, Rowland, 194, 195. 
Harl, Edward, 125. 
Harle, Thomas, 303. 
Harleia, or Harles, 297. 
Harleston, John de, 53. 
Harrigand, Richard, 212. 
Harrigate, Robert, 17611, 212. 
Harrington, Thomas, 105. 
Harrison, James, 12111. 
Harrison, John, the chronometer 

maker, 12111. 
Harrison, John, 39. 
Hartcla, Andrew de, 85. 
Hartlepool, 61, i73«, 189, 202, %isn. 
Harvey, Messrs., 3. 
Haslcrigg, Sir Arthur, 30, 102, i83«. 
Haswell Grange, 284. 
Hatfield, bishop, 293, 304, 305 ; grant 

of, 92, 192. 
Hatfield's Survey, mentioned, 218,242, 

a4«, 196, 305- 
Haukeswell, Peter de, 312. 
Hawkeswell, Margaret, 302. 
Hawks, Crawshay, and Sons, 225if. 
Hawks, Sir R. S., 97, ixiw, 225*. 
Hawks, William, 225. 
Hawkswell, John de, 189. 
Hawyck, Joan, 9411. 
Hawyck, Walter, ^\n. 
Hayward*s Chare, 17211. 
Headlamps coffee house, 27^. 
Heaton, ancient chapel at, 136. 
Heaton, high, 15111. 
Heaton Park, 135. 
Hebbum, family of, 315. 
Hebburn, George, 199. 
Hebburn Hall, 304. 
Hebburn, John, 199. 
Hebbum, Ralph, 198, 199. 
Hebbum, Thomas, 199, 200, 207. 
Heddon-on-the-Wall, 107, i8o«. 
Hedley and Co., Messrs., 229. 



Hedley, John, 38. 

Hedwin Streams, 218. 

Heighington, William de, 293. 

Hellgate. Stt HiUgaU. 

Helton, Robert de, i^in. 

Henderson, Alexander, 102. 

Hennezel. See HtnstU, 

Hennezes. See HitutU. 

Henrietta Maria, queen, 204. 

Henry, prince, 47. 

Henry I., grant of, 91, 156, \^i. 

Henry II., 46, 47, 49. 

Henry III., 189, 190. 

Henry IV., charter ot, 59 ; license of, 

104, 16211 ; grant by, 289*. 
Henry V., 16211. 
Henry VI., license of, 94^1, 103. 
Henry VII., grant of, 124*. 
Henry VIII., 193. 
Henry, son of David king of Scotland, 

44. 45» 46. 
Henzell, Annanias, 149. 
Henzell, arms of, 149. 
Henzell, Balthazar, 148. 
Henzell, Catherine, 149. 
Henzell, C. W., 149. 
Henzell, Didicr de, 149. 
Henzell, family of, 148-149. 
Henzell, John, 149. 
Henzell, Joshua, 149. 
Henzell, Thomas, 148. 
Hepburn, Robert, 254^. 
Hermitage, Sheriff Hill, 12611. 
Hcronpit, 51, 56, 57, 58, 68, 69, 73. 
Hervey, Mr., 247. 
Heslarton, 295. 

Heslop, R. O., quoted, 173*, 305^. 
Hette, William, 208. 
Heugk, 54. 

Hewbanke, John, 214. 
Heworth, 8, 188, 242. 
Heworth Chare, 1721c. 
Heworth Church, 14211. 
Hexham, 17311, *45*i »67. 
Hexham, battle of, 8. 
Hexham Bible, 124. 
Hexham, priory of, 124. 
Hexham, Thomas de, 53. 
Hextildesham. See Hexham, 
Heyford, Colonel, 27*. 
He3n'on, barony of, 52. 



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High Bridge, 125, 126, 127, iiSn. 

High Castle, 60. 

High Church Chare, Gateshead, 1 72*. 

High Friar Chare, 126, i72ir. 

High Friar Street, 126, 172*. 

High Level Bridge, i, 41, 66, 72, 317. 

High Street, Gateshead, 34, 173^, 223- 

240. 
Hildeley, Sir John de, 51. 
Hilderskelfe, William, 302. 
Hillcoat, Mr., 25. 
Hillgate, 224, 225, 244-247. 
Hilton, Alan, 104. 
Hilton, baron of, 95«. 
Hilton Chapel, 95«. 
Hilton, Margaret, 294. 
Hilton, Sir Alexander, 293, 294. 
Hilton, William, 129//, 246, 247. 
Hinde, John Hodgson, mentioned, 4211, 

180, 275 ; quoted, 130^, 25o«. 
Hinkster, George, 181. 
*' History of the Renowned Prince 

Arthur," quoted, i6oir. 
Hodges, C. C, ii5«. 
Hodgson, John, mentioned, 40, 41 w, 

26o», 287«, 289^, 292 ; quoted, I39«, 

285. 

Hodgson, Messrs., 166. 

Hodgson, Richard, 307. 

Hodshon, Christopher, 276^. 

Holborn, John, 209. 

Holchare, Gateshead, 172^, 228. 

♦'Hole in the Wall, " 182. 

Holmes, Mr., 204. 

Holy Island, I73», 207, 266; castle, 
capture of, 236. 

Home, John, 254^. 

Home, Lieut-Colonel, 254«. 

Homer, " one," 283». 

Homildon, Cecilia, 93. 

Hone's " Table Book," mentioned, 
90«; "Ancient Mysteries," men- 
tioned, 13611; reprints of Murray's 
works, i28ir. 

Hornby, Hugh, 117, 130, 283. 

Hornsby's Chare, 174. 

Hornsea, 166. 

Horseley's engraving of St. Nicholas's, 
I coif. 

Horsley, 289«. 

Horsley, George, 17111. 



329 

' Horsley, Peter, 17111. 

Hospital, St. Catherine's, 12, 13, 16, 
2^7} 316 » licences of foundation and 
endowment, 289^. 

Hospital of the Holy Trinity, Gates- 
head, 296-298, 299. 

Hospital of St. Edmund's, bishop and 
confessor, Gateshead, z^Sh, 298- 
304 ; charter of foundation, 298 ; 
charter of ordination, 299 ; inventory 
of the goods of, 300 ; appropriation 
of, 301 ; chapel described, 303 ; 
chantry of the Holy Trinity in, 
29611, 299, 300, 303. 

Hospital of St. Edmund, king and 
martyr, Gateshead, 296/r, 304-311. 

Hospital of the Virgin Mary, 194. 

Hostmen's Company, 154, 155, 262, 
272. 

Hoton, William, 94^. 

Hotspur, Henry, 162. 

Hotun or Hutton, W., rebus of, 157. 

Hour-glass, iSn. 

Hoveden, Roger de, quoted, 41. 

Howard, John, quoted, 63. 

Howden Pans, glass-house at, 148. 

Howetson, Edward, 230^. 

Howitt, Mary, 1 1 7». 

Howitt, William, quoted, 110; men- 
tioned, IIJH. 

Hubberthorne, Richard, 30, 3i«. 

Huddock or huttock, 1 54*/. 

Hull, 268. 

Hume, Lord, quoted, 254n. 

Hungerford, Lord, 8. 

Hunter, Jeremiah, 36. 

Hurworth, 152^. 

Huichy 25ff. 

Hutchinson, John, 14111, 303. 

Hutchinson, William, quoted, ^96;;. 

Hutton, Charles, 151, 152. 

Hutton, Eleanor, x^in. 

Hutton, Henry, i5i«. 

Hutton, Isabella, i^xn, 

Hutton or Hotun, W., rebus of, 157, 

158M. 
Hyde Park, 9. 

Ile, Anne, 121. 

He, Christopher, 121. 

lie monument, 121. 



lie, Robert, 121. 

Indulgence granted by foreign bishops,. 

9»- 
Ingram, John, 238, 239. 
Inquisition into the state of the Castle, 

taken in 1334, 51, 52; taken in 

1336, S3- 
Insula, John de, 53. 
Insula, Robert de, 136. 
Island, the, 181. 
Ivison, , i5i«. 

•'Jack Tar" Inn, 90. 

Jackson, Dr., 263. 

Jackson's Chare, Gateshead, 173^, 240. 

Jackson Street, Gateshead, I73>r, 240. 

Jacob's " History of Faversham, " 

quoted, 291/r. 
James I., at St. Nicholas's, loi ; 
charter of, 200W, 202 ; at Newcastle,, 
272 ; charter refounding St. Ed- 
mund's Hospital, Gateshead, 296/7, 
308. 
James II., portrait of, 22, 216 ; statue 
of, 27, 28, 276 ; lease of Castle pre- 
cincts granted by, 69 ; charter of,, 
207. 
James, Mr., \%in. 
" Jane Eyre," 249. 
Jarrow, cell of, 243. 
Jarrow, Julian de, 305. 
Javell Group, 55, 56, 57, 317. 
Jefferson, Sir John, 23111. 
Jeffries, Lord Chief Justice, 316. 
Jekell, Robert, 39. 
Jenison, arms of, i in. 
Jenison, Dr., 210, 21111, 264, 266. 
Jenison, Sir Ralph, 11, I99n. 
Jenkins, J., 38. 

Jesmond, 292 ; derivation of the name,. 
292 ; holy well, 292 ; mill at, 293 j 
manor of, 293. 
Jesmond Dene, 135, 29a. 
Jesmond, St. Mary's Chapel at. See 

St, Marys ChaptL 
Jesmond Village, \%\h, 
Jesus Hospital, 189, 269, 270, 276. 
Jew Gate, 178. 
John, king, charter of, 15 ; grant of^ 

I23lf. 

John of Hexham, quoted, 45. 

GO 



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330 



Johnson, Anthony, 96^. 
Johnson Brothers, Messrs., 317. 
Johnson, Isabel, 103. 
Johnson, William, 103. 
Joiners' Chare, 88«, lyiw. 
Jopling, Isaac, 225, zzjh^ 228m. 
Jordan, Charles, 232. 
Jordan, " a Sword Kipper," 68. 
Justices, itinerant, 92, 98. 



Karliol, John de, 53. See Carliol. 

Katy*s coffee house, 11. 

Keel, i54Jr. 

Keel-bullies, i54». 

Keel-deeters, 15411. 

Keelmen, 86. 

Keelmen's Hospital, 154, 155. 

Keelmen's strike (1822), 97. 

"Keel Row," 154^. 

Keep of the Castle, 52, 53, 61, 63, 69 ; 

cost of the, 47; description of, 73-83, 

84,85. 
Kellaw, bishop, 248. 
Kellaw, William, 259if. 
Kellaw's Register, mentioned, 218/r, 

304; quoted, 300. 
Kelly, Michael, 4. 
Kebon, Thomas de, 58. 
Kendal, 245^. 

Kepier Hospital, estate of, 230/1, 23 1«. 
Keteryngham, John de, 99. 
Killigrew, Captain, 2811. 
Killingworth, 2891c. 
King, Edward, 35. 
King John's Palace, 135-136. 
King John's Palace, Gateshead, 247. 
King Street, i . 
King's chamber in the Castle, with 

the cellar beneath, 51, 70. 
King's chamber in the Keep, 81. 
King's hall in the Castle, 50, 51, 84. 
Kingsley, Charles, quoted, 88if. 
Kington, John, 28911. 
Kip's print of Anderson place, i26ff. 
Kirk Chare, 17211, 174. 
Kirk, Thomas, quoted, 187*, 231* 
Kirkeherle, Adam, 59. 
Kirkham, Walter de, 83. 
Kirkharle, I20«, 283. 
Kirklevington, 289*. 



! Kirkmasters, churchwardens so called, 
279. 
Kitchen of the Heronpit, 58, 59. 
Knox, John, 100. 
" Kitty," the, at Gateshead, 233. 
Koc, Robert. See Cook. 
Kyo, 298, 303. 

Lacv, Henry de, 50. 
Laing's Loaning, 228. 
Lakey, William, 223. 
Lambe, William, 309. 
Lambeth Palace, 102*. 
Lambley, John de, 55, 56. 
Lamesley, 124. 
Lamford, Alienor de, 297. 
Lamford, Symon de, 297. 
Lammas Fair, 12311. 
Lancaster, earl of, 10311. 
Langhome, Thomas, 39. 
Langley, bishop, 219, 224^. 
Langley, Elizabeth, 148. 
Larson, William, 27. 
Lavatory ^ a piscina, 116. 

Law, , 287*. 

Law, Johanna, 17711. 

Lawes, William, 303. 

Lawless Close, Gateshead, 1 3911. 

Lawrence, prior of Durham, 103. 

Lawson, Agnes, 303. 

Lawson, Anne, 234. 

Lawson, William, 234. 

Lay, the, a common at Durham, 23011. 

Leazes. See CastU Leaxts, 

Leazes Lane, 150, 17211. 

Ledgard, Thomas, 29, 3011, 3111, 32. 

Led)rs, W., 29 1«. 

Leland, John, quoted, I2«, I77ir, 219, 

28311, 287^, 289^, 29111. 
Leofwine, 138, 139. 
Lesley, general, 95, loi. 102. 
Lessinus, 241. 
Lester and Pack, 123. 
Letwell, John, 55, 56, 57, 58. 
Leven, general, 62. 
Lewe, Peter de, 243«. 
Lewes, battle of, 1 36. 
Liberal club, 127. 

" Liber Vitse " of Durham, quoted, 94ir. 
Liddell, arms of, I47». 
Liddell, Edward, 230. 



Liddell, family of, 244. 

Liddell, James, 214. 

Liddell, John, 20M. 

Liddell, Mary, 230. 

Liddell, Roger, 14711. 

Liddell, Sir Francis, 147. 

Liddell, Sir Thomas, 230M. 

Liddell, Thomas, 204, 297/r. 

Liddell, town residence of, 177. 

Lilburne, arms of (?), 284. 

Lilleburn, John de, 53. 

Lime Kilns, 56. 

Linlithgow, tower of, 11 1 . 

Lisle, Robert, 26011. 

Lisle, Sir William, 60. 

Lithgow, William, quoted, 62, 87, 
235ir, 253if, 25411. 

Little Eden, 94^, 9511. 

Liulph, 138. 

Livingstone, Patrick, 37. 

Locke, Blackett, and Co., 317. 

Lockwood, Thomas, 284. 

Lokington, Hugh de, 304. 

Lomaz, Ralph, 212. 

London, William, 3i«, 245», 246//. 

Long Benton Colliery, \%\n. 

Long Stairs, 317. 

Longstaffe, W. H. D., mentioned, 4211, 
47«. 5*«. 57«, 65, 68, 72, 115, 17211, 
i8o«, 240, 29611, 311; quoted, 59, 
72, 82, 94», 9511, 161, 228, 229, 247, 
257, 290. 

Loraine, Thomas, 12011. 

Lort-Burn, 4, 7, 12, 54*, 126. 

Loughborough, 12011. 

Love Lane, 8, 9, 10, 188. 

Low Bridge, 133. 

Low Church Chare, Gateshead, i72«. 

Low Friar Chare, i72if. 

Low Friar Street, 17211. 

Lucy, arms of, I09«, 162. 

Lucy, Lady Elizabeth, 17711. 

Lucy, Maude, 162. 

Lucy, Richard de, 48, 49. 

Lumley, arms of, 284, 285, 286. 

Lumley Castle, 1 3. 

Lumley, family of, 138, 227, 315. 

Lumley, Sir George, 176, i77«, 284, 
286. 

Lumley, Sir Richard, 13. 

Lumley, Sir Thomas, 177*. 



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331 



Lumley village, 23511. 
Lumleys, residence of the, in New- 
castle, 2. 
Lumsden, J., 182. 

Lyghtton, Thomas, grave cover of, 255. 
Lymleder, Andrew le, 57. 
Lynsey, Robert, 306. 

Macclesfield, earl of, 70. 

Mackenzie, Eneas, quoted, 3, 70, 15211, 
173, 217, 255, 319; mentioned, 72, 
i26K,i28«,i5iif, 153, 17511, 184, 296ff. 

Maddison, Anne, 118, 119, 120^. 

Maddison, arms of, iign. 

Maddison, Barbara, 119, 120K. 

Maddison, Eleanor, 119, i2o«. 

Maddison, Elizabeth, 119, i2o«. 

Maddison, George, 119, 12011. 

Maddison, Henry, 118, 119, 120. 

Maddison, Jane, 118, 119, 12011. 

Maddison, John, 119, 12011, 232. 

Maddison, Lionel, 118, 11911. 

Maddison monument, 117. 

Maddison, Peter, 119, i2o«. 

Maddison, Ralph, 119, 12011. 

Maddison, Robert, 2811, 119, 120X. 

Maddison, Rowland, 118. 

Maddison, Sir Lionel, 118, 119, 12011. 

Maddison, Susan, 119,1 2o;i. 

Maddison, Thomas, 119, 120M. 

Maddison, Timothy, 119, i2oxr. 

Maddison, William, 119, 12011. 

Magazine Gate, 25. 

Mails, royal, 2, 128, 12911, i3oir. 

Mainford, Sir Peter de, 300. 

Maison Dieu, 12-14, '6. 

Malcolm, 42. 

Malcolm's Chare, 88», 172K. 

Mallett, Ellinor, i47». 

Manor Chare, 17211, 178, 283*. 

Manor Street, 131. 

Manors, 125, 269, 280, 283*. 

Mansion House, 187, 269, 317. 

Manwell Chare, 17211. 

Maplisden, Peter, ^n. 

Marble Street, Gateshead, 228«. 

March, John, 89J1. 

Mareshal, Peter le, efl&gy of, 115. 

Market in Sandgate, 87 ; at Cale 
Cross, 6 ; on Sandhill, 7. 

Market Street, 126. 



Markham*8 Chare, 172M. 

Marlay, Robert, 303. 

Marley , arms of, 1 1 gn. 

Marley, Elizabeth, i2o«. 

Marley, Henry, 18711. 

Marley, John, 244^. 

Marley, Sir John, 61, 62, 71, 95, 101, 

187^, 205, 23011, 26511, 272, 315. 
Marley, William, iigw. 
Marr, Robert, 153. 
Marriage customs, 13. 
Marshall, Richard, 193, 19411. 
Marston Moor, battle of, 87. 
Marston St. Lawrence, window at, io8«, 
Mary, queen, charter of, 201, 220. 
Mary Queen of Scots, i87if. 
Maryon House Chare, 174. 
Massam, William de. 2431. 
Mathew, Richard, 124. 
Mathew, Thomas, 124. 
Matthew, bishop, 101, 210, 2iiir, 227ir. 
Mauduyt, Roger, 50, 52, 53. 
Maughan's Chare, 17211. 
MoMnUUt, i%n. 

Maurice, builder of the Castle Keep, 47. 
Mawe, Jane, 212. 
Maxwell, Cuthbert, 163. 
Maxwell, Thomas, 36. 
Mayor, election of, 123, 212. 
Meal Market, 16. 
Mears, Messrs., 142*. 
Mears, Thomas, 122. 
Meeting House Entry, 17211. 
Merchants' Company, arms of, 11, 

120ff. 

Merchants' Company, 14-21, 185, 187^1, 

262, 272. 
Merchants' Court, 15. 
Mercury, Roman figure of, 41. 
Merley, Adam de, 297, 298. 
Merley, Roger de, 93. 
Mcrton, William de, 190. 
" Meters' Arms " Inn, 3. 
Michaelmas Monday, 212. 
Middleham Castle, 77. 
Middleton, family of, 294. 
Middleton, Geoffry, 240. 
Middleton Hall, 284. 
Midelham, John de, 56, 57, 58, 59. 
Milbank, Elizabeth, 23111. 
Milbank, family of, 230J1. 



Milbank MS., quoted, 61, 67, 163,. 
28 3« ; mentioned, 25o». 

Milbank, Mark, 18711, 20111. 

Milbank, Ralph, 187)1. 

Milbank, Sir Mark, 23111, 315. 

Milboume, Christopher, 89. 

Milboume, Joseph, 214. 

Milburn, i63«. 

Milk Market, 86, 87, 90, 168, 172. 

Miller Chare, Gateshead, i73«, 227. 

Miller's Field, Gateshead, 1 3911. 

Mi In Chare, 150. 

Milnebum, Robert de, 53. 

Mirk Chare, Gateshead, 227, 228, 23 1«. 

Mirk Lane, Gateshead, 96^, 228. 

Mitchell's " Newcastle Directory," 
quoted, 128. 

Mitford, 136. 

Mitford Castle, 77. 

Mitford, William, 36. 

Moat of the Castle, 54, 73, 83 ; en- 
croachments on the, 53. 

Molins, lord, 8. 

Mompesson, William, 11711. 

Monboucher, family of, 294. 

Monkchester, 40, 42, 61, 25011. 

Monkhouse and Brown, 182. 

" Monmouth," ship, 166. 

Montford, Simon de, 1 36. 

Moor, Dr., 155. 

Moot Hall, the new, 40, 70, 98. 

Moot Hall, the old, 33, 50, 60, 61, 63^ 
66, 69, 70, 73. 

Morpeth, 27*, 103, 173*. 

Morton, Alderman, I99«. 

Morton, bishop, 278«. 

Morton, George, 148. 

Morton, Peace, i7i«. 

Mosley Street, 97, 129*. 

Motion, Isabel, 202. 

Mowbray, Robert, 43, 44. 

Mowbray, Roger de, 48. 

Murray, earl of, 54. 

Murray, Rev. James, 127; list of his 
works, 12711. 

Murray, William, 175. 

Murray's " Handbook to Northumbcr- 
land and Durham," quoted, 292. 

Musgrave, Peter, 254. 

Mushroom, 312. 

" My Bonnie Keel Laddie," 1 54*. 

Myers, Leonard, 313. 



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332 



-** Nag's Head" Inn, i29#», 272. 

Naorgcorgus, quoted, i63«, 21 in. 

Narrow Chare, 17211. 

Nattres, Richard, 222. 

Nayler, James, 29, 30, 31*, ^2m. 

Nickirons^ 59. 

Necton, Robert de, 51. 

Neoburgh, Sir Ambrose de, 51. 

Neptime, Roman altar to, 91. 

Nether Dean Bridge, 4, 133. 

Neville, arms of, io9«. 

Neville, archbishop, 95«. 

Neville, bishop, 94M, 219, 248, 301. 

Neville, Sir Thomas, 9411. 

Neville, John, lord, 54. 

Neville's Cross, battle of, 54. 

New Bridge, 182. 

New Bridge Street, 125. 

New Gate, 254*. 

New Pandon, 182. 

New Road, 86. 

Newbottle, 224. 

Newburn, battle of, loi, 204, 235, 265. 

Newborn, church of, 91. 

Newcastle, arms of, ii», i22«, 131, 

161, 171. 
NtwcasiU Chronicle^ quoted, 3io«. 
NtwcastU Courant^ quoted, 63, i5i«, 

169. 
Newcastle Gazette^ 246. 
Newcastle Journal^ quoted, 25. 
Newcastle Weekly Chronicle^ mentioned, 

ir3«. 

Newcastle, market at, 219, 221. 
Newcastle, marquis of, 86, 205. 
Newgate Gaol (Newcastle), 2, 39. 
Newgate Street, 165. 
Newlove, Richard, 210. 
Newminster, mart3rrology of, 29 1«. 
Newspaper, first Newcastle, 246. 
Newton, John de, 243^. 
Newton, Sir Isaac, 151/1. 
Newton, William, 280. 
Nicholas, son of Thorald, 241. 
Nicholson, arms of, 15^. 
Nicholson, Christopher, i5«. 
Norham Castle, 44, 45, ioi«, 238. 
Norham Chare, i72«. 
North Tyne Glass Works, 149. 
Northumberland, duchess of, 8. 
Northumberland, duke of, 65, 19711. 



Northumberland, earl of, 60, 101, 192. 
Northumberland, Henry, earl of, 316. 
Northumberland, Henry Percy, first 

earl of, 162. 
Northumberland House, London, 8. 
Northumberland, rebellion of the earl 

of, 289/1. 
Northumberland Street, 125. 
Norwich, 266. 
Norwich soldiers, 168, 272. 
Nun Street, 189. 

Oakwellgate Chare, Gateshead, 

Oakwellgate, Gateshead, 139, 141, 
i44>i, 225, 227, 229, 230/1, 247, 248. 
Oggill. See OgU. 
Ogilvie, George, 153. 
Ogle, arms of, 109/f . 
Ogle, Gilbert de, 51. 
Ogle, John, 60, 125. 
Ogle, Robert de, ijhn. 
"Old Church Clock," 98/f. 
" Old Queen's Head," 132. 
Oliver Chare, 172/1. 
Oliver's Map of Newcastle^ 181. 
OUecross, 271. 
Ord, arms of, 162. 
Orlyens, William de, 55, 56. 
Osbourn, John, 87. 
Osmund, bishop of Salisbury, 91. 
Osmund, son of Hamon, 297. 
Oswin, Life of king, quoted, 41. 
Osworth, Robert de, 244. 
Oswy, 137, 180. 
Oter, Gamell, 241. 
Otterbm-n, battle of, 7, 260/1. 
Otway, John, 278/*. 
Ouseburn, 135. 
Ouse-mouth, 292. 
Ouston, 297, 298, 303. 
Oxford, University of, 193, 238. 

" Pack Horse," 132. 

Page, Adam, 51. 

Painter Heugh, 4, 133. 

Palace Place, Gateshead, 230/1, 247. 

Palester's Chare, 172/1, 174. 

Pampeden. See Pandon, 

Pandon, 178-188. 

Pandon Bank, 182 



Pandon Burn, 182, 184, 1 05 iS.). 

Pandon Dean, 125, 182. 

Pandon Gate, 182, 183. 

Pandon Gate mills, 283M. 

Pandon Hall, 180, 181, 184. 

Pant^ origin of the word, 3. 

Pantrees^ SJn. 

Pantries of the Heronpit, 57. 

Pantry of the Castle, 53. 

" Papers which passed at Newcastle," 

etc., io2/f. 
Park House, Gateshead, 248. 
Park Lane, London, 9. 
Parkinson, Richard, 98/s. 
Partrage, the coiner, 132M. 
Pater Noster, to whom to be said, 1 940. 
Paulin, John, 289/f. 
Pawlinge, Robert, 307. 
Peacock Chare, 175. 
"Peacock" Inn, 175. 
Peada, 137, 180. 
Peaker, Tobias, 175. 
Peareth, arms of, 109/f. 

Peareth, , 125. 

Peareth, Susan, i47/(. 

Peareth, W., 27. 

Peareths of Usworth, town residence 

of, 128. 
Pearson, Anthony, 32. 
Pearson, dame, 200. 
Pearsons Chare, 172/f. 
Penance at St. Nicholas's, 99, 100. 
Pencher Place, 4. 
Penda, 137, 180. 
Pendrat, Thomas, 303. 
Peppercorn, Chare, 173. 
Percival, Robert, 164. 
Percy, arms of, 109/f, '62. 
Percy Street, 150-153, 172/f. 
Percy Street Burjring Ground, n;2, 

'53- 
Peregrine, the name, 148. 
Peter the dyer, 243 /f. 
Peynture, Henry, 53. 
Phelps, R., 25, 122, 255. 
Philip Chare, 172/r. 
Philip de Pictavia, bishop, 297. 
Philippa, Queen, 259/f. 
Phillips, Maberley, i53i». 
Pickeringe, Alice, 307. 
Pickle, John, 68. 



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333 



Pidcock, Charles, 149. 

Pie-powder, court of, 1 24J1, 

"Pilgrim's" Inn, 129. 

Pilgrim Street, 4, 36, 125-134, 152, 

168, 23o«, 278. 
Pilgrim Street Gate, 125. 
Pilkington, bishop, 220, 221. 
Pillory at Durham, 227K. 
Pipe Rolls, quoted, 46, 47, 83, 84, 85. 
Pipewell, the, Gateshead, 244. 
Pipewellgate, 31, 33, 34, i44«. 2<9. 

224, 225, 241-244. 
Pirates on the North Seas, 206. 
Piscina, double, purpose of, 252«. 
Pittington, 306. 
Plantagenet, Elizabeth, 177M. 
Plessis, John de, 1 36. 
Plessy, 28911. 
Plummer Chare, 174. 
Plummer, John, 174. 
Pliunmer, Robert, 174. 
Plummer Tower, 179. 
Pollard, William, 9611. 
PoUowe, John de, 300. 
Pons Aelii,4o, 41M. 
Pont-ik-Mousson, 238. 
Ponteland, 8. 

Ponteland, Athol's Castle at, 260/1. 
Ponteland, "Blackbird" Inn at, 26c«. 
Poole, G. A., quoted, 1 1 2. 
Poore*s " Ancren Riewle," mentioned, 

142. 
" Poor Robin's Almanack," 123. 
" Popish recusants " not to be taken 

as apprentices, 21. 
Porter, Nicholas le, 99. 
Porter, Reginald, 306. 
Post Office in Mosley Street, 97. 
" Post Office " Tavern, 2. 
Postern of the Castle, 53. 
Pothouse Entry, 88«. 
Potter Chare, i73«. 
Pottereshihera. See FoU^r Chan, 
Potter, John, 51. 
Potticar Lane, 240. 
Potts, Thomas, 236^. 
Powell's Alms Houses, 34, 35, 231, 

232, 233. 
Powell, Thomas, 34, 231, 233. 
Powe Panns, North Shields, 20011. 



Pratiman, Gilbert, 55, 56, 57, 59. 

Pratiman, William, 55, 56, 57, 59. 

Presb3rterian Chapel, Gateshead, 9611. 

Press-gang, 202. 

Preste, Alan, 29611. 

Prester, Alan, 141. 

Preston, Robert, 248. 

Prestore. See Frtster, 

Pretender, the Old, 236. 

Pretender, the Young, 8, 188, 237. 

Prideaux, Richard, 30. 

Pringle, John, 171. 

Printing Court Buildings, 271. 

Printing, early, in Gateshead, 245, 246. 

Proctor, Messrs., 5. 

Proctor, Robert, 247. 

Proctor, Thomas, 209. 

Prossor, Dr., 140. 

Prudeaux, , preacher, 21 1«. 

Prudhoe Castle, 49. 

Prynne's " Hidden Works of Darkness" 

quoted, 263. 
Psalms of David, quoted, 91. 
Pudding Chare, 17211. 
Pudding Chare (Hexham), i73«. 
Pudsey, bishop, 91, 241, 244. 
Pulhore, Alan, 51, 53, 281^1. 
Pulhore, John, 281. 
Punchardon, Nicholas de, 53. 
Puys, I54>». 

Pykering, Richard, 282. 
Pylotchare, Gateshead, 172«. 

Quakerism, early, in Gateshead, 29-39. 

Quakers not to be taken as appren- 
tices, 21. 

Quay, gates on the, 168. 

Quaysy raised street pavements, so 
called at Gateshead, 234. 

Quayside, 58, 61, 86, 168-177, 179, 
185, 213. 

Queen's chamber in the Keep, 79. 

"Queen's Head" Inn, 127, 128, i29«, 
I30X. 

" Queen's Head " Inn, Morpeth, 10. 

" Queen's Head," Gateshead, 225. 

Queen's mantle in the Castle, 53, 71. 

Quig, 153- 

Quicham. See WAkJkAam, 

Qwysinty 51. 



Radcliffe, family of, 236, 244. 

Ramsay, Thomas, the "Converted 
Jew," 245, 246, 267. 

Ramsey, William, 164. 

Randal, Richard, 89^. 

Ravensworth, Henry, 95 «. 

Ravensworth, lord, 15111. 

Rawlin, Mr., 171. 

Ray, Mr., press master, 203. 

Read, G., 246^. 

Reasley, John, 254. 

Reaver y 123. 

Rebellion, Northern, of 1569, 221. 

Rebellion of 1745, 8. 
/" Red Cow," Gateshead, 231. 

Red Row, 181. 

Rede, Roger, 243 «. 

Redesdale, character of the inhabitanU 
of, in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, 20. 

Redesdale, Roger, 141. 

Redheugh, Alexander del, 244. 

Redheugh, 241, 244. 

Redmarshall, William, 105. 

Reed, Thomas, 68. 

Reginald of Durham, mentioned, 99M. 

Regrating, the practice of, 183. 

"Reindeer" Inn, 127. 

Rewcastle Chare, 176. 

Rewcasile, Thomas, 176. 

Reynald, John, 51, 53- 

Rheims, 238. 

Rhod's Chare, il2n. 

Richard de Marisco, bishop, 298. 

Richard of Hexham, mentioned, 45 ; 
quoted, 46. 

Richardson, Anthony, 39. 

Richardson, George Bouchier, men- 
tioned, 41 M, 117, 14^- 

Richardson, M. A., quoted, Il2u. 

Richardson, T. M., 4, i4i »73- 

Richardson's "Armorial Bearings in 
St. Nicholas's Church," ii4«, 120M. 

Richardson's " Reprints and Im- 
prints," mentioned, 27«. 

Richardson's "Table Book," men- 
tioned, 3, 6, 70, i97«, 229, 252. 

Richmond, 49, 50. 

Rickman, Thomas, quoted, 1 1 1. 

Riddell, arms of, 121, I47». 



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334 



Riddell, family of, 237, 263. 
Riddell monument, 121. 
Riddell, Sir Peter, loi, 121, 203. 
Riddell, Sir Thomas, 121, if, 144, 146, 

14711, 234, 238, 263, 26$n ; petition 

of, 235. 
Riddell Street, 237. 
Riddell, William, 234, 235, 307. 
Ridley, arms of, i5«. 
Ridley, Matthew, I5ir, 21. 
Ridley, Nicholas, t$n. 
Ridley, Richard, i5», 166. 
Ridley, Sir Matthew White, 6, 1511. 
Rievaulx, abbot of, 45. 
Ripington, Richard de, 59. 
Ripon, 204. 
"Robert Bonaventurc," a ship so 

called, 230M. 
"Robin Hood," 132. 
" Robinson Crusoe,** sign of, 246. 
Robson, Timothy, 270. 
Robton, William, 278/1. 
Rocheford, Jonevin de, 64*. 
Rochester, bishop of, 190. 
Rock's "Church of our Fathers,*' men- 
tioned, i42n. 
Roddam, arms of, 285. 
Rodes, Agnes, 94*, 95/f, 103, 290. 
Rodes, Alice, 95«, 113. 
Rodes, arms of, 10911, "*» "3» '59i 

i6o«, 277. 
Rodes, Isabel, 9411, 95n. 
Rodes, Joan, 94ff. 
Rodes, John, 9411, ^sn. 
Rodes, John the younger, 113. 
Rodes, Robert de, 93, 94, 95«, 103, 

113, 159, 276; supposed brass of, 

289-291. 
Rod's Chare, 172M. 
Rogers, John, 125. 
Rogerson, Robert, 175. 
Roman Wall, 411, 180, 183. 
Rome, 238. 
Roome, Anne, 148. 
Ros, lord, 8. 

" Rose and Crown " Inn, i29«. 
Roskell Chare, i jin. 
Rostock, 289K. 
Rote, William, 245. 
Rothbury, church of, 92. 
Rotherham, John, 25. 



Rotherford, arms of, 284. 

Rotterdam, 204. 

Round Stone Entry, 317. 

Rowcastle, Thomas, 214. 

Roxburgh, 191. 

Roxburgh Castle, 45, 48. 

Royston, R., io2m. 

Rubens, painting said to be by, 2 1 6. 

Ruffus, Gosceline, 46. 

Rufus, William. See Wt//mm II. 

Russell Chare, 172M. 

Rutchester, 18011. 

Ryddal, William, 53. 

Ryhill, Robert de, 53. 

R)rton, 124, 242, 301, 302. 



Sacring belb, 104. 

Sadberg, John de, 218, 248. 

Saddlers, Company of, 195. 

Saddlers' Hall, 195, 197. 

Saikeld, Thomas, 229M. 

St. Andrew's Church, 124, i92«, 250- 
260,275 ; chancel, 250,251 ; arcades, 
250; tower, 251 ; piscina, 252 ; aisles 
and transepts, 252; roofs, 253 ; chan- 
cel porch, 253 ; rood-loft, 253 ; font, 
253 ; porch, 254; parvise, 254; ves- 
try, 254 ; grave covers, 255 ; restora- 
tion, 255 ; stained glass, 258 ; bells, 
28, 255 ; chantry of St. Mary, 256 ; 
chantry of the Holy Trinity, 252, 
256; parish register, 153, 253. 

St. Andrew's (Scotland), 194. 

St. Ann's Chapel, 24, 25, 86, 89, 169. 

St. Ann's Street, 86, 88, 89. 

St. Bartholomew, nuns of, 135. 

St. Bartholomew's nunnery, 189, 242, 
271, 29611, 301, 302. 

St. Catherine's Windows, 108. 

St. Cuthbert, patrimony of, 218. 

St. Cuthbert's antipathy to females, 99. 

"St. Cuthbert's " Inn, 130. 

St. Cuthbert's Shrine, 94^7, 99. 

St. Dunstan's in the East, London, 
tower of. III. 

St. Edmund's Chapel, Gateshead, 1 37, 
234. See Hospital of St. Edmund^ 
Bishop and Confessor. 

St. Francis, relics of, 125. 

St. John's Charity School, 165. 



St. John's Church, 30, 156-167, 19111, 
»50) *75 ; anchorite, 160; bells, 164; 
burial of executed criminals at, 165 ; 
chancel, 156, 157, 158, 160; chantry 
of St. Thomas, 167 ; chantry of St 
Mary, 167 ; chantry of Holy Trinity, 
158; cross from, 161; font, 163; 
grave cover from, 161 ; monuments, 
165; nave of, 158; Norman por- 
tions, 156, 157; north aisle, 157, 
158; north transept, 158; old 
stained glass, 158, 161, 162 ; organ, 
163 ; piscina, 160; porch, 160, 161 ; 
pulpit, 164; rood-loft, 160; roof of 
nave, 159; south aisle, 158, 159; 
south transept, 159, 160; tower of, 
^57. 159; vestry, 160. 

St. John's Lane, 160, 182. 

St. John in Weardale, chantry in 
chapel of, 9511. 

St. Lawrence's Chapel, 312-314. 

St. Ledger, Miss, 166. 

St. Luke's Fair, 124^. 

St. Mary's Chare (Gateshead), 173W. 

St. Mary's Chare (Hexham), i73ir. 

St. Mary's Chapel, Jesmond, 125, 135, 
292-295 ; piscinas, 294 ; shrine at, 
295 ; pilgrimage to, 295. 

St. Mary's Church, (Jateshead, 29, 96if , 
'37-H8, *43*j anchorage, 142 ; 
bells, i42«; chancel, 139; chantry 
of St. Mary, 140, 141, 24311 ; chantry 
of St. John the Apostle and St John 
the Baptist, 141 ; chantry of St. 
Eloi, 141 ; chantry of Holy Trinity, 
141 ; chantry of St Catherine, 243« ; 
communion plate of, 23111 ; grave 
covers, 142, 143; nave, 139, 140; 
north transept, 140, 141 ; old chair, 
*47i 148 ; sedilia and piscina, 140 ; 
south door, 140 ; south transept, 1 39; 
sulls, 145-147 ; tower, 140 ; vestry 
books quoted, i42«, 144, 145, 148, 
224«, 229«, 233, 23611, 24411, a67Jf, 
297«. 

St. Mary's Street, 86, 88. 

St Michael's Mount, 184. 

St. Nicholas's Church. See CathedraL 

St Paul, Mary de, 25911. 

St Peter's Quay, 88«. 

St. Thomas, chapel of, 103*, 267. 



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335 



St. Thomas's Street, 1 52. 

Saints, emblems of, 288. 

Salicibus, Nicholas de, chare of, 172». 

Sally-port of the Keep, 76, 77. 

Salmon sent to London, 203. 

Salt Meadows, 220. 

Salutation Entry, 15111. 

Sanctuary sought at Faversham, 291 ». 

Sanders, Diana, 225. 

Sanders, William, 225. 

Sanderson, Thomas, ^6h. 

Sand Gate, 86, 188. 

Sandgate, 24^, 56, 86-90, 154^, 168, 

172H. 
Sandgate New Road, 86. 
Sandgate Shore, 90. 
Sandhill, 3, 4, 7-28, 61, 71, 90, 93, 

i24*r, 168, 169, 170, 172, i87«, 2i3«, 

272, 276. 
Sandwell Chare (Hartlepool), i73«. 
Sawyer, John, 56, 57. 
"Saxon Chronicle," quoted, J54J1. 
Saywell, J., 246. 
Scalers, 224«. 
Scarborough, 205. 
Schiveling, 204. 

School taught in the Castle, 64. 
"Scotch Arms" (Quayside), 187. 
Scotland, Borough Laws of, 123. 
Scot, Nicholas, 53, 54, 189. 
Scot, Sir Peter, 189. 
Scott, Edward, 167. 
Scott, Henry, 8, 133. 
Scott, John, 23611. 
Scott, John, Lord Eldon, 8-10, 133, 

188. 
Scott, Sir G. G., 98, 105. 
Scott, William, 8, 10. 
Scott, William, Lord Stowell, 8, 188. 
Scott's " Border Antiquities," 66. 
Scott's House (parish of Boldon), 23011. 
Scrope, lord, 193. 
Sea-coal, 240. 
Seathwaite, gSn. 
Second gate of the Castle, 51, 55, 68, 

69. 
Sedan chairs, i3o«. 
Sedgefield, 9, 94^. 
Sedgefield church, 94. 
Segrave, Hugh de, 300. 
Selby, arms of, i09«. 



Selby, William, 306, 307. 

Sellers* Entry, 88. 

Seminary priest executed at Gates- 
head, 238. 

Seymour, arms of, 119/r. 

Seymour, Thomas, 11911. 

Shadforth, Henry, 214. 

Shaftoe, family of, 236. 

Shaftoe, Robert, 15 im, 152;!. 

Shaftoe, William, 60. 

"Shakespeare" Tavern, 12911. 

Shapecape, John, 104. 

Sharpar, Michael, 229». 

Sharpe, Sir Cuthbert, quoted, 230*, 
231M. 

Sharpe, Robert, i^n. 

Sheep's Head Alley, 72. 

Sheriff Hill, 240. 

Sheriff Hill Pottery, 241. 

Sheriff's accounts for repair of Castle 

in 1357-8, 55-59- 
Shields, 204, 205, 212, 219. 
Shields, North, lighthouses at, 2oo», 

201 ». 
Shields Road, 9. 
Shilbottle, 224. 
" Ship " Inn, 169. 
Shipman Chare, 17211. 
Shire House, 33. 
Shotley Bridge, 307. 
Shoi-nail, 581*. 
Shotton, 289^. 

Shrove Tuesday customs, 123. 
Side, 1-6, i26«, 150. 
Side, Head of the, 1,2, 3, 12911. 
Sidgate, 150, 152, 153. 
Sidwinerey sjn. 
Siege of Newcastle (1644), 62, 86, 87, 

94, 95, 116, 205, 23611, 253, 263. 
Sigebert, 180. 
Silksworth, 10311. 
Silvanus, Roman altar to, 4111. 
Silver Street, 133, i72«, 178, 179, 278. 
Silver Street, Dog Bank formerly so 

called, 273. 
Silver Street Chapel, 153. 

Simpson, , glazier, 227*. 

Sire, Eve, 243. 

Sire, family of, 241. 

Sire, Idonia, 243K. 

Sire, William, 242, 243, 244. 



Skinner Burn, 88ir. 

Skinners and Glovers, Company of, 

176«, 195. 
Skinners' and Glovers' Hall, 197. 
Skirlaw, bishop, 28911. 
Smith, John, 97, i8oif. 
Smith, Prudence, 148. 
Smith, Samuel, bell-founder, 28, 164. 
Smiths, Company of, 195. 
Smiths' Hall, 197. 
Snape, Thomas de, 53. 
Snarey, William, 267^1. 
Snotterton, 114. 
Sockburne, 147. 

Solemn League and Covenant, 21111. 
Sonander's print of Anderson Place, 

I26ir. 
Sopwith, Thomas, quoted, 172, 278, 

279. 
South Bailey, Durham, 94^. 
Southampton, 162^. 
Southerland, earl of, 54. 
South Postern, 71, 156. 
Sparcus, son of Gamell Oter, 241. 
Spearman, John, 39. 
Speed's Map of Newcastle, mentioned, 

4, 186, 283«. 
Spicer Lane, 169, 185. 
Spicers' Company, 185. 
SpiJkenailSy $$h. 
Spiking, $6h. 

Spiryden, William de, 243*. 
" Spread Eagle," Gateshead, 22511. 
Squire, John, 270. 
Stahlschmidt, Mr., 122. 
Stainsby, John, 256, 258, 259. 
Staircases of the Keep, 76. 
Staithes, 202. 
Stamp, Robert, 200. 
Stanbridy 5811. 
Standard, battle of the, 45. 
Stanlibum, 218. 
Stannington, 28911. 
Stanton, 28911. 
Stapleton, Miles, 227*. 
Stella, 12011. 
Stephen, king, 44, 45. 
Stephenson, Alexander, 64jf, 67, 68, 69. 
Stephenson, arms of, 6411. 
Stephenson, David, 280, 281. 
Stephenson, Henry, 9. 



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336 



Stephenson, William, 232. 

Sternhold and Hopkins, quoted, 102. 

Stikelowe, Ralph de, 136. 

Stobbs, Mr., 204. 

Stockbridge, 181, 182, 183. 

Stockton, 61, 235xr. 

Stockton, Richard, zSjh. 

Stoke, Edith, 238. 

Stokoe, John, 1 5411. 

Stony Hill, 185. 

Story, John 254. 

Stote, Cuthbert, 266. 

Stote, Edward, 266. 

Stote's Hall, Jesmond, 151//. 

Stout, Christopher, 236;/. 

Stowell Street, 190. 

Strahrodes^ ^%n. 

Straker's "Memoir of Sir Walter 
Blackett," mentioned, i26«. 

Stralatthesy i%n. 

Strangcways, Mr., 204. 

Strathbolgie, David de, 159'/. 

Streatlaro, \oin. 

Strivelyn, John de, 259W. 

Strother, Agnes, 94/7. 

Strother, Alan de, 55, 56. 

Strother, John, 94«. 

Stryvelyn, family of, 294. 

Stuart, prince Robert, 54. 

Stubbs, John, 29. 

Sturgeon sent to London, 203. 

Sun dial, 24. 

Sunderland, 202, 236. 

Sunderland Road, 249. 

"Sunderland's" Inn, 129//. 

Surtees, arms of, 117. 

Surtees, Aubone, 8-10. 

Surtees, " Bessy," 8-10. 

Surtees, George, 232. 

Surtees, John, 8. 

Surtees, Mary, 121. 

Surtees Monument, 117. 

Surtees, Robert, quoted, ioi«, 117, 
I73«, 220, 228, 229, 237, 240, 241, 
244, 247, 29611, 29911, 300; men- 
tioned, i4i», 234. 

Surtees, Thomas, 117, 121. 

Swan, Thomas, 2o«. 

Swape, i54«. 

Swinburn, Richard, 25. 

Swinburne Castle, 263. 



Swinburne Street, 233. 
Swirle (in Percy Street), 153. 
Swirle, 88, 90. 
SwirU, %%n. 

Swjnburn, Adam de, 53. 
Sykes, John, quoted, 13011. 
Symeon of Durham, quoted, 44^, 137//; 
mentioned, 99ir, 138, 225^. 



Tailstan^ ^^yi. 

Tanners, Company of, 195. 

Tanners* Hall, 195. 

Taylor, Isaac, quoted, i73«, 261. 

Taylor, William, 200/1. 

Taylors, Company of, 195. 

Tees, river, 203. 

Temperley's Yard, 5. 

Tempest, Charles, i47«. 

Tempest, Sir Nicholas, 120/1. 

Tempest, William, i2oi«. 

Tkak'tiailsy 58^. 

Thew, Peter, 254^. 

Thief and Reaver Bell, 123. 

Thietry. See Tytory. 

Thisac. See Tysack. 

Thomas, John, 212 

Thompson, Richard, 236«. 

Thorald of London, 241, 244. 

Thoresby, George, 25. 

Thoresby, Ralph, 28. 

Thornton, arms of, 161, 284, 285, 286. 

Thornton, Agnes, 286, 289«, 29o«. 

Thornton Brass, 285-288. 

Thornton, co. Durham, i2o«. 

Thornton, Elizabeth, 176, 177//, 284, 

287«. 
Thornton, Giles, i77«, i^'jn. 
Thornton, Hodgkin, 28711. 
Thornton, Johanna, I76«. 
Thornton, John, i77«, 287«. 
Thornton, Roger, 12, 13, 86, 93, 109, 

161, 176, 277, 282, 284, 285, 286, 

287, 289/1, 29011; monument of, 285. 

288. 
Thornton, Roger, the younger, 13, 

94«, 176, 287«. 
Thornton, Roger (the illegitimate), 

I77«, 28711. 
Thorp's Chare, i72«. 
"Three Bulls' Heads" Inn, 63, 64, 70. 



Three Indian Kings* Court, 175. 
"Three Indian Kings" Inn, 169, 175, 

176. 
" Three Kings of Cologne," i76if. 
"Three Kings," or "Three Kings 

and Hawk/* See Three Indian 

Kings. 
Thwing, Mr., schoolmaster, ^\\n. 
Tillam, Thomas, 246/1, 267. 
Tisun, Wid., 46. 
Tod*s Chare, I72«. 
Toll Booth, Gateshead, 222, 226/f, 232, 

133. »34«, *39 
Toller, William, 243». 
Tomlinson, family of, 227. 
Tomlinson, Anthony, 227. 
Tomlinson, William, 227. 
Tomlinson's Chare, Gateshead, 173/r, 

227. 
Tonge, arms of, 147/f. 
Tonge, Elizabeth, 147. 
Tonge, Gertrude, 120/?. 
Tonge, Sir George, izo/i, 147, 263. 

Topcliffe, , 238. 

Topwinerey $jn. 

Tottis, friar, 194//. 

Touch-stone, 286. 

Towers, James, 236/f. 

Towgall, Richard, 141/f. 

Town Hall. See GuildhalL 

Town House, 23. 

Town Hutch, 26. 

Town Moor, 256. 

Town's Chamber, 22. 

Townley, Charles, 28. 

Trenwell, 289/f. 

Trevelyan, family of, 177/?. 

Trewick, Marjory de, 136. 

Trinitarian Friars, 184, 189. 

Trinity Chare, 172*, 175, 213. 

Trinity Church, Gateshead, 234, See 

Hospital of St. ^dmund^ Bishop and 

Confessor. 
Trinity House, 198-217 ; chapel of, 

207, 217. 
Trinity House of London, 203 
Tripping Chare (Holy Island), i73if. 
Trollop, family of, 95/». 
Trollop, Robert, 22, 24, 122/1, 226«. 
Trotter, George, 225/r. 
Trumble, Peter, 148. 



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Tunstall, bishop, 220, 227^, 306. 

^* Turf "Inn, 130*. 

"Turk's Head" Inn, 129*, 130*. 

Turner, Mr., 63. 

Turrets of the Castle, 52, 53. 

Tuthill, 261 ; meaning of the name, 

261. 
Tuthill Stairs, 261-268. 
Tweart, William, 244^. 
** Two Bulls* Heads " Inn, 64. 
Tjrmpron, William de, 51. 
Tyndale, William de, 53. 
Tynden, Robert de, 55. 
Tyne Bridge, 25, 33, 4^ 7i, 130. >8^i 

218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 

236*, 241, 24311, ^56, *97. 3«5; 

tower on, 219 ; gate on, 223. 
Tyne, conservation of the, 168, 262, 

272. 
Tynedale, character of the inhabitants 

of, in the sixteenth and seventeenth 

centuries, 20 ; franchise of, 25911. 
Tynemouth, 203, 204, 218, 239. 
Tynemouth, convent of, 243«. 
Tynemouth Bar, i8o«. 
Tynemouth Castle, 43, 235. 
Tynemouth, prior of, 139, 243«. 
Tynemouth Priory, 271 ; charters to, 

46. 
T3rtory, family of, 148, 149. 
Tytory, Henri de, 149. 
Tytory, Marie Anne de, 149. 
Tyzack, Abigail, 34. 
Tjrzack, arms of, 149. 
Tyzack, Charles du, 149. 
Tyzack, Elizabeth, 144. 
Tyzack, family of, 148, 149. 
Tyzack, George, 144, 148. 
Tyzack, John, 34, 38, 144. 
Tyzack, Peregrine, 34. 
Tyzack, Sarah, 34. 
Tyzack, Timothy, 144, 145, 148, 149 ; 

monument of, 144 ; will of, 148. 



Ulpha, 98n. 

Umfravile, Gilbert de, 162, 239. 

Umfravile, Odinel de, 49. 

** Undracht," painting representing 

the, 216. 
Unthank, 118, 119. 



337 

Upper Dean Bridge, 125, 126, 130. 
Ussher, Margaret, 99. 
Usworth, 23 5«, 303. 
Utta, 137. 



Valence, Joan de, 259/f. 

Valence, Sir Adomar de, 259/f, 26011. 

Vandyke, the painter, 23 m. 

Vane, Sir George, 1 2o«. 

Vane, Sir Henry, i20«. 

Van Tromp, Admiral, 216. 

Vaux, Robert de, 48, 49. 

Ventress, John, 2, 65 

Veronica^ 95//. 

Vescy, John de, 141;/. 

Vescy, William de, 49. 

Vicus Peregrinorum, 125. 

" Ville de Paris,'* model of, 214. 

Vindobala, iSoh. 

Vortigern, 1541. 



Waites, the town's, 12. 

Waites' cognizance, a24«. 

Waites of Gateshead, 224X. 

Wak, John, 53. 

Wakefield, William, 184. 

Walcher, murder of, 138. 

Walcott, Mackenzie E. C, quoted, 196. 

Waldeschere, Gateshead, 17211, 300. 

Walker, 211, 269. 

Walker, Robert, 98i«. 

Walker's " SufiFerings of the Clergy," 

quoted, 266. 
Wall Knoll, 99/r, 180, i8iif, 183, 184, 

186, 189. 
Wall Knoll Meeting House, 153. 
Wall Knoll Tower, 188. 
Wallbottle, 18011, 224. 
Wallis, arms of, 10911. 
Walls of the Town, 90, 123, 162/1, 168, 

169, 179, 182, 184, 188, 190, 25411. 
Wallsend, i8o«. 
Waltel, 59«. 
Waltheof, earl of Northumberland, 

4411, 138. 
Walton, Isaac, 9811. 
Waneless, Elizabeth, 207». 
Wanton, arms of, 2S5, 286, 29 im. 
Warburton Place, 240. 



Ward, Francis, 20o«. 

Ward, George, 2oo«. 

Ward, John, 283. 

Ward's Alms House, 283//. 

Warder of the Castle, 64. 

Wardley, near Jarrow, 94/f. 

Wark, 1 6211. 

Wark, barony of, 52. 

Wark Castle, 44, 45, 47, 48. 

Wark, the lord of, 53, 72. 

Wark worth Castle, 47. 

Warkworth, church of, 92. 

Warnebald, the moneyer, 241. 

Warner, Messrs., 164. 

Warren, earl of, 192. 

Warren, John de, 50. 

Warwick, earl of, 95>i. 

Washington, 301. 

Water Gate, Durham, 941?. 

Waters, Henry, drawing of the interior 

of St. Nicholas's by, 9611. 
Waters, Ralph, 275- 
Waters, Thomas, 125. 
Waters, T. W., 261. 

Watson, , 1 78. 

Watson, George M., 225. 

Watson, Thomas, 72. 

Wawayn, John, 142. 

Wear Chare (Bishop Auckland), 173*. 

Weardale, lead mines in, 289ir. 

Wearmouth, arms of, 1511. 

Wearmouth, or Warmouth, William, 

1511,272. 
Weavers* Company, 165. 
Weigh House, 23. 
Weld, John, 124. 
Weld, Thomas, 29, 2311/. 
Weldon, or Welton, William, 294. 
Welford, John, 214. 
Welford, Richard, mentioned, 60, 1 i4Jf, 

132M, 287M, 29 Iff, 296M ; quoted, 184, 

192M. 
Well-room of the Keep, 81. 
Welton, i8o«. 
Wesley, John, 26. 
West Gate, used as a prison, 12, 1911 ; 

executions near, 66ji, 165 ; said to 

have been built by Roger Thornton, 

2911/. 
Westgate Street, or Road, 25, 152;/, 

160, 165. 

HH 



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338 



West, Geoi^, 267. 

West Street, Gateshead, 227, 218. 

West Raw, Gateshead, 214. 

Weston, Philip de, 191. 

Westwood, Isabel, 148. 

Wetwang Chare, 1 72/1. 

Whalton, i73«. 

Whalton, barony of, 52. 

Wheatley Hill. 95*, 114, 

Whickham, 266, 281;?, 28911, 297, ^03, 

306. 
Whickham, Alice de, 297. 
Whitbern, William dc, ^6, 58, 59. 
Whitburn, 15111, 28 m. 
Whitby, 202. 
White, arms of, i $h. 
White Cross, i24«, 165 ; Mayor of the. 

White, family of, 244. 
White Friars, 99, 180, 183, 189, 24311. 
White Friar Tower, 41 », 87, 184. 
White Hart, Gateshead, 229«. 
White, John, 125, 166. 
White, Matthew, i5«, 125, 155. 
White-Ridley, arms of, 1 511. 
Whitehead, Georfje, 33, 34. 
Whitehead, William, i28», 129;!, 225. 
Whittle, 269. 
Whitgray, Mary, 104. 



Whitgray, Stephen, 104. 

Whitley, Gilbert de, 55. 

Whitlocke, Nathaniel, quoud, 12, 102. 

Widdrington, family of, 236. 

Wide Open, 8811. 

Wigton, Robert de, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59. 

Wilkinson, James, 9. 

Wilkinson, John, 163, 200, 208, 209. 

Willeby, Richard, 282. 

William II., 42, 43, 156, 179. 

William III., 276 ; landing of at Tor- 
bay, painting representing, 215. 

William the Lion, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50. 

Williams, Morgan, 37. 

Willobie, John. 230>«. 

Wilson, H. v., II. 

Wilson, Thomas, 267«. 

Winchester, bishop of, 49. 

Wind Mill Hill, Gateshead, 71. 236/r, 
303. 

Windmill, Castle offered as a, 63. 

Windgates, 289«. 

Windham, Margaret, 23111. 

Windham, Thomas, 23 im. 

Windsor, duel at, 1 77«. 

Wippidsflect, i54i«. 

Wismar, 289ir. 

Witches at Gateshead, 233. 



Witton, I77>i, 18711, 289Jif; Castle, 

29I«. 

Wodseller, John, 55, 56, 57. 
Wolfall, Thomas, 2451*. 
Women's Clubs, 90. 
Wood, Andrew, 310. 
Wood, William, iiyir. 
Woodfall, John, 306, 307. 

Woodness, , gardener, 237. 

Woodward, Robert, 226^. 

Woolfe, John, 148. 

Wool Market, i64«. 

Woolwich Military Academy, iszh, 

Wordsworth, William, quoted, 9811. 

Wotton, 289«. 

Wren, Sir Christopher, 27. 

Wydeslade, John de, 53. 

Wylom, William de, 51. 

Wynn, Elizabeth, 203. 

Wyons, medal by the, 1 5111. 



Yares, fisheries so called, 218. 

"Yellow Doors " Inn, 316. 

York, 2if. 122, 238, 239, 245 ; arch- 
bishop of, 239. 

"Younge's Fiddle," punishment so 
called, 238. 

Young, Robert, 204. 




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